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“But you said just now he loved you ; why didn't he “O Elfie, Jesus don't think you're street rubbish!" take you up there as well ?”

said Susie. “I think he cares for people all the more " I asked mother about that one day, when she was when he knows they're poor, because he was a poor man telling me she sbould have to go away; but she said she himself once.” thought God had some work for me to do in the world “ A poor man!” exclaimed Elfie; "why, you said he first before he took me home." And Susie dried her was God's Son, and all the world was his." tears, and tried to be brave and choke back her sobs as “So it is; but when he came down here, the people she spoke.

wouldn't believe he was God's Son, and so he lived like "What work will you have to do ?" asked Elfie, sit- a poor man—as poor as you and me, I think, Elfe.” ting down on the floor close to Susie's stool. Elfie But Elfie shook her head. “I'm street rubbish, but always preferred rolling on the floor to sitting on any you ain't,” she said. kind of seat; and she greatly enjoyed questioning Susie. “I've found a verse about it,” said Susie, “where

“Mother said God would teach me that if I asked | Jesus says how poor he was— The foxes have holes, him," answered Susie. “I don't know yet what it and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of man will be."

hath not where to lay his head.' There ; that means “Then why don't you ask him ?” said Elfie in her Jesus had no home or comfortable bed, he was so poor,” straightforward fashion.

said Susie. "I do,” whispered Susie. “I ask him every night; Elfie sat looking at her in dumb surprise. “He was because I want to do it, and then go home to mother." just as poor as me,” she said. “Why didn't he go away,

" Is that what you do when you kneel down before and leave the people, if he was God's Son ?” you get into bed ?" asked Elfie.

“Because he loved them, and he wanted them to Susie nodded. God hears what I say, too,” she know it, and to know that God loved them too, and answered.

wanted them to love him and be happy.” "Well, then, why didn't your mother ask him to let Elfe had never had any one to love her in all her life, her stay and help you to do the work, if she didn't want and she could but dimly understand what Susie meant; to go away,” said Elfie sharply.

but she did understand it a little, and all the vain longSusie knew not what to answer. The question puz- ings she had felt when looking at a mother kissing her zled her not a little ; and to escape from Elfie's saying child sprung up in her heart now, as she said, in a subany more, she proposed reading a chapter from the dued, gentle voice, “I wish he'd love me just a little." Bible.

“He does love you,” said Susie, "not a little, but a Elfie had grown tired of playing, and was quite willing great deal.” to listen. She could not read herself, and was full of “Did he tell you to tell me so ?" asked Elfie eagerly. wonder that Susie could ; and for some time she chat- Susie knew not what to reply to this; but the thought tered and questioned so much about this that Susie stole into her heart,“ Was this the work her mother bad could not begin ; but at last she grew quiet, and Susie spoken of-was she to tell Elfie of the love of God, try turned to her favourite verses in St. Matthew - the to make her understand it, and lead her to love him?" story of young children being brought to Jesus.

But her silence made Elfie think she had no message " That was kind of him to say, Let the children come for her, and she said, “You need not be afraid to tell to nie,” said Elfie when Susie paused.

me, Susie ; nobody ever did love me, and nobody ever “Yes; the Lord Jesus is always kind,” said Susie. will; and I don't want any love either.” But in spite

"I wish he was here in London ; I'd go to him," of these words, so sharply and angrily spoken, Elfie burst said Elfie; “it's nice to have anybody speak kind to into tears. you."

Susie had never seen her cry before, and for very sym“ You can go to him, Elfie,” said Susie. “The Lord pathy she burst into tears herself, as she threw her Jesus has gone up to heaven again now; but he'll hear arms round her companion's neck, and drew her closely you just as plain as though he was in the room here." towards her. “ Don't cry, Elfie; I'll love you," she

Elfie stared. “You don't think I'm going to believe said. “I'll love you ever so much ; and you'll believe that, do you ?" she said sharply.

God loves you too; won't you ?" she added coaxingly. "Why not ? it's the truth,” said Susie.

Elfie clung to Susie, and held her in a passionate eniMaybe it is for fine folks that wants a lot of things brace. “Say it again,” she whispered—“ say you love 10 live, but not for a poor little street girl like me,” an- me, Susie; it's what I've been wanting ever so long, I swered Elfie.

think.” “Why don't you think it's for you, Elfie ?" asked her “Everybody wants it,” said Susie. “God puts the companion.

feeling in our heart, mother said ; and then he gives us " Because I know what I am, and I guess he'd soon people to love us, just that we may know how he loves find out I was street rubbish, as the fine folks call me us himself." in the market;" and Elfie clenched her fist angrily as she “Tell me some more about it,” said Elfie, still in spoke.

the same subdued voice, and clinging fast round Susie's

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neck, her dirty tangled head of hair resting on her But Elfie did not care to hear about this; she wanted shoulder.

to know whether it was possible for God to love her“ I don't know how to tell it, Elfie, only as the Bible whether he had told Susie he would love her. tells it. Mother made me learn a good many verses “I'd do anything for that,” she said, pushing back about the love of God. I'll tell you some of them. her tangled hair. “Do you think he'd like me better "God is love;' 'Like as a father pitieth his children, so if I was to keep my face clean and comb my hair like you the Lord pitieth them that fear him ;' "God so loved do ?" she asked. the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that who- Susie smiled. “I think God does like people to be soever believeth in him should not perish, but have clean," she said ; "and I'd like it, Elfie." everlasting life.' Now, don't you see God must love “Then I'll do it," said Elfie in a determined tone. you, for you're in the world, and God so loved the “I've thought it was no good. Before, I was just street world that he sent Jesus Christ to die that we might rubbish, and nobody cared for me, but if you do, and be saved ?"

God will, I'll wash my face; and perhaps he will by“Saved !" repeated Elfe.

and-by, as the Lord Jesus his Son was a poor man himsaved from our sins — the wicked things we self.” And Elfie went at once to fetch some water to wash do that makes God sorry, and angry too,” said Susie. her face, and Susie promised to help her to do her hair.

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NE of my principal objects in visiting Everywhere one sees evidences of former industry

the United States was to ascertain, and comfort. In fact, the Virginian proprietors
and as far as possible from personal appear to have lived much like the squires and

observation, the character and effi- farmers of Yorkshire. But the war ruined them. ciency of the leading Educational Institutions. I Their capital was swept away. Slave labour no had heard much of them—much in their favour, longer exists; the soil is untilled; the houses are much to their disparagement. Elementary train falling to decay; and every second farm is for ing was generally represented as superior to that sale, at a price scarcely more than nominal. The of England ; but the colleges were as generally little roadside stations, and the walls of Gordonsspoken of as little better than grammar schools. ville and Charlottesville, were covered with adThe Universities of Princeton, Pennsylvania, and vertisements of farms and estates to be sold. Columbia I had already visited; and I was now Wherever the cars stopped, I had dozens of maps glad of an opportunity of inspecting one less and papers thrust into my hands, or thrown into known in Europe, and which, from its retired the carriage. I was told that capitalists from

, position and comparatively recent origin, might the North, and even enterprising Scotchmen, are be regarded as a fair type of American colleges. making large and profitable purchases. This will

Charlottesville, in which the University of do good in the end. It will infuse new blood into Virginia is located, is about ninety miles west of the somewhat stagnant veins of the old population Richmond. The railway to it winds through a of Virginia. picturesque country, with hill and dale, river and The scenery increases in beauty towards the upland. The primeval forests have long since west.

west. At Gordonsville a change is noticeable. been cut down; but a second growth, almost The hills are higher ; the outline is more varied; equal in places to the old trees, covers large and a rapid river, a tributary to the James, rushes tracts. The towns along the route are few and along between richly-wooded banks. Towards small. Gordonsville is the most important. Large Charlottesville the hill-tops become peaked; and farms, well cleared and fenced, line the railway; their graceful forms and variegated foliage reand not a few of the residences upon them rival mind one of the environs of Heidelberg. Further in size and appearance the old manors of England. westward still, they rise gradually, until at length,

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in the distance, they unite with the grand range in dense clouds, so that the walk was not agreeable. of the Blue Mountains. In an upland vale, em- On reaching the College, I called upon Professor bosomed in these hills, and encircled by forests, Gildersleeve, to whom I had an introduction from and green glades, and cultivated fields, lies Char- my friends at Brook Hill. His welcome was lottesville, a town of some three or four thousand thoroughly Virginian. I must make his house inhabitants. Externally, it resembles other Ame- my home; and then and there he sent off lis rican towns, situated like it far from the great servant to the town for my baggage. His kindcentres of commerce. Its houses are widely scat- ness, cordial as it was unexpected, gave me an tered, and mostly built of wood; its streets are opportunity which I could not otherwise have broad, but generally in a state of nature, with enjoyed of becoming acquainted with a body of rude wooden side-paths, and carriage-ways covered as highly cultivated gentlemen, as efficient prowith mud or dust. There is now no evidence of fessors, and as accomplished scholars, as it has that wonderful progress and business bustle one ever been my good fortune to meet. Knowing sees in the North. The thoroughfares look de- my object in visiting them, they gave me every serted ; many of the houses and stores are tenant- facility for gaining information. I had free access less; and there is a painful aspect of stagnation at all hours to library, class-rooms, lecture-balls, and decline. In fact, the war almost ruined Char- laboratories, and even to the chambers of stulottesville, and left desolate the rich agricultural dents. As far as it was possible, during my region of which it is the centre.

short stay, I saw and judged of everything for On alighting from the car, I was invited by a myself. negro conductor to enter a rickety-looking om- The University occupies a splendid site at the nibus, which, he said, would convey me to the base of two conical hills, surrounded by a park of best hotel. I entered accordingly, and took my some three hundred acres. The buildings have seat. After waiting with praiseworthy patience an odd, fantastic appearance. One can scarcely for half an hour, deserted by both conductor divest himself of the idea, especially if he looks and coachman, I called to the former, whom I down upon them as I did from the hills overhead, chanced to see emerging from a neighbouring that the whole group is some kind of exaggerated whisky-store :“When are you going to start?” toy structure--the little domes, and pediments, and “ D’rekly, sa’; jess gwine,” was the reply, and he porticos, and colonnades are so quaint and formal. sat down on a rail. Again I waited a dreary In the centre is a rectangular lawn, or campus, interval, battling with flies and choked with dust. with a rotunda at its northern end, modelled after At last I got out, and demanded my bag, which the Pantheon; on each side is a range of resimy friend had prudently taken possession of, ex- dences for professors and students, with miniature pressing my determination at the same time to porches or porticos, of different elevations and take up my quarters in the wretched hotel beside various orders of architecture. Each house, I the depôt. This brought matters to a crisis. believe, is designed after the style of some noted The conductor shouted; the coachman came out Greek or Roman temple.

Greek or Roman temple. Outside the central of the whisky-store and made his way to the box group are other ranges of buildings; and beyond as quickly as, under his peculiar circumstances, these again, scattered over the undulating grounds, was possible ;

and we jolted up the streets to the are the newer houses, chambers, class-rooms, and hotel.

laboratories. The numerous colonnades have one The University, I was told, is more than a mile advantage: they form cloisters which afford a distant; and as there was no conveyance avail pleasant promenade during the winter rains, and able

, I set out on foot. The road is thoroughly the intense heat of a Southern summer. American ; it is a broad strip of rough ground, The University wås founded by Thomas Jefinclosed by rude fences, and having here and ferson, author of the “Declaration of American there along one side a few planks so laid as to Independence," and the third President of the belp the pedestrian over channels of water and United States. Mr. Jefferson was one of the pools of mud. The day was bot, and the dust rose earliest advocates of national education. Nearly






a century ago, he declared that free schools were tion or special objects. In establishing the Unian essential part-one of the columns, as he ex-versity of Virginia, Mr. Jefferson, for the first pressed it—of the State edifice; and he affirmed time in America, threw open the doors of a unithat without such instruction, free to all, the versity in the true sense of the name, providing, sacred flame of liberty could not be kept burning as amply as the available means would permit, in the heart of Americans. And he did not stop for thorough instruction in independent schools on at the elementary department, but, with the saga- all the chief branches of learning, assuming that city of a true statesman, and the zeal of a genuine the opportunities for study thus presented were patriot, he laboured to establish colleges, and privileges to be voluntarily and eagerly sought, thus promote the higher mental culture of the and allowing students to select for themselves nation, knowing that mental culture and national the departments to which they were led, by their prosperity must advance together. His scheme special tastes and proposed pursuits in life, to for university training was large and comprehen- devote themselves. sive. It was not, like a recent scheme devised in “The wisdom of this plan has been amply vinour own enlightened and highly-favoured land, dicated by time and experience; and within the shorn of some of the noblest departments of last few years many of the institutions of higher human knowledge, and muzzled in obedience to culture in the United States have to a greater or ecclesiastical dictation ; but, in addition even to less extent remodelled their method of study in the ordinary branches taught in universities, it accordance with the example here set. This embraced schools of applied science, such as are elective system commends itself especially to those now just beginning to be considered an essential who desire to make professional attainments in part of our best institutions.

any department of knowledge. At the same time, Mr. Jefferson's influence was sufficient to in the courses of academic study are so arranged as duce the State of Virginia to build and endow to provide for the systematic prosecution of a comthe University. He superintended the work.plete plan of general education. Day after day he rode over to it from his beau- “ While every student may thus select the tiful house of Monticello. He imported capitals schools he will attend, in the academic departand pediments from Italy, so as to carry out his ment he is required as a rule to attend at least own favourite ideas of architecture. He even three, unless, upon the written request of bis accomplished a more difficult and delicate task. parent or guardian, or for good cause shown, the He felt that, if the University would prosper, the faculty shall allow him to attend less than professors must be men of eminence; and he was three.” aware that such men could not easily be found in There are sixteen chairs, and the occupant of a new country. He therefore set aside national each is head of a school or department, which is feeling and prejudice, and resolved, in the interests independent of all others. Instruction is given, , of learning, to endeavour to select professors in as in the Scotch colleges, wholly through lectures England. He was successful. The names of and text-books, combined with examinations. The Charles Bonnycastle, Thomas Hewitt Key, and examinations are of three kinds:-1. Daily; 2. InGeorge Long, who were among the first professors, termediate and final general examinations; and gave celebrity to the new University, and gave an 3. Examinations for graduation. In the first, each impetus to scientific research in it which it has professor, “ before commencing the lecture of the never lost.

day, examines his class orally on the subject of The University has some striking peculiari- the preceding lecture, as developed in the textties, and I was anxious to see, as far as possible book or expounded in the lecture.” “ Two general from observation and inquiry on the spot, how examinations of each class are held during the the plan works. The official “Catalogue” tells session in the presence of a committee of the us that, “ In this institution there is no curri- faculty, which every student is required to stand culum, or prescribed course of study, to be pursued The first, called the intermediate, is held about by every student, whatever his previous prepara- | the middle of the session, and embraces in its


scope the subjects of instruction in the first half tempted to “cram” just as much knowledge into of the course. The second, called the final, is the head of his unfortunate subject as will secure held in the closing week of the session, and em- a “pass," or, it may be, score a certain number of braces the subjects treated of in the second half marks, before an Examining Board. He has a of the course. These examinations are conducted far higher aim. He aims at mental culture; and in writing. The questions have each numerical he leads his students along with him to the lofty values attached to them. If the answers are walks of scientific or literary research. He is an valued in the aggregate at not less than three- independent investigator; and it is his great amfourths of the aggregate values assigned to the bition to inspire his pupils with a kindred spirit, questions, those giving them are ranked in the and prepare them for the independent pursuit of first division, and certificates of distinction are knowledge. As in Scotland, the collegiate and awarded to them...... The results, whatever they university functions are united. The men who may be, are communicated to parents and guar- teach and train are the men who examine for and dians. The standing of the student at these ex- confer degrees. The examinations being conaminations is taken into account in ascertaining tinuous throughout the course, and not merely his qualifications for graduation in any of the terminal, “ cram” is avoided, and real culture schools.

secured. “The examinations for graduation are held in The degree of Master of Arts is conferred only the last month of the session. They are con- upon such students as have graduated separately ducted by the professor in presence of the other in the departments of Latin, Greek, French and professors. They are chiefly carried on in writ- German, pure Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, ing, but in some of the schools they are partly Moral Philosophy, Chemistry, History, and Lioral.”

terature ; and who have afterwards scored at least The following note is appended to the regula-seventy-five per cent of marks at a general writtions for the various examinations, and, simple as ten examination, conducted by all the professors, it appears, is worthy of more general considera- and extending over the whole course. These tion than it gets in some countries :-“ As a due examinations are lengthened and severe; and if acquaintance with the English language is indis- the degrees of the University of Virginia be few pensable to the attainment of any of the honours of in number—as of necessity they must be under the institution, all candidates for graduation are such a system-they are evidences of thorough required to exhibit in their examinations due scholarship. There are no honour degrees; every qualifications in this respect.”

degree is considered such. When a young man has thus passed through I was deeply impressed with the manifest earone department (say Latin, Greek, or Philosophy) nestness alike of professors and students. As -that is, when he has attended regularly all the there is no compulsion in any department, and as prelections, and satisfied the professor in the daily there is entire freedom of choice in regard to and term examinations, and when he has scored subjects, there is no sham, and no mere formality a minimum of seventy-five per cent. at a final in attendance upon lectures. Every man feels examination, by written papers, upon the whole that it is work alone wbich can secure what he course—then he receives a certificate of gradua- aims at. Routine would be useless. It is a tion in that department. This system secures place for study, and not for routine. Its system thorough teaching, for the credit of the professor is based upon this principle ; and the character is at stake ; and it is the natural ambition of each of the professors individually, and of the college to keep up a high standard in his own depart- generally, is dependent upon the thoroughness of ment. The professor, besides, has in this way the training given, and on the superior culture of full opportunity of developing his subject, and the alumni and graduates. thoroughly testing and training his students. It would not do to have all the universities in ile is not cramped and fettered by the routine a country conformed to the model of the Univerrequirements of a fixed examination. He is not sity of Virginia, just because all the young men


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