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who go, or are sent, to the universities are not in other. Yet, as a rule, most of the students do earnest. Most of them require pressure to make attend. The professors set a good example in them do anything. There must be some fixed this as in other respects, and the pupils are not course for them, otherwise liberal education would slow to follow. not be even so general as it is. But it is well, I One thing I noticed with much pleasure while think, to have at least one such college, where attending in the lecture-rooms. The professors professors may be free to develop their views, and are not afraid to touch, whenever occasion reto adopt their own plans of training; and where quires it, upon the fundamental truths of revelayouths, who have a real thirst for knowledge, may tion. They are careful not to intrude them unfollow out fully their favourite studies, under the necessarily; but they mention them, examine guidance of teachers as independent and as en- them, and defend them, just as they do other thusiastic as themselves. Rigid rules would only truths. They are recognized and dealt with as cramp such minds.
The prospective require constituent and necessary parts of a liberal eduments of an Examining Board would only quench cation. Jewish history is considered as important their ardour, and take from them that freedom of as Grecian history; the laws of Moses are thought thought and originality of conception which al- not less worthy of study than those of Lycurgus and ways characterize genius. The attempt to press Solon. This is just as it should be. Young men, the entire higher culture of a nation into one uni- while being informed regarding the mythology of form mould, is just in so far an attempt to dwarf Greece and Rome, are not left in entire ignorance the nation's intellect, and reduce it to a miserable of the theology of the Bible; while the ethical and mediocrity. Freedom is an essential condition philosophical systems of Kant and Cousin and of that profound and persevering research which Berkeley are investigated, the system of the New alone can achieve discoveries such as those of Testament is not ignored. Creeds and confesNewton in England, Laplace in France, Thomp- sions are, of course, excluded from the class-room. son in Scotland, and Henry in America.
There is no Faculty of Theology ; and there is The students of the University of Virginia are no systematic training in any department of reall resident. Their chambers are intermingled ligion. The professors, as I found, draw a wise with the houses of the professors. The college and logical distinction between two things which thus forms a distinct community, complete are often confounded, and the confounding of within itself; and provision must, therefore, be which leads, in my opinion, to great confusion of made for the religious and moral as well as the thought, and sometimes to serious practical diffimental training of the students. This is not so culties. They distinguish between that mode of necessary in those places where they only go to instruction which tries, or tends, to force upon the college for lectures ; for then they may have the mind peculiar views on controverted points in the advantage of home discipline, and of such theology, philosophy, or history; and that mode religious instruction and moral guidance as their which contents itself with showing clearly and parents or guardians may provide. Here, how simply what opinions have been held by opposite ever, there is a chaplain, who, strangely enough, parties on those disputed and delicate points. is chosen alternately biennially from the Episco- The former method is an unwarranted interference pal, Presbyterian, and Methodist bodies. This with free thought and the rights of conscience ; may seem strange to us, but it works well, and the latter is a legitimate and, indeed, a necessary its general tendency seems to be to foster a spirit branch of education. Some may think it danof charity and Christian forbearance among the gerous ; but the real danger, in my opinion, lies young men. In regard to religion, there is per- in the action of false views and arguments upon fect freedom, as there is in study. The college crude and ill-trained minds; and the true mode is unsectarian. The conscientious convictions of counteracting that danger is thorough mental and scruples of every man are respected ; and training, and a full exhibition and comparison while there is regular morning prayer and Sunday of truth and error. Truth will ever prevail in service, no one is compelled to attend on one or the cultivated intellect.
I was told that more than a half of the four seat of learning in the world; and a body of hundred and fifty students who are in attendance young men, many of whom are destined to ocupon the University are members of “The Young cupy proud positions in their country. Men's Christian Association.” Soon after my The late war formed a sad but noble episode arrival, I was waited upon by a deputation from in the history of the University. The whole their managing committee, and requested to lec- of the students, and those professors whose age ture upon Palestine. I gladly consented; but as
did not disqualify them, entered the Southern my stay could not be prolonged, they were army, and were distinguished for valour and enobliged to fix the following evening for its de- thusiasm. I glanced over a large volume, conlivery. Yet, though the notice was so short, the taining a series of brief but interesting memorials large college chapel was filled. The unflagging of those who fell in battle or died of their attention of the students during the lecture was wounds. The list is a long one, and many of its exceedingly gratifying. The points brought out details are deeply interesting. Some of the surwere mainly illustrative of Scripture history and vivors—and among them my kind host, Professor falfilled prophecy; and I was pleased to find a Gildersleeve-still bear the marks of that terrible large and eager group of young men waiting for campaign. War is a fearful scourge ; but perme at the close, and desirous of obtaining fuller baps nowhere are its dread effects so plainly seen information in regard to some subjects I had as when it breaks up a whole educational institutouched upon.
Their thirst for knowledge im- tion, and sends hundreds of young men—the very pressed me deeply. They are manifestly in ear- flower of their country—to an early and a bloody nest in all they do. The acquisition of know- tomb. ledge is their first and chief aim. They have I took leave of my kind friends on Saturday their games and societies, as in other colleges; but afternoon, with feelings such as I have rarely these are systematically kept in the background. experienced in parting with strangers. Professor In bidding farewell to the University of Virginia, Gildersleeve accompanied me to the station at I felt that I was leaving behind me a body of Charlottesville, and his affectionate adieu alınost professors who would reflect honour upon any | brought tears to my eyes.
THE COMING OF SPRING.
BY ANNIE LUCAS.
T comes it comes-with a gush of song
Pealing the kindling carth along;
With the rainbow's arch, with the shower's bright
THE WITNESS OF THE MONUMENTS.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE FROM ORIENTAL REMAINS.
BY THOMAS T. GRAY, M.A.
" And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven.”-Ges. xi. 3, 4.
HE progress of modern investigation | bank of the Euphrates, at a distance of one hun.
has elicited some remarkable facts dred and twenty-five miles from the head of the illustrative of the statements of Scrip-Persian Gulf, and believed on good grounds to be
ture in regard to the structure of the identical with Ur of the Chaldees. The explora. Tower of Babel. Nothing, indeed, has been done tions there made have revealed the existence of a to prove in a satisfactory way the exact spot large building of two stories, built in the form of which that tower actually occupied. Many in- a parallelogram, and placed on a mound twenty genious theories have been started, with a view feet in height. The first story of the temple was to identify the ancient site with one or other of found on examination to have been partly dethe great ruined mounds which mark the whole stroyed by time, and partly covered with rubbish, extent of the valley of the Euphrates; but no and is calculated to have been about forty feet explanation has yet been offered which is not in height. The larger portion of the structure is burdened with almost insuperable difficulties. composed of common sun-dried bricks of small Yet while nothing can be gained by fanciful size, and cased on the outside with a covering identifications, which the next wave of specula- wall of burnt bricks, which, like the others, are tion or discovery may sweep into the land of laid in bitumen. This lower story is connected forgetfulness, there is a good deal to be gathered with the platform on which it rests by a stairfrom the various scattered side-lights which the case nine feet wide, placed on the north-east side researches of travellers have thrown, first, on the of the building. The height of the second story probable form of the tower; and second, on the is about nineteen feet, and its materials are simi. materials used in its construction.
lar in character and arrangement to those found
in the first stage. The Arabs of the vicinity inI. The external form of the building.
formed the traveller who examined the structure, A vast quantity of evidence can be adduced to that there existed, less than half a century ago, frove that the sacred edifices of the early Chal- a third story of small dimensions, in the form of dæans and later Babylonians were built in the a chamber, set apart as a shrine or sanctuary in form of a tower. The ziggurat, or temple-tower, honour of the particular divinity worshipped in was not only a prominent feature in the land- the temple. With the exception, however, of scape of Mesopotamia, but formed a characteristic some enamelled bricks found among the fallen peculiarity of the ecclesiastical architecture of the rubbish of the second story, and entirely differing country. It consisted of a succession of stories, in appearance from the bricks used in the rest of built on an elevated platform, and rising some- the building, all traces of this third story had times as high as one hundred and fifty feet. All disappeared. But even though we discard these the ruins of temples which have been uncovered fragments of a third story as insufficient to prove in recent times are distinguished, some with its existence, we possess, in the existing stages and greater, others with less distinctness, according the platform, which was itself twenty feet high, an to their respective antiquity, by this custom of adequate illustration of the primitive tendency of building in stages. The best surviving speci- the Chaldæan architects to construct their great men of tlie earliest buildings has been found buildings in the form of towers. It is true that in the ruius of Mugheir, situated on the right the materials of the second stage belong to a later
period than those of the first, the bricks of which long since perished, there can be no good ground it is composed bearing the stamp of a king of more for doubting the general accuracy of the hisrecent times. This fact would tell seriously torian's statement, who is believed to have visited against the antiquity of the second stage, but for Babylon in the course of his travels, and obtained the discovery which has been made among these his information on the spot. later bricks of a quantity of others belonging to But by far the most remarkable illustration of the the same period as those of the first story. This Chaldæan system of tower-building has been furdiscovery is regarded by the most competent au- nished within the last few years, by the discovery of thorities as “sufficient to show that the two the splendid Temple of the Seven Spheres, which, stories are part of the original design, and there in the completeness of its parts and the imposing fore that the idea of building in stages belongs grandeur of its appearance, eclipses all other reto the most primitive times.” Some idea of the mains of the same class. The ruins of the Temple antiquity of the temple of Mugheir may be of Birs-Nimrud, as they are now designated, lie at gathered from the fact that the early bricks of a distance of eight or nine miles from the site of which it is mainly composed bear the name of a ancient Babylon, and, rising abruptly from the king called Urukh, who, according to the evi- plain to a height of one hundred and fifty feet, dence of the monuments, ruled over Chaldæa are distinctly visible from a vast distance. The about the year 2000 B.C.
original building has gradually fallen into the The special form of construction, of which form of a pyramid, the lower portion being overMugheir may be taken as a specimen, was not laid with heaps of crumbling rubbish, which have confined to the earliest times, but characterized slipped down and left a good many feet of brickthe country through all the varying phases of its work exposed at the top. When closely surveyed Lolitical history. The sculptures unite with the by experts, it was found to be an almost perfect actually existing ruins in affording illustrations of specimen of the ancient Chaldæan temple erected the same feature in Assyrian and Babylonian on the usual platform of crude brick, and consistarchitecture. On a sculptured bas-relief dis-ing of an ascending series of seven stages, each covered in the vicinity of Nineveh, the outline built in the form of a square. The lowest story of a temple with four stages is distinctly por- was two hundred and seventy-two feet square, trayed; whilst a tower-shaped mound laid open the second two hundred and thirty, and so on; at Khorsabad was found, on examination by a the stories gradually diminishing towards the top, French explorer, to possess as many as seven till the dimensions of the seventh measured only stories. That this number need not of itself be twenty feet square. “ These seven stages,” says regarded as by any means exaggerated, may be Professor Rawlinson, “were coloured so as to shown by reference to the great Temple of Belus represent the seven planetary spheres, according at Babylon, which Herodotus numbered among to the tints regarded by the Sabæans as approthe wonders of the ancient world. The cele- priate to the seven luminaries : the basement stage brated passage in the first book of his bistory, being black, the hue assigned to Saturn; the in which that writer describes the grandeurs of next an orange or raw sienna tint, the hue of Babylon, contains the following account of the Jupiter; the third a bright red, the hue of Mars; tower :—"In the middle of the precinct [of Jupi. the fourth golden, the hue of the Sun; the fifth ter Belus] there was a tower of solid masonry, a pale yellow, the hue of Venus; the sixth dark furlong in length and breadth, upon which was blue, the hue of Mercury; and the seventh silraised a second tower, and on that a third, and ver, the hue of the Moon.” The Birs-Nimrud 80 on up to eight. The ascent to the top is was dedicated to Nebo, or Mercury, and had orion the outside, by a path which winds round allginally been built by one of the early kings. But the towers......On the topmost tower there is a baving fallen into disrepair, it was restored by spacious temple, and inside the temple stands a Nebuchadnezzar to the condition in which it has couch of unusual size, with a golden table by its been preserved comparatively perfect down to the side.” Though the structure thus described has present time. Several laboured attempts have
been made to prove its identity with the Tower ancient builders use brick ? ” “Why not stone ?" of Babel; but the great distance of the Birs from For the simple yet sufficient reason, we reply, the ruins of Babylon, and other obstacles of an that there was no stone to be had. It is a fact equally serious kind, have been urged against the notorious to all who have given attention to the adoption of this view. In such circumstances, it subject of the natural resources of Babylonia, it will be always hazardous to attempt to prove that the country is so signally destitute of more than the facts of the case will fairly bear ; minerals, and especially of stone, that there is and it would seem to be the wisest course to limit not a single quarry to be found throughout its ourselves to the office of collecting such manifest whole extent. The nature of the soil, which is rich and reasonable probabilities as the nature of the and clayey, and the absence of rocks and hills, sufficase suggests. The very antiquity of the event ciently account for a peculiarity which has left its recorded in Genesis might of itself suffice to own mark on the architecture of the country. As a deter the incautious theorist from endeavouring consequence of this deficiency in mineral products, to establish a clear and continuous chain of proofs, it has been satisfactorily proved that stone was many links of which must have long since per- never used for ordinary building purposes by the ished beyond hope of recovery. Confining our Chaldæans and Babylonians; and when on fare attention, then, to the region of coincidence, we occasions it was actually employed for other purpossess, in these unburied mounds of the Valley poses, it had to be brought from a distance. of the Euphrates, the strongest antecedent pro- Sandstone was occasionally imported from Arabia, bability of the existence of such a tower as is and basalt could also be procured; but the difdescribed in Holy Writ. The various remains ficulty of transporting stone in sufficient quantiof the sacred edifices of the country, belonging ties seems to have always materially interposed to all periods of its history, stand forth in silent as an obstacle to its general use. The positive evimajesty as witnesses to the truth of Scripture, dence furnished by existing remains fully bears out in so far as regards the broad fact that tower- this view. It is a simple matter of fact that all the building was the natural practice followed in great buildings already explored are composed altheir great structures by the builders of the most entirely of brick, and show comparatively plain of Shinar; so much so, that had any
other few traces of stone. The huge temples of Warka form of building but this been mentioned by the and Mugheir, the massive walls and palaces of sacred writer, such a statement would have run Babylon, the private dwellings, the vaulted tombs counter to the whole body of evidence with which and ingenious drainage system of the great cemeexisting remains furnish us on the subject. That teries, are all composed of the favourite material. the evidence, on the other hand, should actually Brick is visible everywhere; while, with the single run in a parallel and unbroken line with the exception of the ancient temple at Abu-Shahrein,
, statements of the Mosaic record, is a coincidence in which an outer wall of limestone and a marble amounting, as nearly as could be expected in the staircase have been found, stone is nowhere to circumstances, to the value of positive proof.
Assyria, which lay on the upland to the north II. The materials used in the construction of of Labylonia, and was closely begirt on the north the Tower.
and east by high mountain ranges, was very difThe impression thus formed of the truth of the ferently situated in this respect. The mineral
. Scripture history as to the form of the Tower is wealth of that country, which abounds in sandconfirmed in a singularly striking manner by an stone, limestone, alabaster, basalt, and marble, examination of the materials of which it is said would at once recommend building in stone as to have been constructed. These materials con- the most natural course for its artificers to follow. sisted, according to the sacred text, of burned bricks Butas there was no such supply of building materials laid in slime. Here we are met at the very out- in the Lower Valley, the architects were obliged set with the question, which suggests itself even to dispense with them, and resort to the substitute to the least thoughtful mind, "Why did these with which nature had provided them in all but