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His mer-eies ev-erdure; His pow'r shall ne’er de - cay From age to age for aye.

1. To God the Father let us sing ; Hallelnjah ! Throngh the wide earth his praises ring; Hallelujah! Who left us not in sin to lie,

Hallelujah! But gave his Son for us to die. Hallelujah!

His word is ever sure ;
His mercies ever dure;
His pow'r sball ne'er decay
From age to age for age.

JI.
To God the Son glad hymns we raise, Hallelujah!
Who left his throne our souls to save; Hallelujah!
Who on the cross for sinners bled- Hallelujah!
His precious blood for en’mies shed. Hallelujah!

His love is wonderfid;
To sinners pitiful-
Pleading each suppliant's case
Before his Father's face.

III.
To God the Holy Spirit praise, Hallelujah!
For all the marvels of his grace ; Hallelujah!
Who doth the Son to us reveal- Hallelujah!
Who doth our souls in mercy seal. Hallelujah!

He comforts hearts that mourn,
With deep contrition torn;
Teaches them how to pray
In sorrow's darkest day.

IV.
To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Hallelujah!
The Triune God, the Lord of hosts, Hallelujah!
Let praise and glory be ascribed Hallelujah!
By every nation, tongue, and tribe. Hallelujah!

Him will we ever bless,
His truth and love confess;
And he will be our stay
From age to age for aye.

B. W.

FIpologetics for the People.

BY DR. R. PATERSON, CHICAGO.

III.

PANTHEIS M.
JANTHEISM is that perversion of reason versal does not attract us till housed in the individual.

and language which denies God's person- Who heeds the waste abyss of possibility ? Standing on
ality, and calls some imaginary soul of the the bare ground, my head bathed by the blithe air, and

world, or the world itself, by his name. uplifted into infinite space, all mere egotism vanishes. While Pantheists are fully agreed upon the propriety of The currents of the universe being circulate through getting rid of a God who could note their conduct, and me, I am part or particle of God.” “I stand here to call them to account for it hereafter, and who would say, 'Let us worship the mighty and transcendent claim to exercise any authority over them here, they are soul." “God attains to self-consciousness only in the by no means agreed, either in India, Germany, or human soul.” “Honour yourself.” “Reverence your America, as to what they shall call by his name. Public own individuality.” “The soul of man is the highest opinion necessitates them to say they believe in a God, intelligence in the universe." Such are the dogmas but almost every one has his own private opinion as to which, under the name of Positive Philosophy, are what it is. We shall speak of it as we hear it pro- poured forth oracularly, unsupported by reason or argunounced from the lips of its prophets, here, as well as ment, by the prophets of the new dispensation—the last in the writings of its expounders, in Europe and Asia. and highest achievement of the human intellect. Some of them declare that it is some absolutely un- It is very unfortunate, however, for the honour of the known cause of all the phenomena of the universe; and prophets of the nineteenth century, that this profound others, that it is the universe itself. A large class speak discovery was invented and illustrated, patented and of it as the great soul of the world, while the more peddled, by the Hindus, among the people of India, materialistic regard it as the world itself, body and soul; two thousand years before the divinity had struggled the soul being the source of all the imponderable forces, into self-consciousness in the souls of Schelling, Hegel, -such as gravitation, heat, light, electrieity, magnetism, and Strauss-of Atkinson, Parker, or Emerson. We galvanism, vegetable and animal life, and especially the mean to show, in this paper, that it is an antiquated, mesmeric influence, of which many of them regard in- hypocritical, demoralizing Atheism. tellect as a modification; and the body being the sum of all the ponderable substances, such as air, water,

1.- PANTHEISM IS AN ANTIQUATED HERESY. earth, minerals, vegetables, and bodies of animals and It has rotted and putrified among the worshippers of men. This creed is popularly expressed in the sertence cats and monkeys, and holy bulls, and bits of sticks and so often heard, “God is everything, and everything is stones, on the banks of the Ganges, for more than two God.” But this vast generalization of all things into the thousand years; yet it is now hooked up, out of its higher unity—this exalting of monkeys, men, snails, and dunghill, and hawked about among Christian people, as paving-stones to the same level of divinity- by no means a prime new discovery of modern philosophy, for getting meets the views of the more unphilosophical and aspir- rid of Almighty God. As the Hindu Shasters are uning gods and goddesses, for the very reason that it is so doubtedly the sources froin which French, German, and impartial. To deify a man and his cat by the same American philosophers have borrowed their dogmas, process, is not much of a distinction to the former ; and without leave or acknowledgment; and, as is generally of what advantage is it to be made a god, if he does not the case with depredators, they have not had time to thereby obtain some distinction? This levelling apo- take the whole system, we shall gratify and edify the theosis is generally confined to the German Pantheists. public by a view of this sublime theology, as exhibited Their more ambitious American brethren ascribe the in the writings of the Positive Philosophers of India. contented humility which accepts it, to the continual |

“When existing in the temporary in perfect state of influence of the fumes of tobacco and lager beer. Man Sagun, Brahm (the Pantheist deity) wills to manifest —the soul of man-is the great divinity of our American the universe. For this purpose he puts forth bis omniPantheists

. "The doctrine of the soul—first soul, and potent energy, which is variously styled in the different second soul, and evermore soul"*—is the doctrine which systems now under review. He puts forth his energy is to regenerate the world. God, in their view, is nothing for what? For the effecting of a creation out of nothing? till he attains self-consciousness in man. “The uni- 'No,' says one of the Shasters, but to produce from his

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suns.

oun divine substance a multiform universe.' By the egg, in which the elementary principles might be despontaneous exertion of this energy he sends forth, from posited, and nurtured into maturity.” “All the primary his own divine substance, a countless host of essences, atoms, qualities, and principles—the seeds of future like innumerable sparks issuing from the blazing fire, or worlds--that had been evolved from the substance of myriads of rays from the resplendent sun. These de- Brahm, were now collected together, and deposited in tached portions of Brahm—these separated divine es- the newly-produced egg. And into it, along with them, sences-soon become individuated systems, destined, in entered the self-existent bimself, under the assumed tiine, to occupy different forms prepared for their recep- form of Brahma; and then he sat vivifying, expanding, tion; whether these be fixed or movable, animate or and combining the elements, a whole year of the creainanimate, fornus of gods or men, forms of animal, vege- tion, or four thousand three hundred millions of solar table, or mineral existences.

years! During this amazing period, the wondrous egg “Having been separated from Brahm in his imperfect floated like a bubble on the abyss of primeval waters, state of Sagun, they carry along with them a share of increasing in size, and blazing refulgent as a thousand those principles, qualities, and attributes that charac- At length the Supreme, who dwelt therein, burst terize that state, though predominating in very different the shell of the stupendous egg, and issued forth under degrees and proportions; either according to their re- a new form, with a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, spective capacities, or the retributive awards of an and a thousand arms. Along with him there issued eternal ordination. Amongst others it is specially noted, forth another form, huge and measureless. What could that as Brahm at that time had awakened into a con- that be? All the elementary principles having now sciousness of his own existence, there does inhere in been matured, and disposed into an endless variety of each separated soul a notion, or a conviction, of its own orderly collocations, and combined into one harmonious distinct, independent, individual existence. Labouring whole, they darted into visible manifestation under tle under this delusive notion, or conviction, the soul has form of the present glorious universe! A universe now lost the knowledge of its own proper nature—its divine finished, and ready made, with its entire apparatus, of origin, and ultimate destiny. It ignorantly regards earth, sun, moon, and stars. What then is this multiitself as an inferior entity, instead of knowing itself to form universe ? It is but a harmoniously arranged exbe what it truly is, a consubstantial, though it may be pansion of primordial principles and qualities. And an infinitesimally minute portion of the great whole, a whence are these? Educed or evolved from the divine universal spirit.

substance of Brahm. Hence it is that the universe is “ Each individual soul being thus a portion of Brahm, so constantly spoken of, even by mythologists, as a even as a spark is of fire, it is again and again declared manifested form of Brahm himself, the supreme, invisthat the relation between them is not that of master and ible spirit. Hence, too, under the notion that it is the servant, ruler and ruled, but that of whole and part! manifestation of a being who may assume every variety The soul is pronounced to be eternal a parte ante ; in of corporeal form, is the universe often personified, or itself it has had no beginning or birth, though its sepa- described as if its different parts were only the different rate individuality originated in time. It is eternal a members of a person, of prodigious magnitude, in human parte post; it will have no end-no death ; though its form. It is declared that the hairs of his body are the separate individuality will terminate in time. Its trees of the forest; of his head, the clouds; of his beard, manifestation in time is not a creation; it is an efflu- the lightning. His breath is the circling atmosphere ; ence from the eternal fount of spirit. Its disappearance his voice, the thunder; his eyes, the sun and moon ; from the stage of time is not an extinction of essence- his veins, the rivers ; his nails, the rocks; his bones, a reduction to nonentity; it is only a refluence into its the lofty mountains !” original source. As an emanation from the supreme, “Interminable as are the incoherencies, inconsiseternal spirit, it is from everlasting to everlasting. tencies, and extravangancies of the Hindu writings, on Neither can it be said to be of finite dimensions; on the no subject, perhaps, is the multiplicity of varying accontrary, says the sacred oracle, 'being identified with counts and discrepancies more astonishing than on the the Supreme Brahm, it participates in bis infinity.' present. Volumes could not suffice to contain them

“After having enumerated all the elementary prin- all. Brahma's first attempts at the production of the ciples, atoms, and qualities successively evolved from forms of animated beings, were as eminently unsuccessBrahm, one of the sacred writings states, that though ful as they were various. At one time he is said to each of these had distinct powers, yet they existed have performed a long and severe course of ascetic devoseparate and disunited, without order or harmonious tions, to enable him to accomplish his wish--but in vain; adaptation of parts; that until they were duly combined at another, inflamed by anger and passion at his retogether, it was impossible to produce this universe, or peated failures, he sat down and wept; and from the animated beings; and that therefore it was requisite to streaming tear-drops sprang into being, as his first boon, adopt other means than fortuitous chance for giving a progeny of ghosts and goblins, of an aspect so loaththem an appropriate combination, and symmetrical arrangement. The Supreme, accordingly, produced an

* Duff's India, pp. 09-114.

*

some and dreadful, that he was ready to faint away. decry its mysteries, as Deists are in the habit of doing; At one time, after profound meditation, different beings nor, as Socinians, and Unitarians, and Rationalists, atspring forth : one from his thumb, another from his tempt to reduce it to a mere code of morals. They breath, a third from his ear, a fourth from his side. But grant it to be the highest development of humanity yet enough of such monstrous legends." *

reached by the majority of the human race. The brute, There, now, reader, you have the original of the the savage, the polytheistic idolater, the star-worshipper

, Development Theory, with vestiges of creation enough the monotheist, the Christian, are all, in their scheme, to make half-a-dozen new infidel cosmogonies, besides so many successive developments of humanity in its upthe genuine original of Pantheism, from its native soil.

ward progress. There is only one step higher than Our western Pantheists will doubtless reverence their Christianity, and that is Pantheism. Well knowing venerable progenitors; and, should the remainder of the that Christianity is diametrically opposed to their falsefamily find their way here in a year or two, via Germany, hoods, and that the Bible everywhere teaches that the the public will be better prepared to give a fitting recep- progress of man has ever been down from a state of tion to such distinguished visitors, including their suite holiness to idolatry and barbarism, they have yet the of divine bulls and holy monkeys—their ecstatic hook hardibood to profess respect for it, as a system of conswingings, burning of widows, and drowning of children, cealed Pantheism, and to clothe their abominations in and other Positive Philosophies, from the banks of the Scripture language. They speak, for instance, of the Ganges. What an outrage on decency for such men to “beauty of holiness in the mind that has surmounted call themselves philosophers and Christians !

every idea of a personal God;" and of “God dwelling

in us, and his love perfected in us," when they believe II. ----PANTHEISM IS A SYSTEM OF DECEPTION AND

that he dwells as really in every creature; in that hog, HYPOCRISY.

for instance. Has any man a right to pervert the English language There is nothing, however, in this vast system of by fixing new meanings to words, entirely different monstrosities which fills the soul of a Christian with from, and contrary to, those in common use? If he such loathing and detestation, as to hear Pantheists knows the meaning of the words he uses, and uses profess their veneration for the Lord Jesus, and clain them to convey a contrary meaning, he is a deceiver. him as a teacher of Pantheism. If there is one object The name God, used as a proper name, in the English which they detest with all their hearts, it is the Judge tongne, means “the Supreme Being; Jehovah; the of the quick and dead, and the vengeance which he Eternal and Infinite Spirit, the Creator and Sovereign shall take upon them that know not God, and obey not of the Universe." + If, then, a man says he believes in the gospel. Any allusion to the judgment-seat of God, but when forced to explain what he means by that Christ fills them with fury, and causes them to pour name, says he means stean, heat, electricity, galvanism, forth awful blasphemies. They know that the Lord magnetism, mesmeric force, odyle, animal life, the soul Jesus repeatedly declared himself the judge of the living of man, or the sum of all the intelligencies in the uni- and the dead ; that “the hour is coming in which all verse, he is a deceiver and vain talker, abusing language that are in their graves shall hear his roice, and shall to conceal his impiety. Pantheism is simply Jesuitical come forth ; they that have done good, unto the resurAtheism. Willing to dethrone Jehovah, but unable rection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the and unwilling to place any other being in his stead as resurrection of damnation”; and that the very last Creator and Ruler of the universe, yet conscious that sentence of his public discourses is, “ And these (the · mankind will never embrace open Atheism, Pantheists wicked] shall go away into everlasting punishment; but profess to believe in God, only that they may steal his the righteous into life eternal.” When they drop the name to cloak their Atheism. We, in common with all mask for a moment, they can accuse apostles and diswho believe in God, demand that, as their divinity is, ciples with “ dwelling with noxious exaggeration about by their own confession, essentially different from God, the person of Christ.”* Christ, as revealed in the gesthey shall use a different word to describe it. Let them pel, they hate with a perfect hatred. But when it becall it Brahm, as their brethren in India do, or any comes necessary to address Christians, and beguile them other name not appropriated to any existing being in into the deceitfulness of Pantheism, the tune is changed

. heaven or earth, or under the earth; and let them cease Christ becomes the model man—"one conceived in comto profane religion, and insult common sense, by affix- ditions favourable to the highest perfectibility of the ing the holy name of the Supreme to their thousand- individual consciousness ; and so possessed of powers of headed monster.

generalization far in advance of the age in which he But the very perfection of Jesuitism is reached when lived. They can listen to and honour one of the best Pantheists profess their high respect for the Christian expounders of God and nature in the Man of Nazareth." + religion. They do not generally speak of it as a superstition, though some of the vulgar sort do; nor do they * Emerson's Address to a Senior Class in Divinity.

† Hennell's Christian Theism, which shows how Theists of

every nation-Christian, Jew, Mahommedan, or Chinese-can * Duff's India, p. 119.

† Webster's Dictionary. meet upon common ground.

The vilest falsehoods of Pantheism are ascribed to offend against itself. Further : if our development, Jesus, that those who, ignorant of his doctrine, yet re- both of body and mind, be the inevitable result of the spect his name, may be sedaced to receive them. Of laws of nature—of our organization and our positionhim who declared, “Out of the heart of man proceed man is but the creature of circumstances, and therefore, evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, thefts, false witness, as is abundantly argued, cannot be made responsible for blasphemies,” they have the hardihood to declare, “ He laws, and their results, over which he has no control.

in all history, he estimated the greatness of man." Calcu- than what I am, and cannot deserve either reward or lating upon that ignorance of the teaching of Christ punishment." * Before hundreds of the citizens of which is so general among their audiences, they dare to Cincinnati, a lecturer publicly denied the right of either represent the only begotten Son of God as teaching God or man to invade his individnality, by taking venPantheism : "One man was true to what is in you and geance upon him for any crime whatever. Thousands, me: be saw that God incarnates himself in man, and who are not yet Pantheists, are so far infected with the evermore goes forth anew to take possession of his poison that they utterly deny any right of vindictive world. He said, in this jnbilee of sublime emotion, 'I punishment to God or man. am divine. Through me God acts; through me, speaks. But this is not all. Again and again hav we listened Would you see God ? see me; or see thee when thon with astonishment to men, declaring that there was no also thinkest as I now think.' Because the indwelling moral law-no standard of right and wrong, but the will Supreme Spirit cannot wholly be got rid of, the doctrine of the community. Of course it was quite natural, after of it suffers this perversion, that the divine nature is such a declaration, to assert that a wife who should attributed to one or two persons, and denied to all the remain with a husband of inferior intellectuality, or rest, and denied with fury." Yes, truly the divine unsuitable emotions, was committing adultery ; that nature is emphatically denied to all unregenerated men, private property is a legalized robbery; and that, when and denied too by that divine Teacher thus eulogized. a citizen becomes mentally or physically unfit for the Hear him: “Ye do the deeds of your father. Then business of life, he confers the highest obligation on said they to him, We be not born of fornication; we society, and performs the highest duty to himself, by have one Father, even God. Jesus said unto them, If committing suicide, and thus returning to the great God were your Father, ye would love me; for I pro- ocean of being ! ceeded forth, and came from God: neither came I of We might think that confusion of right and wrong myself, but he sent me. Why do ye not understand my could not be worse confounded than this; yet there is speech ? Even because ye cannot bear my word. Ye a blacker darkness still. The distinction between good are of your father the devil; and the works of your and evil is absolutely denied. The Hindu Pantheists father ye will do. He was a murderer from the begin- declare that they cannot sin, because they are God, and ning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no God cannot offend against himself. There is no sin ; 'it truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh it is all maya-delusion. So the American and English of his own : for he is a liar, and the father of it." school tells us it lives only in the obsolete theology.

Let Pantheists, then, cease to wind their serpent “Evil, we are told, is good in another way, we are not coils around Christianity, and to defile the Bible with skilled in.”+ So says the author of “Representative their filthy lickings. The Lord Jesus will not suffer Men.” “Evil,” according to old philosophers, "is good such persons to bear even a true testimony to him; and in the making. That pure malignity can exist, is the his followers will not permit them to ascribe their false- extreme proposition of unbelief. It is not to be enterhoods to him, without reproof. Let them stand out, tained by a rational agent. It is Atheism ; it is the and avow themselves the enemies of Christ and his gos- last profanation.” “The divine effort is never relaxed ; pel-as they are—and cease their abominable pretences the carrion in the sun will convert itself into grass and of giving to the world the ultimate developnient of flowers; and man, though in jails or on gibbets, is on Christianity. What concord hath Christ with Belial ? his way to all that is good and true.” I Were these

only the ravings of lunatics, or the dreamings of philoso111.--PANTIIEISM IS A SYSTEM OF IMMORALITY.

phers, we should never have hunted them from their It loosens all the sanctions of woral law. If there is hiding-places to scare your visions; but these doctrines any one point upon which all Pantheists are agreed, it is are weekly propounded in your own city, and throughin the denial of the resurrection, the judgment, and the out our land, from platform and press, to thousands of future punishment of the wicked. Their whole system, your children and their school-teachers, of your workin all its range, from Spiritualism to Pbrenology, is ex- men and your lawgivers, to your wives and daughters. pressly invented to get rid of God's moral government. Again and again have our ears been confounded in the If man is the highest intelligence in the universe, to squares of New York, and the streets of Philadelphia, whora should he render an account of his conduct? Or who would have any right to call him to account?

* Atkinson's Letters, p. 190.

# Festus, p. 48. Then, if we are developments of deity, deity cannot Swedenborg, or the Mystic (quoted by Pierson, 41', p. 08.

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