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tion of books on every subject are so numerous, results, is of comparatively recent growth. It is whether it is necessary to keep up an expensive due to the quickened energies of the inventive establishment for that which may be done, I be- intellect; which are due, in their turn, to the inlieve, as effectively through the legitimate trade. creased and increasing intelligence of labour.
Need it be added that the intelligence of labour ELEMENTARY EDUCATION.
is due entirely to the diffusion of education In Philadelphia one sees the national system among the masses, which is peculiarly and preof education in its most advanced form ; and in eminently the boast of modern times ? The this respect, I believe, America is setting an ex- wealth, therefore, that groans under the burden ample to the world. The system aims at mak- of the school-tax, and would seek its diminution, ing education, up to a certain grade, free, efficient, or, at least, evade its legitimate increase, owes its non-sectarian, and universal. —“Our schools,” existence to the education which it contemns. says an able advocate, are established for the "Intelligence and skill are no longer confined masses, the commonwealth of mind, rich and to classes, but are developed by our free system poor alike—for the common benefit and the wherever they are found. The labourer sees common protection, regardless of the accidents of his interest in the increased productiveness of life...... And the system is to be judged, not by machinery, and seeks to contrive it. The supexceptional cases, but by the pervading atmos- posed conflicts of labour and capital are daily phere of intelligence and moral culture which it being reconciled; and not only are the known diffuses throughout society. Its blessings fall resources of the community more carefully husupon the community, not in interim showers, banded, but new means of wealth are opened up; but, like the dews of heaven, unseen, unfelt, save so that the prospect is literally unbounded. in the freshness and beauty which they contri- “When we consider, moreover, that the invenbute to promote.”—It is supported by a tax tions of the past fifty years are but an earnest of which all are required to pay, because, it is those which are certain to be made as Science rightly said, all reap the benefit. The last Re- continues her investigations and dicoveries, we port of the Board of Education contains the fol- must acknowledge the obligation to provide with lowing admirable remarks on a nation's duty as an enlarged liberality for the instruction of the regards the education of the young-remarks masses, which, in the future as in the past, must which deserve special attention in our precede as an indispensable condition all material country at the present time :
progress and prosperity. “The education of the young is a subject, the Costly though it be, we thus see that educaimportance of which has been so long tacitly tion secures a direct pecuniary return that infiacquiesced in, and so often ably argued, that a nitely overbalances the original outlay. complete statement of its claims upon the con- “It is important that this argument, although sideration of the citizen is neither expected nor it is doubtless the lower and utilitarian view of desired in this place. It is nevertheless true the question, should be urged persistently and that too many who should understand and forcibly upon the tax-payer. Important as estimate it at its real value are so absorbed in economy doubtless is in the administration of the pursuit of wealth and the development of public affairs, there is no department where there a material prosperity, that they not only fail to is more danger of it being misapplied than in appreciate the public school system, but regard this. There are many things in which cheapness the taxes levied for its support as onerous and may constitute a recommendation; but teaching, excessive.
which is, in truth, incapable of valuation by the Strangely enough, they forget that education rude and imperfect standards of the market, may is the essential preliminary to the material pro- be obtained at a cost so reduced as to deprive it gress to which they devote themselves, and in of all its worth, and render it a source of injury which they so rejoice. The industrial activity rather than of benefit. Let it be hoped, then, of the day, with the material wealth in which it that benceforward the low cost of our school
system shall no longer be its vaunt, but let our range of study as broad, nay, in some respects aim rather be to increase its efficiency, its thor- even broader, than that pursued in our High oughness, its comprehensiveness, in the confidence School.” that, however much it may cost, the community These are weighty words. They go to the root will not only be better, more intelligent and hap- of the matter, and state with all plainness a nation's pier, but in the end actually richer, through its duties. Education in these days is power. Brute agency.
force and mere material resources, bowever great, "Another view in close connection with the are comparatively valueless without it. We see foregoing is, that the continued prosperity of a the want of education among ourselves in those community depends not only on the multiplica- pernicious “strikes” which are shaking the very tion of its resources, but also upon the intelligence fabric of society. Were the masses properly and skill with which those resources are managed educated, “strikes” would be unknown, for it and distributed. Of a surety, education, and only requires a sufficient amount of intelligence education universally and freely diffused, is essen- to see their utter folly and to raise the workingtial to secure this intelligence and skill. Espec- classes above them. ially is this so in a country which, like our own, The educational system of the United States assumes to be self-governing.
is thoroughly non-sectarian, and yet Christianity “The complicated relations between capital is not ignored. One of the fundamental rules proand labour are not only difficult to comprehend, vides that, “At the opening of each session of but they give rise, if not understood, to those ig- the schools at least ten verses of the Bible shall norant and dangerous jealousies between the rich be read, without note or comment, to the pupils, and the poor, which, in France to-day, are sap-by the principal; or, in his absence, by one of the ping the foundations of society.
assistants. A suitable hymn may also be sung." “Educate the masses, and you reduce the The existence of God, his universal sovereignty, number of the poor by teaching labour how to our obligation to hear and obey his laws revealed make itself rich. Educate the masses, and you in the Bible, are thus laid down as a firm foundateach the poor that capital is their best friend, tion in the mind of every child. He is taught to without which their estate would be tenfold more look upon the Bible as the basis of his faith and wretched.
the grand source alike of intellectual enlighten“Government, too, is a science which only in- ment and material prosperity in his country. telligence can master. Good government is the I visited the schools of all grades, from the only security for prosperity; and what hope of lowest to the highest. In the thoroughness of good government can there be, with us, without their training, and in their adaptation to the the widest diffusion of education among those requirements of a great Christian country, they masses who at last shape and control the admin-could scarcely be surpassed. The Normal School istration of its every department.
especially, in which nearly six hundred females “ Were there time, these arguments could be are being educated as teachers, excelled anything enforced in detail, so as to insure conviction in I had ever seen. By the courtesy of the principal, every doubting mind; but enough has been said I was permitted to enter every class-room and to suggest the line of thought. Enough has hear the lessons and examinations. The teachers, been said to show that education, not merely in with one or two exceptions, are females, and the its elementary, but in its higher branches, should instruction is chiefly oral. The teacher stands, be provided at least to that point where the uses no book, has the whole class under command, youthful mind can be safely trusted to follow up questions each pupil in turn, or at will. The and perfect its own development. It is a mis- answers must be given promptly and clearly. take to suppose that the rudiments are all for There is no hesitation, no waiting. I heard exwhich a free system should make provision. We aminations in history, geography, arithmetic, alought rather to emulate our German contempo- gebra ; and the way in which the questions were raries, who, in their burgher schools, prescribe a put, and the answers given, showed that both teachers and pupils were thoroughly trained.
AMERICAN MISSIONS. The classes pass from teacher to teacher every hour. It struck me, however, that the strain The missionary meeting in Dr. Boardman's upon the teacher's mind must be very severe. church was the last I attended in Philadelphia, She is compelled to conduct five distinct classes, and it was one of the most gratifying. I saw upon different subjects or different departments there, with equal surprise and delight, a crowd of of the same subject, each day.
the leading people of the city assembled to hear The pupils were summoned to the public hall a simple address upon missions. It showed me half an hour before the usual time, that I might how thoroughly the American Churches are imhave an opportunity of seeing and hearing their bued with the spirit of the Gospel, and it indicated exercises in concert. They first read together a one secret of that wonderful success which those few verses from the New Testament; and they Churches have achieved in their missionary operaread with such precision of emphasis, and such tions both at home and abroad. In fact they accuracy of expression, as to make it manifest to have long come to regard Christian work and every thoughtful listener that they fully under- mission work as correlative terms.
The one stood the sense. Then they sung a hymn with implies the other. Mission work is the natural great taste. Two of the girls next recited select and necessary action of a living Church ; and it pieces of English ; and afterwards a number, at will be extended and successful just in proportion my request, engaged in gymnastic exercises, which to the amount of inherent life. In this respect form a part of their regular school training. also America is setting an example to the ChristThe postures were admirably chosen, and nothing, ian world. When in Pittsburg, my kind friend in my opinion, could be better adapted to develop the Rev. Dr. Howard put into my hand an inthe physical powers and preserve the health, teresting pamphlet of his, recently published, while at the same time giving grace to every which contained the following graphic sketch of movement. At the close I was asked to address the origin and progress of Presbyterian Missions. them; which I did with a great deal of pleasure. Its perusal may serve to stimulate some in the It is not surprising that under such an admirable mother country :system the highest qualities of mind and heart Since the work of Foreign Missions has been should be brought into full play, and that conducted by the General Assembly, there has the principal should be able to report that, been a steady, healthy, and most encouraging “Correct deportment and a proper regard for growth. From one mission in 1833, we have right have generally been manifested; evidently grown, in less than forty years, to thirteen the result of sound moral principle, based upon missions ; from one station in 1833, to over two the religious sentiment which seems to per- hundred stations in 1872 ; from five or six vade the school and mould the actions of the missionary labourers in 1833, to nearly eight pupils.”
hundred, one hundred and twenty-eight of whom I also inspected the High School for boys, and are ordained missionaries, in 1872 ; and from a found it equal in efficiency, though somewhat contribution amounting to a little over $3,500, different in the mode of instruction followed. to a contribution amounting to nearly $334,000, The instruction is thoroughly practical. Every of which about $24,000 were raised by the childepartment is conducted with a view to life-work. dren of the Church. No expense is spared in providing the highest “Less than forty years ago, the Presbyterian talent and most complete apparatus for training Church in the United States held up, by a single the young to take their places, and fill them sick, albeit a heroic, faithful, resolute hand, a honourably and successfully, in the common- solitary torch of gospel light in all the eastern wealth. A basis is surely being laid by the part of the vast continent of Asia, and one other educational system of the United States for by an equally brave and devoted hand on the greatness, grandeur, and stability, such as no continent of Africa : now, though we cannot say nation has ever yet attained to.
of our Presbyterian missions as some one has
said of the British Empire,' the sun never sets | land where Christianity was cradled looks down upon it,' yet we can say that the sun as he rises upon our prosperous mission in Syria. in the east scarcely greets the land until he finds “But even yet he has not seen all that God is our mission in Japan ; then, as he pursues his permitting our beloved Church to do in this great western way, he looks down at our mission at behalf. As be pursues his westward way, he ob Shanghai, with its press of movable Chinese type, serves our quiet but earnest and faithful labourers first used by our missionaries in that vast empire, in Italy, Belgium, France ; and as he passes on, and which is destined to revolutionize the art of glancing far to the south, he finds that our Church printing in its original home; then a little further has representatives among the dusky peoples of he finds Ningpo, with its numerous Presbyterian Africa, in Liberia, among many of her towns, at the congregations, and then Tungchow, with its deep Gaboon river, and on the island of Corisco. And religious interest, and Pekin, the capital of the now, leaving the Old World and crossing the empire, with its earnest labourers and a govern- Atlantic, among the first things that meet him ment college, at the head of which is a Presby- as he gazes down upon our own Continent, are terian minister, who went abroad as a Presby- our missions in North and South America—among terian missionary ; a little further west, and the descendants of the ‘Friend of God’in New considerably to the south, he beholds our mission York, and among the Portuguese and Spanishat Canton, with the veteran Happer, from amid speaking populations of Brazil, the United States our own western Pennsylvanian hills, at its head; of Colombia, and Mexico. And then, as he passes and then, as he continues his journey to the west on to his setting, he beholds our faithful missionhe meets our missions in Siam and among the aries labouring to christianize our Indian tribes, Laos; and presently his glowing eye lights upon the Senecas, the Chippewas, the Omahas, the that glorious cluster of missions in Northern India, Creeks, the Seminoles, and others; and finally, the first-born of the whole family, with its teem- as he completes his circuit of the heavens, he ing presses, its schools, its churches, its native looks upon our Chinese mission in California. pastors and native teachers. He scarcely loses “Now are not these wonderful things ? Has sight of these till he finds our Persian mission, there not been marvellous and encouraging founded by the American Board—a mission most growth ? Less than forty years ago a little spark interesting, as being among a people who, as it of holy fire was struck in the Old Second seems to me, are the descendants of the lost tribes Presbyterian Church down here in Diamond Alley of Israel. The sun still continues his course, [Pittsburg], and, behold, it has kindled a flame passing over the ruins of buried empires amid that almost encircles the globe! It is the Lord's the mountains of Lebanon and on the shore of doing, and marvellous in our eyes." the Great Sea, and on the borders of the favoured Such is Christian work in America.
A YOUNG IRISH SABBATH-SCHOOL TEACHER.
(Concluded.) HE read her Bible very much. She read been taught by the Spirit before she saw the book that
also other good books of a stimulating she must look to Jesus for sanctification as well as justicharacter, especially religious biographies. fication ; that we are not only made alive, but kept alive,
Those she did read she went over carefully, by faith in Christ. But she saw this more clearly and sometimes again and again. “M'Cheyne's Memoir through reading Boardman. From the time of her and Remains," and "Rutherford's Letters” seemed her conversion she had ever been aiming at a closer walk choicest favourites. She liked also the lives of Payson, with God. Sitting outside in the summer nights, and Hewitson, Adelaide Newton, Mrs. Wilson, and Mrs. looking up to the clear moon and stars, she used to ask Winslow. She told me she had derived much benefit God to make her holy and Christ-like. At length she from Boardman's “Higher Christian Life.” She had was enabled to realize much of the love of Christ, and to have communion with him about nearly everything, yours will be a successful ministry. To attain to it me small and great, temporal and spiritual. She seemed must be much in prayer-dwell much in communion to live almost constantly in his presence, not only when with Jesus, not only morning and night, but often praying to him, or working for him, but even when sit- should our thoughts and desires be stealing after Jesus ting-to sit before him, and enjoy his company, as that in ejaculatory prayer. Hewitson said, 'A converted of a dear friend, when not a word was spoken. And I soul should never rest till every thought, word, and suppose this is the secret not only of a higher Christian action was in communion with Jesus.' When I think life, but of the highest Christian life. She told me she of those who have shone brightly in the Christian life, had been enabled to cast herself upon Jesus for holiness and look at myself, I am often ready to despair of ever in her every-day walk, and to expect him to work out all being holy. Were he not mighty, I could never think his good pleasure in her, in a way she had not formerly it of such as I am ; but he is; and I tell him I expect done. Casting herself upon Jesus, seemed one of her him to make me holy and useful. He is the same favourite phrases. She wished to hang upon him hour Saviour as in days gone by, and can make you a holy by hour, and moment by moment. She said she had and successful minister. Oh, what a high privilege is derived much benefit from 1 Corinthians i. 30: “But of yours! What noble employ, to be an ambassador for him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto Christ! It was surpassing love that designed this us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and honour for you. Surely we should be loyal to him who redemption." Also from Psalm lv. 22: “Cast thy buir- has loved us so well. We are now commencing another den upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee." She year. How quickly time is passing ! Soon we will be mentioned what delight she had in meditating on landed in eternity ; then let us, at the beginning of this Exodus xiv. 14: “ The Lord shall fight for you,
I ye new year, afresh dedicate ourselves to Jesus, and take shall hold your peace.” But perhaps her favourite as our motto, ' Live for eternity. Soon nothing else text in her latter days was Hebrews vii. 25: “Where- will satisfy. Let us totally consecrate ourselves to him fore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that and his service. What precious souls we may be the come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make instruments of winning! Many opportunities may intercession for them.” Some of these texts are noticed offer if we embrace them. 'Tis glorious work. The joy in the following letters.
of winning souls is deep and real.” She refers to this subject of a deeper work of grace in In a letter to the young lady who taught her French the heart and life, in a letter to her brother, who was a and drawing, written nearly at the same date, she says :student of theology, dated January 1870 :
" ...... But let me not dream over it in that way; it “MY DEAR Miss S., I love to think our friendship was so ordered by Jesus. I do love to watch the guid- will not be for a little while, and then have an end for ings of his hand. I feel assured, if we watch, we shall ever. No; though our paths here may yet be far severed, see him both in minute and great things. At first the we shall be one in Jesus for ever, and meet at home dealings often appear dark. Looking longer, we discern never more to part. All our ways are in the hands of the all-wise, unerring Hand making all things work Jesus. I often think what a dark path it would be, together for good.
how sad to look forward, were we not sure of such a “Dear W. J., when we reflect we are both travelling guide,-none else but Jesus, all-wise and ever-loving. Zionward, it is really humbling how little we talk of it I had some thoughts lately on a verse that appeared to by the way, and urge each other forward. We are me most wonderful : • The Lord shall fight for you, almost unacquainted in that way as to what progress we and ye shall hold your peace' (Ex. xiv. 14). The are making, or our experience in the Christian life. I Lord goeth forth to the battle for us, and we may be often think, if we told it more, we might be mutual quiet. Inward corruptions are great. The war with helps. Many a sorrow and joy might be sympathized the flesh is terrible ; but the Lord shall fight for us, and with. We meet with both in our heavenly way. My we shall overcome. "Jesus has prayed that we might be path has been watered with many a tear. I've had in- sanctified, and we shall be sanctified wholly. Our ward and outward trials, but I am sure all was needed. strong enemy would tear us from the side of Jesus if he
“Dear W. J., surely we should aim high in the could; but our Royal One won't give us up. He fights Christian life-to live holy. I think there is a secret of sweet attachment to Jesus, a close acquaintance and “In temporal things we do not know what is best intimacy with him, that some Christians attain. 'Tis for us, but we give our ways into his hand. He fights then the believer looks down into his loving heart, feels its beatings towards him, shares his secrets. (The “In our longings to bring immortal souls to Jesus, secret of the Lord is with them that fear him.) The the
oppose us; but the Lord shall fight for affections are strongly entwined around him. He learns us, and make us the instruments of winning many. The to copy his example, and lives a holy life. Surely, W. barriers sometimes appear many between us and our J., you and I may attain to this. It is thus our efforts heavenly home ; but Jesus ever fights for us, and we for the salvation of others will be successful. Thus
may hold our peace. Strange to think, wonderful love,