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and the market-places of Cincinnati, by the boisterous one hundred thousand intelligent beings in this Christian cry, What is sin? There is no sin. It is all an old city worship no God. story. Let men who fear no God, but who have lives, The abstraction which the Pantheist calls God, is no and wives, and property to lose, look to it, and say if object of worship. It is not to be loved. If it does they act wisely in giving their influence to a system good, it could not help it, and did not intend it. It is which lands in such consequences. Let them devise not to be thanked for benefits. It, the sum of all the some religion for the people which will preserve the intelligence of the universe, cannot be collected from the rights of man, while giving license to trample upon the seven spheres to receive any such acknowledgment. It rights of God; or, failing in the effort, let them acknow- cannot deviate from its fated course of proceeding; ledge that the enemy of God is, and of necessity must therefore, says the Pantheist, why should I pray? It be, the foe of all that constitutes the happiness of man. neither sees his conduct, nor cares for it; and be denies Impiety and immorality are wedded in heaven's decree, any right to call him to account. It did not create him, and man cannot sunder theni.

does not govern him, will not judge him, cannot punishi him. It is no object of love, fear, worship, or obedience.

It is no god. He is an Atheist. He believes not in any IV.-PANTHEISM IS VIRTUALLY ATHEISM.

God. It may scarce seem needful to multiply proofs on this HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD is ONE LORD. head. How can any one imagine a being composed of He is distinct from, and supreme over all his works. the sum of all the intelligences of the universe ? Such He now rules, and will hereafter judge all intelligent a thing, or combination of things, never was distinctly creatures, and will render to every one according to his conceived of by any intelligent being. Can intelligences works. be compounded, or, like bricks and mortar, piled upon

1. Reason declares it.-The world did not make iteach other? If they could, did these finite intelligences self. The soul of man did not make itself. The body create themselves? If the soul of man is the highest of man did not make itself. They must have had an inintelligence in the universe, did the soul of man create, telligent Creator, who is God. God is known by his or does the soul of mian govern it? Shall we adore his works to be distinct from them, and superior to them. soul? Some Pantheists have got just to this length. The work is not the workman. The house is pot the M. Conte declares, that " at this present time, for builder. The watch is not the watchmaker. The sum minds properly faniiliarized with true astronomical philo- of all the works of any worker is not the agent who prosophy, the heavens display no other glory than that of duced them. Let an architect spend his life in building Hipparchus, or Kepler, or Newton, and of all who have a city, yet the city is not the builder. The maker is helped to establish these laws.” Establish these laws! always distinct from and superior to the thing made. Laws by which the heavenly bodies were guided thou- You and I, and the universe, are made. Our maker, sands of years before Kepler or Newton were born. then, is distinct from, and superior to us. One plan Shall we then adore the souls of Kepler and Newton ? gives order to the universe ; therefore, one mind originM. Conte has invented a religion, which he is much dis- ated it. The Creator is over all his creatures. pleased that the admirers of his Positive Philosophy will 2. Our consciousness confirms it.—If a blind god not accept, in which the children are to be taught to could not make a seeing man, a god destitute of the worship idols, the youth to believe in one God, if they principle of self-consciousness (if such an abuse of lancan, after such a training in infancy, and the full-grown guage may be tolerated for a mon:ent) could not impart men are to adore a Grand Etre, “the continuous re- to man the conviction, I am,—the ineradicable belief sultant of all the forces capable of voluntarily concurring that I am not the world, nor any other person ; much in the universal perfectioning of the world, not forget

less, everybody; but that I am a person, possessed of ting our worthy auxiliaries, the animals." * Our powers of knowing, thinking, liking and disliking, judgAnglo-Saxon Pantheists, however, are not quite philo-ing, approving of right, and disapproving of wrong, and sophical enough yet to adore the mules and oxen, and choosing and willing my conduct. My Maker has at therefore refuse worship altogether. “Work is worship," least as much common sense as he has given me. He constitutes their liturgy. “As soon as the man is as that teacheth man knowledge, shall he not know? one with God, he will not beg. He will then see prayer 3. Our ignorance and weakness demand a Governor in all action.” +

of the world wiser than ourselves. The soul of man is Such is the theory. How faithfully acted out, you not the highest intelligence in the universe. It cannot can learn from the thousands who are now, publicly, know the mode of its own operation on the body it inupon God's holy Sabbath, working religiously upon the habits, much less the plan of the world's management. bridge that is to span the river, or less ostentatiously in Man may know much about what does not concern their shops and workrooms throughout the city. Within him, and about things over which he has no control ; a circle of three miles radius of the spot you now occupy,

but it is the will of God that his pride should feel

the curb of ignorance and impotence where his dearest • “Politique Positive," vol. 2., p. 60.

interests are concerned, that so he may be compelled

| Emerson.

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to acknowledge that God is greater than man. conscious of a feeling of remorse in our consciences, as He may be able to tell the place of the distant truly as the eye becomes conscious of the darkness. We planets a thousand years hence, but he cannot tell may blind the eye, we may sear the conscience—that where himself shall be next year. He can calculate for the one shall not see, nor the other feel ; but light and years to come the motions of the tides, which he cannot darkness, right and wrong, will exist. The awful fact control, but cannot tell how his own pulse shall beat, or which conscience reveals to us, that we sin against God, whether it shall beat at all, to-morrow. Ever as his that we know the right and do the wrong, and are conknowledge of the laws by which God governs the world scious of it, and of God's disapprobation of it, is concluincreases, his conviction of his impotence grows; and he sive proof that we are not only distinct from God, but sees and feels that a wiser head and stronger hand than separate from him—that we oppose our wills against his. that of any creature, planned and administers them. And every pang of remorse is a premonition of God's Ever as he reaches some ultimate truth, such as the judgment, and every sorrow and suffering which the mystery of electricity, of light, of life, of gravitation, Governor of the world has connected with sin-as the which he cannot explain, and beyond which he cannot drunkard's loss of character and property, of peace and penetrate, he hears the voice of God therein, demanding happiness, the frenzy of his soul, and the destruction of him to acknowledge his impotence.

his body-is a type and teaching of the curse which he 4. Our consciences convince us that God is a Moral has denounced against sin. Governor. The distinction between brutes and men is, 5. The world's history is the record of man's crimes that man has a sense of the distinction between right and God's punishments.—Once God swept the human and wrong. If we find a tribe of savages, or individuals, race from earth with a flood of water, because the who indulge their appetites without rule, and who do wickedness of man was great on the earth. Again, he wrong without any apparent remorse or shame, we de- testified his displeasure against the ungodly sinners of signate them brutes. Even those who in words deny any Sodom and Gonorrab, by consuming their cities with difference betweea right and wrong, do in fact admit its fire from heaven, and leaving the Dead Sea to roll its existence, by their attempts to justify that opinion. solemn waves of warning to all ungodly sinners, to the Though weaker, or less regarded in some than in others, end of time. every man is conscious of a faculty in himself which sits By the ordinary course of his providence, he has ever in judgment on his own conduct, and that of others, ap- secured the destruction of ungodly nations. No learning, proving or condemning it as right or wrong. In all commerce, arms, territories, or skill, has ever secured a lands, and in all ages, the common sense of mankind has rebellious nation against the sword of God's justice. acknowledged the existence and moral authority of con- Ask the black record of a rebel world's history for an science, as distinct from and superior to mere intellect. instance. Egypt ? Canaan? Nineveh ? Babylon ? No language of man is destitute of words conveying the Persia ? Greece ? Rome? Where are they now? ideas of virtue and vice, of goodness and wickedness. Tyre had ships, colonies, and commerce ; Rome an When one attempts to deceive you by a wilful lie, you empire on which the sun never set ; Greece had philoare sensible not only of an intellectual process of reason sophy, arts, and liberty secured by a confederation of redetecting the error, but of a distinct judgment of dis- publics ; Spain the treasures of earth's gold and silver, approbation of the crime. When one, who has received and the possession of half the globe. Did these secure kindness from a benefactor, neglects to make any ac- them against the moral government of God ? knowledgment of it, cherishes no feelings of gratitude, No. God's law sways the universe—that law which, and insults and abuses the friend who succoured him, with the brazen fetters of eternal justice, binds together we are conscious, not merely of the facts, as phenomena sin and misery, crime and punishment, and lays the to be observed, but of the ingratitude, as a crime to be burden on the backs of all ungodly nations, irresistibly detested. And we are irresistibly constrained to believe forcing them down-down-down the road to ruin. The that he who taught us this knowledge of a difference vain imagination that refuses to glorify God as God, leads between right and wrong, does himself know such a dis- to darkness of heart, thence to Atheism, thence to gross tinction ; and that he who implanted this feeling of ap- | idolatry-onward to selfish gratification, violent rapacity, proval of right and condemnation of wrong in us, does lust of conquest, and luxury, licentiousness, and effemi

approve the right and condemn the wrong. nacy begotten of its spoils ; then military tyranny, civil And as we can form no notion of right or wrong uncon- war, servile revolt, anarchy, famine and pestilence, and nected with the idea that approbation of right conduct the sword of less debauched neighbours, Christ's iron should be suitably expressed, and that disapprobation of sceptre, hurl them down from the pinnacle of greatness, trong conduct ought also to be suitably expressed-in to dash them in pieces against each other, in the valley other words, that right ought to be rewarded, and of destruction ; and there they lie, wrecks of nationswrong ought to be punished-s0 we are constrained to ruins of empires-naught remaining, save some shivered trace such a connection from our minds to the mind of potsherds of former greatness, to show that once they Him who framed them. This conviction is God's law, were, and were the enemies of God. written in our hearts. When we do wrong, we become O America, take warning ere it be too late! God

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rules the nations. “He that chastiseth the heathen, | from his eye, nor can your puny arm shield you from his shall he not correct you ?

righteous judgment. His hand shall find out his A day of retribution, reader, comes to you. Neither enemies. Oh, flee from the wrath to come! your insignificance nor your unbelief shall hide you

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JOURNEY over the Alleghanies in the range the pine forests become more dense, these days is very different from one the clearings are few and far between, and signs half a century ago. Fatigue for any of human life disappear, save here and there a

ordinary traveller there is none; and wooden shanty with a solitary watchman. on the Great Central Pennsylvania Railway dan- On passing through the long tunnel which ger has been reduced, even on mountain-sides, to pierces the summit, the descent of the western a minimum. About eleven o'clock, on a starry slope begins. The scenery is rich and grand ; night in May, I entered a Pullman sleeping-car, and signs of industry, enterprise, and inexgot stowed away in a comfortable berth, was haustible mineral wealth soon appear in the fast asleep in a few minutes, and when morning valleys and on the mountain-sides. dawned was sweeping along the magnificent Cresson Springs, a pleasant and fashionablesummer Juniata valley. Soon afterwards we began to resort, three thousand feet above the sea, and ascend the mountains ; and as we ascended, the famed for the purity of its air ; then we descend great state of Pennsylvania, with its noble rivers, rapidly along the banks of a wild torrent, and and its rich uplands, still partially clothed with twenty miles further we see the Cambria Iron remains of primeval forests, opened out further Works, said to be among the largest in America. and further away behind us. Here and there Eighty miles more through a splendid country, rose, from river-bank and wooded glen, dense studded with coal-pits and smelting-furnaces, clouds of smoke, indicating the spots where the brings us to Pittsburg, the Birmingham of the coal and iron mines, probably the most extensive United States, and situated in a region which in the world, are now worked. The mountain may well be termed "the black country” of glen, up whose side the railway is carried, is deep and wild; and the glances one gets into

PITTSBURG. the abyss below, as the train winds round the point of a dizzy crag, or spans the head of a Naturally the position of Pittsburg is beauticascade, almost make one shudder. But it is ful.

But it is ful. The Alleghany and Monongahela rivers exciting to gaze away down on the houses that gradually converge, flowing between high and look like so many toys in the bottom of the picturesque banks. At length they unite, and valley. The curves of the line are in places so form the Ohio, which then runs some six sharp and abrupt, that one would imagine, look- hundred miles westward, and joins the “ Father ing forward, that the engine is about to run of Waters," the Mississippi. In the fork of headlong over a cliff. The gradients, too, are

the Alleghany and Monongahela is a low delta, very steep, so that the ascent is at times pain- and on it stands the city of Pittsburg; befully slow, while the descent, on the other hand, yond the former river, along the lower base is alarmingly rapid. Towards the summit of of a pleasant ridge, is Alleghany city; and of


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the further side of the Monongahela lie the ex- the first public school was opened; but State edutensive suburbs of Birmingham and Lawrence- cation was then so unpopular, that there were only ville. The commercial advantages of Pittsburg five pupils. The people thought it an indignity are not surpassed by any inland city in America. to send their children to what they were pleased It is the centre of the iron and glass manufac- to designate a pauper school. They forgot, and ture; and in its immediate neighbourhood there many to this day in other places forget, that are said to be upwards of a hundred collieries in when education is supported by a general tax, active operation. Railways radiate from it all pay for it, and all may claim it as their due. to every part of the country; and its rivers Education, thus provided, free to all, and comare crowded with steamers, whose enormous pulsory, is, in my judgment, the true system for paddles, not at the sides, as elsewhere, but right an enlightened nation. No man should be alacross the stern, have an odd look. In no part lowed to go into the arena of life, until he has of the States, indeed, in no part of the world, at least a decent English education. A class of can one see more wonderful evidences of com- uneducated labourers in a state is an ever-present mercial activity and success. The smoke of element of danger and injury. The prejudices some five hundred factories spreads a curtain of the people of Pittsburg gradually wore array, over the beauties of nature; but it does not and the five pupils of 1834 had increased in deaden the ceaseless roll of railways and din of 1870 to twelve thousand, with a staff of two steam-hammers. The streets are filled with hundred and four teachers. The schools are huge vans, and a busy, bustling populace. Faci- now of four grades,—Primary, Medium, Gramulities for locomotion in all parts of the city, mar, and High. The High School has a course suburbs, and environs are even more numerous, of four years' study; and, in addition, an advanced as it appeared to me, than in other towns; and course, corresponding to a Normal School, specisome of them display an amount of ingenuity ally intended for the training of teachers. All and engineering skill that it would be difficult the schools are opened with reading of Scrip to exceed. On the south side of the Mononga- ture. hela is a precipitous bank, probably two hundred Alleghany city is the seat of no less than three feet high, on the summit of which a small suburb theological colleges. The largest is the Western is built ; and straight up that bank, at an angle Theological Seminary, which belongs to the of about forty-five degrees, a tramway is carried, Presbyterian General Assembly; the other two wrought by a chain and steam-engine, thus are connected with the United Presbyterian and bringing the highest houses within a minute or Reformed Presbyterian Churches. I regretted two of the bridge that leads to the city.

that the colleges were not in session during my In the absorbing pursuits of commerce and visit, and those professors to whom I had letters manufacture, the people of Pittsburg have not of introduction were from home, so that I had forgotten higher matters. They are manifestly

They are manifestly not an opportunity of inspecting them. as enthusiastic in religion and education as in business. The finest buildings of the city are

CINCINNATI. churches ; and the fact that the great Presby- I was agreeably disappointed in Cincinnati. terian Foreign Mission originated in one of those I had pictured a mushroom city, the rapid and churches, and is largely supported by many of rude growth of a few years, with wooden houses,

, them, proves that religion is there more than a ill-formed streets, and a wide waste of prairie all name,—it is a vital power. Pittsburg is a round. But such is very far from being the centre of spiritual life, and its influence for good aspect of this great inland capital. Its streets is felt far and wide.

are generally well paved, -far better than in

New York; its houses are spacious and elegant; EDUCATION IN PITTSBURG.

and its public buildings and monuments would The progress of education in the city and do honour to any city in Europe. The roads, district has been wonderful. In the year 1834, too, all through the surrounding country, are




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