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the argument is from the designed organ to the design- | able merely to squint a little in two directions. But to ing maker of it, and is perfectly irresistible. A blind enable one to see in every direction, there is only one god could not make a seeing man. Let as look for a kind of hinge that would answer the purpose—the ball little at a few of the many marks of design in this organ and socket joint-and the Former of the eye has bung to which God thus refers us.
it with such a hinge, retaining it in its place partly by We shall first observe the mechanical skill displayed the projection of the bones of the face, and partly by the in the formation of the eye, and then the optical arrange- muscles and the optic nerve, which is about as thick as ments, or rather a few of them; for there are more than a candle-wick, and as tough as leather. Most of you have eight hundred distinct contrivances already observed by seen a ship, and know the way in which the yards are anatomists in the dead eye, while the great contrivance moved, and turned, and squared, by ropes and pulleys. of all, the power of seeing, is utterly beyond their ken. The rigging of the eye, though not so large, is fully as I hold in my hand a box made of several pieces of wood curious. There is a tackle, called a muscle, to pull it glued together, and covered on the outside with leather. down when you want to look down ; another tackle to Inside it is lined with cotton, and the cotton has a lin- pull it up when you have done ; one to pull to the right, ing of fine white silk. You at once observe that it is in- and another to the left ; there is one fastened to the tended to protect some delicate and precious article of eyeball in two places, and geared through a pulley which jewellery, and that the maker of this box must have will make it move in any direction, as when we roll our been acquainted with the strength of wood, the tough- eyes; and the sixth, fastened to the under side of the ness of leather, the adhesiveness of glue, the softness eye, keeps it steady when we do not need to more it
. and elasticity of cotton, the tenacity of silk, and the Then the eyelids are each provided with appropriate mode of spinning and weaving it, the form of the jewel gearing; and need to have it durable too, for it is used to be placed in it, and the dangers against which this thirty thousand times a day-in fact, every time we wink. box would protect it-ten entirely distinct branches of If God had neglected to place these little cords to pull knowledge, which every child who should pick up such up the eyelash, we should all have been in the condition a box in the street would unhesitatingly ascribe to its of the unfortunate gentleman described by Dr. Nieumaker. Now, the box in which the eye is placed is wentyt, who was obliged to pull up his eyelashes with composed of seven bones glued together internally, his fingers whenever be wanted to see. There is, too, and covered with skin on the outside, lined with the another admirable piece of forethought and skill dissoftest fat, enveloped in a tissue compared with which played by the Former of the eye, in providing a liquid to the finest silk is only canvas, and the cavity is shaped so wash it, and a sponge to wipe it with, and a waste pipe, as exactly to fit the eye; while the brow projects over like about the size of a quill, through the bone of the nose, the roof of a verandah, to keep off falling dust and rain to carry off the tears which have been used in wasbing from injuring it while the lid is open; and the eyebrows, and moistening the eye. Now what absurdity to say like a thatch sloping outward, conduct the sweat of the that a law of nature, say gravity, or electricity, or mag. brow, by which man earns his bread, away around the netism, has such knowledge of the principles of meouter cover, that it may not enter the eye and destroy chanics as the eye proclaims its Former to have—that the sight. If it were preposterous nonsense to say that it could make a choice among multitudes of shapes of electricity, or magnetism, or odyle contrived and made eyes and kinds of joints, and this choice the very best a little bracelet box, or spectacle case, how much more for our convenience; and that having known and chosen, absurd to ascribe the making of the cavity of the eye to it could have manufactured the various parts of this any such cause.
complicated machine. Such a machine requires an inLet us next look at the shape of the eye. You ob- telligent manufacturer ; and yet we bave only as yet serve it is nearly round in its section across, and rather been looking at the dead eye, paying no regard to sight oval in its other direction, and the cavity it lies in is at all. Even a blind man's eye proves an intelligent shaped exactly to fit it. Now there are eyes in the Creator. world angular and triangular, and even square ; and, as Let us now turn our thoughts to the instrument of you may readily suppose, the creatures which have them sight. The optic nerve is the part of the eye which cannot move them, to compensate for which inconveni- conveys visions to the mind. Suppose, instead of being ence, some of them, as the common fly, have several where you observe it, at the back part of the eye, it hal hundred. But, unless our heads were as large as sugar been brought out to the front, and that reflections hogsheads, we could not be so furnished, and we must from objects had fallen directly upon it, it is obvious either have movable eyes, or see only in one direction. that it would have been exposed to injury from every Accordingly, the contriver of the eye has hung it with floating particle of dust, and you would always have a hinge. Now there are various kinds of hinges, mov- felt such a sensation as is caused by a burn or scald ing in one direction, and the Maker of the eye might when the skin peels off and leaves the ends of the have made a hinge on which the eye would move up nerves exposed to the air. The tender points of the and down, or he might have given us a hinge that would fibres of the optic nerve, too, would soon become blunte i bend right and left, in which case re should have been and broken, and the eye, of course, useless. How, then,
THE HUMAX EYE. 1. Cornea.
is the nerve to be protected, and get the sight not ob- , ceptions of the knowledge of him who gave it. A man structed ? If it were covered with skin, as the other who never saw can have no idea of it. He cannot taste nerves are, you could not
two separate tastes at once ; nor smell two distinct see through it. For thou
smells at once ; nor feel more than one object with each sands of years after men
hand at once ; and if he hears several sounds at the had eyes and used them,
sanie time, they either flow into each other, making a they knew no substance
b harmony, or confuse him with their discord. Yet we at once bard and trans
are all conscious that we see a vast variety of distinct parent, which could an
and separate objects at one glance of our eyes. I think sver the double purpose
it is manifest that the Former of such an eye not only of protection and vision.
intended its owner to observe such a vast variety of obAnd, to this day, they
jects, but from the capacity of his own sight to infer the know none hard enough for 6. Aqueous humour. vastly wider range of vision of him who gave it. protection, clear enough
Besides the breadth of the field of vision, we also refor vision, and elastic
e. Crystalline lens.
quire length of range for the purpose of life. The thouenough to resume its form f. Vitreous humour.
sand inconveniences which the short-sighted man so
g. Retina. after a blow. But men
painfully feels are obvious to all. Yet it may tend to did the best they could, i. Sclerotic coat.
reconcile such to their lot to know that thousands of the and put a round piece of
j. Optic nerve.
liveliest and merriest of God's creatures cannot see an brittle but transparent glass in a ring of tougher metal for inch before them. Small birds and insects, which feed the protection of the hands of a watch: the cornea, made on very minute insects, need eyes like microscopes to find of a substance at once hard, transparent, and elastic- them ; while the eagle and the fish-hawk, which soar which man has never been able to imitate - set into the up till they are almost ont of sight, can distinctly see sclerotica, that white, muscular coat which constitutes the hare or the herring a mile below them, and so must the white of your eye, acts as a frame for the cornea, have eyes like telescopes. We, too, need to observe minute and answers another important purpose, as we shall pre-objects very closely, as when we read fine print, or when sently see.
a lady threads a fine needle at microscopic range; but, But, supposing the end of the nerve protected by the if confined to that range, we could not see our friends glass, we might have had it brought up to the glass with- across the room, or find our way to the next street. out any interposing lenses or humours, as, in fact, is nearly Again, in travelling we need to see objects miles away, the case with some crustacea. We cannot well imagine and at night we see the stars millions of miles away ; all the inconveniences of such an eye to us. If we could but then, if confined to the long range, we should be see distinctly at all, we could not see much further or strangers at home, and never get within a mile of any wider than the breadth of the end of the nerve at once. acquaintance. Now, how to combine these two powers, Our sight would then be very like that faculty of per- of seeing near objects and distant ones with the same ceiving colours by the points of the fingers, which some eye, is the problem which the Maker of the eye bad to persons are said to possess. In that case, seeing would solve. Let us look how man tried to solve it. A magonly be a nicer kind of groping, and our eyes would be nifying lens will collect the rays from any distant object, more conveniently fixed on the points of our fingers ; or, and convey them to a point called the focus. Then supas with many insects, on the ends of long antennæ. Such pose we put this glass in the tube of an opera-glass, or a form of eye is precisely suited to the wants of an animal pocket spy-glass, and look through the eye-hole and the which has not an idea beyond its food, which has no concave lens, properly adjusted in front of it, we shall business with any object too large for its mouth, and see the image of the object considerably magnified. But whose great concern is to stick to a rock and catch whatever suppose the object draws very near, we see nothing disanimalculæ the water floats within the grasp of its feelers. | tinctly; for the rays reflected from it, which were nearly But for a being whose intercourse should be with all the parallel while it was at a distance, are no longer so when works of God, and whose chief end in such intercourse it comes near, but scatter in all directions, and those should be to behold the Creator reflected in his works, which fall on the lens are collected at a point much it was manifestly necessary to have a wider and larger nearer to the lens than before, and the eye-glass must range of vision; and, therefore, a different form of eye. be pushed forward to that focus. Accordingly, you know Both these objects, breadth of field combined with length that the spy-glass is made to slide back and forward, and of range, are obtained by placing the optic nerve at the the telescope has a screw to lengthen or shorten the tube back of the eye, and interposing several lenses, through according to the distance of the objects observed. Anwhich objects are observed. By this arrangement a other way of meeting the case would be by taking out visual angle is secured, and all objects lying within it the lens and putting in one of less magnifying power, a are distinctly visible at the same time. This faculty of flatter lens, for the nearer object. Now, at first sight, perceiving several objects at the same time is a special it would seem a very inconvenient thing to have eyes property of sight which tends greatly to enlarge our con- drawing ont and in several inches like spy-glasses, and still more inconvenient to have twenty or thirty pairs of the most admirable sun-blinds ever invented. The eyes, and to need to take out our eyes and put in a new nerve of the eye at the back of its chamber cannot see set twenty times a day. The ingenuity of man has been without light, and its light comes through the little at work hundreds of years to discover some other method round window called the pupil, or black of the eyeof adapting an optical instrument to long and short which is simply a hole in the iris, or coloured part. Now range, but without success. Now, the Former of the this iris is formed of two sets of muscles : one set of eye knew the properties of light and the properties of elastic rings, which, when left to themselves, contract lenses before the first eye was made ; he knew the mode the opening; and another set at right-angles to them, of adjusting them for any distance, from the thousands like the spokes of a wheel, pulling the inner edge of of millions of miles between the eye and the star, to the the iris in all directions to the outside. In fact, it is half-inch distance of the mote in the sunbeam ; and he not so much a sun-blind as a self-acting window, openhas not only availed himself of both the principles which ing and closing the aperture according to our need of opticians discovered, but has executed his work with an light, and doing this so instantaneously that we are not infinite perfection which bungling men may admire, but sensible of the process. can never imitate. The sclerotic coat of the eye, and It is self-evident that the Maker of such an eye was the choroid which lies next it, are full of muscles which, acquainted with the properties of light and the alternaby their contraction, both press back the crystalline lens tions of night and day, as well as with the mechanical nearer the retina, and also flatten it; the vitreous contrivances for adjusting the eye to these variable humour, in which the crystalline lens lies—a fine, trans- circumstances. He has given us an eye capable of parent humour, about as thick as the white of an egg- seeking knowledge among partial darkness ; and of giving way behind it, and also slightly altering its form availing itself for this purpose of imperfect light-an and power of refraction to suit the case. Thus, that which apt symbol of our mental constitution and moral situathe astronomer, or the microscopist, performs by a tedi- tion in a world where good and evil, light and darkness, ous process, and then very imperfectly, we perform per- mix and alternate. fectly, easily, instantly, and almost involuntarily, with Perhaps some one is ready to ask, What is the use of that perfect compound microscope and telescope invented so many lenses in the eye ? It seems as if the crystalby the Former of the human eye. Surely, in giving us line lens and the optic nerve were sufficient for the an instrument so admirably fitted for observing the purpose of sight, with the cornea simply to protect lofty grandeur of the heavens and the lowlier beauties of them. What is the use of the aqueous humour and the the earth, he meant to allure us to the discovery of the vitreous humour ? perfections of the great Designer and Former of all these Light, when refracted through a lens, becomes sepawondrous works.
rated into its component colours — red, yellow, green, But there is another contrivance in the eye, adapted blue, and violet ; and the greater the magnifying power to lead us further to the consideration of the extent of the lens, and the brighter the object viewed, the of the knowledge of its Maker. We are placed in a greater the dispersion of the rays.
So that if the world of variable lights, of day and night, and of all crystalline lens of the eye alone were used, we should the variations between light and darkness. We can- see every white object bluish in the middle, and yellowish not see in the full blaze of light, nor yet in utter dark- and reddish at the edges ; or, in vulgar language, ness. Had the eye been formed to bear only the noon- should see starlight. day glare, we had been half blind in the afternoon, and This difficulty perplexed Sir Isaac Newton all his wholly so in the evening. If the eye were formed so as life, and he never discovered the mode of making a to see at night, we had been helpless as owls in the day. refracting telescope which would obviate it. But M. But the variations of light in the atmosphere may be Dolland, an optician, reflecting that the very same in sore measure compensated, as we know, by regulating difficulty must have presented itself to the Maker of the quantity admitted to our houses-shutting up the the eye, determined to ascertain how he had obviated it windows. When we wish to regulate the admission of He found that the Maker of the eye had a knowledge light to our rooms, we have recourse to various clumsy of the fact that different substances have different contrivances—paper blinds perpetually tearing, sun- powers of refracting or bending the rays of light which blind rollers that will not roll, venetian blinds continually pass through them, and that liquids have generally a in need of mending, awnings blowing away with every different power of refraction from solids. For instance, storm, or shutters which shut up and leave us in entire if you put a straight stick in water, the part under darkness. A self-acting window, which shall expand water will seem bent at a considerable angle; while if with the opening of light in the mornings and evenings, you put the stick through a little hole in a pane of and close up of its own accord as the light increases glass, it will not seen near so much bent. He further toward noon, has never been manufactured by man. discovered that oil of cassia had a different power of But the Former of the eye took note of the necessities refraction from water, and the white of an egg still a and conveniences of the case, and besides giving a pair different power. He discovered also that the first lens of shutters to close up when we go to sleep, he has given of the eye, the aqueous humour, is very like water-that
the crystalline lens is a firm jelly-and that the vitreous all the works of his hands, and the power to gratify humour is about the consistence of the white of an egg. that desire. The Former of the eye must of necessity The combination of these three lenses of different be the great Observer. powers of refraction secures the correction of their Wheresoever an eye is found of his handiwork, and separate errors. He could not make telescope lenses of wheresoever sight is preserved by his skill, let the owner jelly, nor of water; therefore, he could not make a per- of such an instrument know that if he can see, God can, fect achronjatic telescope, but he learned the lesson of and as surely as he sees, God does. mutual compensations of difficulties which the Maker If it is possible for us to behold many objects disof the eye teaches the reflecting anatomist, and procuring tinctly at once, it is not impossible for God to behold fint and crown glass of different degrees of refraction, more. If he has given us an eye to look from earth he arranged them in the achromatic lens so as nearly to heaven, then his eye sees from heaven to earth. If to remedy the defect.
I can see accurately, God's inspection is much more I think you will at once admit that Dolland's attempt impartial. And if he has given me the power of adjustto remedy the evils of confused sight in the telescope, ing my imperfect vision to the varying lights and shades indicated a desire to obtain a precise and correct view of this changing scene, let me not dream for a moment of objects ; and that his success in constructing an that he is destitute of a corresponding power of investiinstrument nearly perfect for the use of astronomers, gating difficulties, and penetrating darknesses, and bringgave evidence that he himself had a clear idea of that ing to light hidden works and secret things. God is light. perfect and accurate vision which he thus attempted to In him is no darkness at all. Neither is there any bestow on them. Shall we then imagine any inaccuracy creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all things in the sight of Him, who not only desired, but executed are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom and bestowed on us an instrument so perfectly adapted I have to do. He has seen all my past life--my faults, to the imperfections of this lower world, and whose my follies, and my crimes. When I thought myself in very imperfections are the materials from which he darkness and privacy, God's eye was upon me there. produces clear and perfect vision ! No! in God's eye In the turmoil of business, God's eye was upon me. In there are no chromatic refractions of passion, or pre- the crowd of my ungodly companions, God's eye was judice, or party feeling, or self-love. He sees by no upon me. In the darkness and solitude of night, God's reflected or refracted light. O Father of lights ! with eye was upon me. And God's eye is on me now, and whom is no variableness, or shadow of turning, open our will follow me from this house, and will watch me and eyes to behold thee clearly.
observe all my actions, on-on-on-while God lives,
and wheresoever God's creation extends. III.-THOU GOD SEEST ME. Our text thus leads us to a knowledge of God's
"O Lord, thou hast searched me, and known me;
Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, character, from the structure of the bodies he has given Thou understandest my thought afar off. us. He that formed my eye sees. Though my feeble Thon compassest my path and my lying down,
And art acquainted with all my ways. vision is by no means a standard or limit for his omni- For there is not a word in my tongue, science, yet I may conclude that every perfection of the But, lo ! O Lord, thou knowest it altogether. power of sight he has given me, existed previously in
Thou hast beset me behind and before, and laid thine hand him. Has he endowed me, a poor puny mortal, the Such knowledge is too wonderful for me ; permanent tenant of only two yards of earth, with an
It is high, I cannot attain unto it.
Whither shall I go from thy spirit ? eye capable of ranging over earth's broad plains and
Or whither shall I flee from thy presence ? lofty mountains—of traversing her beauteous lakes and If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: lovely rivers—of scanuing her crowded cities, and in
If I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there!
If I take the wings of the morning, specting all their curious productions—and specially And dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; delighting to investigate the bodily forms of men, and Even there shall thy hand lead me, their mental characters displayed on the printed page ?
And thy right hand shall hold me.
If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; Has he given me the principle of curiosity, without Even the night shall be light about me. which such an endowment were useless? Then most
Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee;
But the night shineth as the day : undoubtedly he has himself both the desire to observe
The darkness and the light are both alike to thee
BY REV. WILLIAM WRIGHT, DAMASCUS.
A PANORAMA IN GALILEE.
arrived in Safed. The sun had al-There he worked at the rude village-carpentry,-
wound up round through the Jewish put in his way, and lightening the burdens of quarter, and out at the top of the village. My home. There, no doubt, as a thoughtful boy, he travelling companions had never been in Safed pondered on the mysteries of existence, and vanbefore, and were not fully aware of the splendour quished the spectres of the mind. And there, and glory of the scene that was about to break too, as a man among men, he set an example of upon them. We had approached Safed from the holy living. He passed among the corruptions of north, along dry, dusty paths, and the scenery Nazareth, unsullied as a sunbeam, shedding around around us was mostly bare conical bills. A few him the warm light of blameless benevolence ; hasty directions having been given, as to the ar- till his envious and turbulent neighbours, unable rangement of tent and baggage under the olives, to endure the stainless purity of his life, drore I led my party to the castle which crowns the oval | him from the home of his childhood. summit of the hill to which the village clings. That conical hill east of Nazareth is Mount
We scaled the castle with ease, as the earth- Tabor, down from which went Deborah with her quake of 1838 had shaken its battlements into a noble ten thousand, like an avalanche,
on the heap of rubbish. As we ascended to the highest hosts of Sisera. And yonder, on the hill beyond, point, wbich is about one hundred feet above the in the line of Deborah's march, are Endor, and ditch, I requested my fellow-travellers to keep Nain, and Shunem, with their dismal and joyous their eyes on the ground for a few seconds, and memories. then we all stood gazing mutely on the most in- That irregular elevation between us and Tabor teresting scene on earth. The shrill Moslem call is Hattîn, the mountain pointed out by tradition to evening prayers was piercing the sky from the and reason on which Christ opened his mouth in minarets, and the little old-looking, fantastically beatitudes to the thirsty crowd, and to all who dressed Jews of the place were crawling at our feel their need of him. And those same jutting feet; but we had neither ears nor eyes for these, peaks are honey.combed with tombs, for there lie as the scene of Jesus' life and labours lay at our thirty thousand Crusaders who fell in the disfeet like an open book, and so near and clear that astrous “battle of Tiberias.” its every feature impressed itself upon our souls. On the spot where Christ promised fulness to Few realize, without having once seen it, the “ the poor in spirit,” the proudest spirits in smallness of the theatre on which was enacted so Europe fought, professedly for Christ, with much that stirs the imagination and fires the weapons which were not of Christ's armoury. On heart. Yonder, in the distance, beneath the the 3rd of July, seven hundred years ago, the westering sun is the long, low range of Carmel, weak king, Guy de Lusignan, and his betrayed where Israel's Knox struck down the ritualistic and dispirited followers, held those heights. priests of Jezebel. Nearer, and more eastward, is Salâh-ed-Dîn, the flower of Moslem chivalry—the the hill above Nazareth, which Jesus in his "Saladin” of romance—hemmed them in with childhood must have often climbed on his way burning forests, and a circle of eighty thousand to Kana and Sephoris. Beyond that hill was the fanatics. The Crusaders, shut in among bare rocks, home of his childhood. There he grew in mind | under a blazing sun, fainting for thirst and de