« PredošláPokračovať »
Despite the unfurling of the Christian flag thus con
there ; and, as we shall afterwards see, a school of Dr. sible to the native mind, especially of Bible truth. Wilson's, commenced in 1832, was removed to the fort Every branch of knowledge communicated is to be made and opened on a larger scale, with the view of develop-sbserrient to this desirable end. The ultimate object ing it into an “institution.” Then the turn of Madras is that these institutions shall be a normal seminary, in naturally came, but, of course, little could be done till which native teachers and preachers may be trained up first a missionary was sought and found. The influence to convey to their benighted countrymen the benefit of of Dr. Duff's great speech in the Assembly of 1835 had, a sound education, and the blessings of the gospel if however, told powerfully on the mind of a licentiate of Christ.” the Church, then living on the banks of the Nith, near Dumfries, and the afterwards renowned John Andersonspicuously, the zealous and efficient teaching of Mr. had consecrated himself to evangelistic work in India. Anderson began to produce its natural effects, and by He was prepared to undertake the conduct of the December 22, 1838, the attendance of pupils had adMadras mission ; and being ordained in St. George's vanced from 59 to 277. The course of an Indian misChurch, Edinburgh, on July 13th, 1836, left soon after- sion school, like that of true love, never yet did run wards for his destination.
smooth, and presently rocks appeared in mid-channel, Before proceeding to his own proper sphere, he visited and rapids presented themselves with broken water, so Calcutta to see the working of the institution there. that the faithless were tempted to doubt whether the He arrived at the Bengal capital on the 27th of De- fornier placidity of movement would ever return. To cember 1836, and received hospitality from the Rev. Mr. speak less figuratively, scarcely had the mission began Mackay, who, during Dr. Duff's absence in Europe, was to make progress when troubles arose. The first was head of the mission. He finally reached Madras on the caused by a renewal of the old caste struggle. Two 22nd February 1837. At that time he was in his thirty- Pariah boys had found their way into the school under second year, a period of life considerably more advanced false colours, and when they were discovered some of than that at which most of the Free Church missionaries the caste youths and their friends wished the expulsion have proceeded to the East, but this was a decided ad- of the intruders. Mr. Anderson could not in conscience vantage to any one going to commence operations in a comply with their request, and about 100 of his pupils new and untried sphere.
in consequence left. Ten of these were received into The germ from wbich the great Madras institution the Native Education Society's School, the European ultimately developed was already in existence when Mr. Committee of which—who evidently fell into the error Anderson first reached that presidency seat. In June of supposing caste and worldly rank the same*-stating 1835 the Rev. Messrs. Bowie and Lawrie, Scotch chaplains that they deemed it right to afford an asylum “when at Madras, had founded what was called St. Andrew's the feelings of a boy were shocked by his being associated School, the name being probably taken from that of the with persons of an inferior class of life.” The caste so-called patron saint of Scotland. On Mr. Anderson's struggle was more severe than it would have been had arrival this school was placed under his care, and, re- the intolerant heathen party not obtained European moving it to the native city, he re-opened it on the 3rd countenance; but Mr. Anderson finally achieved the of April 1837, with an attendance of fifty-nine pupils.* victory, for in a few months the places of the boys who In doing so, he made no secret of his intention to aim had left him on the Pariah question were supplied by at the conversion of the pupils to Christianity, and let new-comers, whilst the Committee of the rival school it be distinctly known that this was the very purpose was partly broken up by the secession of four eminent the Foreign Mission Committee had in view in sending Christians from its ranks. His triumph struck a blow him and his brethren out. His first circular is an ex- at the caste system in Madras, from which it has never tremely straightforward document; and if, when con- recovered. versions took place in the school, some of the natives professed to feel amazed, as if some strange thing had happened, they certainly could not in justice complain that they were left without previous warning of what
FREEDOM LEGALLY SECURED FOR NATIVE was likely to occur.
YOUTHS. “It is,' said the circular, “the wish of the Committee of the Indian mission to establish a school at On the 8th of April 1846, a young man called Ponumeach of the three presidencies as the most important balum appeared at the mission house, having walked stations in India for the advancement of their object.' thither no less than thirty-five miles. His convictions
“The object is simply to convey, through the channel in favour of Christianity were of long standing. Ten of a good education, as great an amount of truth as pos
By caste law men of the highest rank, unless by birth Hindus,
are on the level of Pariahs, if not even lower, and the humblest There had once been 150, but the admission of a Pariah, Sudra should be above associating with the Governor-General of whom the School Committee (to their honour be it said) had re. India. Mr. Anderson was as much a Pariah as the boys whose fused to expel, had brought it down considerably. -Madras expulsion was demanded, so also were the European members of Natire Herald for October 9, 1847, p. 2.
the Native Education Society's Committee.
years before, when he was only fourteen, he bad sought | possible to draw off the attention of the populace, while baptism from the Rev. Mr. Winslow, but, with other Mr. Anderson's own vehicle was being drawn up in an boys, had been carried off by a heathen mob. Five dif- adjacent enclosure, which communicated with the courtferent times did his relatives put forth all their efforts house. The Rev. Mr. Braidwood, the deputy sheriff, to induce him to return home, but he stood firm as a the chief constable, and Ragavooloo, entered this latter rock, and was admitted into the congregation on the conveyance, and the shutters of it having been closed on 17th of May. Four days previously, two other youths, all sides, the coachman received orders to drive to the Ramanoojum and C. Sungeeve, were received into the mission. Before, however, he had emerged through the Church on the 3rd of June, and a fourth, R. Soondrum, | gateway into the street, the mob became aware of the on the 17th. A few months later, three others appeared, manoeuvre in progress, and made a rush at the vehicle, Davanaygum, Govindoo, and Ragavooloo, and on the with the object of seizing the horse's head. On this the 10th September a fourth, called S. R. Soondrum-making coachman caused the aninal to rear, plunge, and then eight in all.
set off at full gallop, the Brahmans and others running One of these eight, Ragavooloo, was a Brahman, and behind, shouting and throwing stones. The coachman the Hindus, feeling that the loss of a young man be- was struck repeatedly, but he resolutely kept his seat longing to the sacred caste would be a considerable blow and did his duty to the last. When the coach entered to their faith, induced the relatives to apply for a writ the mission enclosure, a body of police, stationed there of habeas corpus against Mr. Anderson. The result for the purpose, closed the gate, and remaining inside, wbich followed was as gratifying to the supporters of prepared to defend the place against assault. Aftermissions as it was disappointing to the Brahmanic party. wards the deputy sheriff was escorted back to his offix, Sir William Burton, the judge who tried the case, showed and the Rev. Mr. Anderson conveyed in safety from the that the one object which a habeas corpus writ was de- court-house home. The mob gradually dispersed, and signed to serve was to set the person in whose favour before long the storm had been succeeded by a calm. it was sought free from illegal restraint. He was simply On Wednesday, 23rd September 1846, Ragavooloo was allowed to go where he pleased, provided he possessed | baptized, along with three other youths, Davanaguin, discretion to be trusted to take care of himself. The Govindrajooloo, and S. R. Soondrum. legal phrase, age of discretion, was not a good one, for The eight baptisms now reported greatly stirred up it was not so much age, as the actual attainment of dis- the heathen; who, however, failed to remove more than cretion, which the court had to ascertain before deciding 300 pupils from the schools. They, at the same time, that a youth was entitled to be his own master. In sent a memorial to the Court of Directors, wherein they England the law allows a child of fourteen to appoint begged that they might be saved from “the fangs of the its own guardian, and there was even a case in which missionaries;” the plain meaning of which was, that the the court refused to deliver one less than fourteen to its court should prevent parents sending their children to father. There was reason to believe that Ragavooloo, such schools as they pleased, and aid in coercing young though of snal) stature and juvenile aspect, was seven- men, who had lost faith in Hinduism, into professing to teen years of age, though his relatives declared him only believe what they deemed untrue. Of course the court twelve. A circumstance which threw doubt on the could not possibly have granted the wishes of the instatements of the family was, that no horoscope had tolerant memorialists, and the petition was void of been produced, though one must have been made at a effect. Brahman boy's birth.
At a communion which occurred soon after the eight The judge, having ascertained by personally question-baptisms, twenty-one natives sat down at the table, filing him, that he was possessed of discretion enough to teen of them, including a female, being converts of the be allowed to live where he pleased, asked him where mission. The same year (1846) three of them, Messrs. he wanted to go; on which he replied, to Mr Anderson. Venkataramiah, Rajahgopaul, and Ettirajooloo, were Means were then taken to enable him to carry out his licensed as preachers; and on December 15, the instituwish, which it was very difficult to do in the face of the tion was removed to new premises on the Esplanade, riotous Ilindu mob, some three or four thousand strong, affording better accomniodation than those previously the majority being Brahmans. In vain did the police occupied. attempt to clear the street in front of the court-house to let the people out; the multitude simply shifted their ground, and that not so much from fear of the official authorities, as from the variation, in their own opinion,
EMANCIPATION OF NATIVE FEMALES. as to the door by which Ragavooloo would come out. It was manifest that when he did make his appearance, In February 1847, two of the first class in the girls' the Brahmans would attempt to seize him, and he was school at Madras, Unnum and Mooniatta by name, therefore kept in the court-house till a late lidur in the came under conviction of sin through means of direct evening. As even then there were no signs of disper-appeals made by Mr. Anderson to the consciences of sion, a coach was so placed at the sheriff's office as if the pupils. The same effect was produced next month
morrow (Thursday). On Friday, no more than one came, and on Saturday even that one, terrified apparently by the loneliness of the place, stayed away. By the end of the same week, the attendance of girls at Triplicane had fallen from a hundred to thirty-eight, and the schools of all the other missions had suffered severely. The costs had been heavy, but if in providence all went well, the gain would be much more than worth the price paid for its attainment. Under God, everything would depend on the result of the legal proceedings in case
, her mother, obtained the writ which she
on two others, called Venkatlutchmoo and Yaygah; and shortly afterwards on a fifth girl, called Muugal. On Wednesday, the 7th of April, Unnum and Mooniatta, hearing that they were to be married (of course without any reference to their own feelings) to heathen men, became convinced that if they failed to carry out their religious convictions now, they would probably never be permitted to do so. They therefore took refuge in the Mission-house, and, in the circumstances, were gladly received. That same evening Unnuni's grandmother, Ummariee Ummah, was sent for, and canie. She was a fine gray-haired old Moodeelly, and having herself some leanings towards Christianity, was with little difficulty persuaded to place her granddaughter, and indeed herself, under the guardianship of the missionaries.* The youngest of her grandsons consented to do so likewise, while the two elder went off to avoid eating “ Pariah rice." By Pariah they meant European, Europeans, as already stated, being on the Hindoo system Pariahs, or, if it be possible, even something lower. Mooniatta's mother, Jyalanda, accompanied by other relatives, arrived on Thursday in a half-frantic state, and having failed to induce the daughter to return home, and remain contented to be an idolatress, applied in forma pauperis for a writ of habeas corpus against Mr. Anderson. That same Thursday there arrived two of the other girlsVenkatlutchmoo and Yaygah-an act of wonderful courage on their part, as heathens, armed with stones, sticks, and iron bars, were already in front of the Mission-house, and were restrained only by the presence of the chief magistrate and the police from proceeding to open violence. Next day (Friday) there was another arrival—that of Mungah. The first pair, Unnum and Mooniatta-were Tamul girls; the three who followed – Venkatlutchmoo, Yaygah, and Mungah-- were Teloogoos.f The ages of the five ranged from eleven to thirteen years. All had been in the girls' school more than two years, and some of them more than three. Each had for more than a year been studying the Gospels in English, having previously read them in her own language. The trials of the three Teloogoo girls from their relatives were moderate, and they had little difficulty in standing their ground.
Of course, the events which have just been related produced great excitement throughout Madras, and struck what to the short-sighted might appear a fatal blow at the cause of Christian female education. Of 170 girls who had been in the school before Unnum and Mooniatta came seeking baptism, only three — two Hindoos and a native Protestant-returned on the
songht. It was directed against Mr. Anderson, and required him to appear on the 20th inst., bringing with him Moniatta. The demand was of course met with cheerful obedience. When the day came, a horoscope was presented on the part of the mother, to prove that her daughter was only seven years eight months and twenty-seven days old; but the judge saw good reason for believing the horoscope forged, and forming the opinion that Mooniatta was-what she appeared to besomewhat more than twelve years old. He intimated that, by the English law which was administered in the Madras Supreme Court, the girl was entitled to go where she pleased, provided that she possessed sufficient discretion to make a choice. To decide whether or not she possessed the discretion spoken of, and whether the desire to become a Christian was a youthful whim or a fixed resolve, he proceeded publicly to question her in the following fashion :
"Whether," asked Sir William, “ do you wish to go to Mr. Anderson's or to your mother's ?”
M.—“I like to go to Mr. Anderson's.”
Sir W.-“Now consider. Answer truly. You were born to your mother, your mother suckled you at her breast, she carried you about when you were a little child, she gave you food and clothes, she put you to a good school; now, what is the reason that you wish to leave her and go to another place ?"
M.—“If I go home, they will force me to worship idols made by men: they have eyes, but they see not; ears have they, but they hear not; a mouth have they, but they speak not. I wish to go to a place where I can be saved.”
Being further questioned as to her religious belief, she was answering very satisfactorily, when her brother suddenly seized her first by the hand, and then by the back of the neck, making her scream with terror. The chief magistrate and half-a-dozen others forced him after a struggle to quit his hold, and he was committed to prison for contempt of court. This terminated the proceedings for the time being, and the court broke up, after it had been intimated that the decision would be postponed till the 3rd May, that Sir Edward Gambier, the Chief-Justice, might have an opportunity of forming an opinion on the important question involved.
When the 3rd of May came, Sir Edward Gambier, who had privately questioned Mooniatta for about
* Unnum's grandmother was baptized on the 9th January 1848, and received the name of Sarah.
Before the coming of the five girls, there were already in the Mission-house, with the sanction of their guardians, three others -namely, a native Protestant girl of twelve, called Mary; a Roman Catholic of the same age, named Ummanee; and a child of seven, Shunmoogum, who had been placed under Mr. Anderson's charge by Sir William Burton. With the five new-comers, there were eight in all.
three-quarters of an hour, with the view of testing, be regarded. Both judges, however, considered that whether or not she was possessed of discretion, con- Mooniatta's case had been properly decided on English curred with Sir William Burton in declaring her law, the Hindoo code not being in force within the entitled to go where she pleased; on which she, without limits of the Supreme Court, except in the case of hesitation, decided to return with Mr. Anderson to the contracts and inheritance. The writ was therefore mission. Some weeks subsequently, Mooniatta's mother refused. The view taken by the Madras judges in the and brother, at the instigation of some influential Mooniatta case was confirmed a few months later by Hindoos, who again were doubtless counselled, or at least the decision of the Chief Justice of Calcutta in that of instructed, by European lawyers, applied to Sir Edward Radhakant Dutt.* Gambier for a new writ of habeas corpus in the case, The decision of the Madras judges in Mooniatta's case founding their demand on the statute of George III., was of incalculable importance to the cause of missions, chap. 142, sect. 12, which provides that the rights of It was the very charter of Indian female emancipafatbers of families, according to the Hindoo law, shall tion.
IMPRESSIONS OF CHRISTIAN LIFE AND WORK IN AMERICA.
BY PROFESSOR J. L. PORTER, AUTHOR OF
THE GIANT CITIES OF BASHAN,” ETC.
HE first view of a prairie is impres- as if rent asunder by some mighty agency,
and sive; and I was fortunate in get- revealed a brilliant background, which gilded the ting my first view under favourable topmost leaves, though the sun was still unseen.
circumstances. Beneath a canopy Gradually the clouds rolled back, their leaden of lowering clouds we swept westward the live- hues changed to deep purple, and this again to long day, through the dense forests, and past burnished gold, when a sunbeam broke loose the little “ clearings” and new “ townships of and shot across the murky sky. Just then we Indiana and Illinois. It was just such a day as emerged from the forest, and I found myself, for one might expect in England in the gloomy the first time, upon a prairie. In a moment I month of November, but which seemed strangely was on the platform at the end of the car,
with out of place in an American May. I began at a free view on each side. An unvarying plain, last to feel disappointed with the Far West, and to covered with tall, coarse, brownish grass, stretched wish myself back in sunny Virginia. It is true, to the horizon; and the horizon was unbroken, there was something of romance in the very
idea save where the dark line of the forest we had of a primeval forest ; but a drive through it by left shut it in behind us. Away in front there railway becomes dreary enough after the first was a strange intensity of colour, such as I could hour or two. Along most of the line the forest not remember to have ever seen before, except runs on each side like a wall, the underwood
once,-at the Island of Rhodes, after a storm. .hutting out all view; or where at intervals At first it appeared in the clouds round the sun, there is a wider space, it is filled with hideous and then gradually expanded and descended, till charred stumps, and huge trunks of trees, lying earth and sky seemed alike illumined by a wild, rotting and half-buried in slimy pools. Animal weird blaze of ruddy light. Shafts, too, as if of lile there is none, except where, on the borders of the far distant farm-steadings, herds of wild
If some readers are of opinion that twelve is a very early are looking hogs prowl in search of nuts, and, it is
for Hindoo girls to separate from their relatives with the view of said, of snakes and other vermin. A western
seeking baptism, they should give due weight to two facts not
universally known, and even when known apt to be forgotten forest is not picturesque when viewed from the The first is, that Orientals are physically and mentally precocious,
and that a Hindoo girl of twelve is as far advanced as an English window of a railway-car.
one of fourteen, if not even more. The second is, that Hindoo Evening was drawing on when a remarkable girls are married at so early an age ; and when they go to live in
their husbands' houses, are so certain to be denied liberty of change took place in the face of the sky. The conscience, that if they are not allowed to seek baptism at or dark mass of clouds in the west suddenly parted, permitted to do it for the whole remainder of their lives.
soon after the age of twelve, they, in most cases, will never be
liquid fire, darted upwards and outwards to viting, and the people in it seemed somewhat every quarter of the heavens ; while the vapours rough ; but it was late, I was wearied, and I that hung in the atmosphere, and rolled along resolved to remain. the surface of the prairie, caught the yellow During a great part of the night the noises tint, and were transformed into glowing trans- through the house prevented the possibility of parencies. The whole seemed to me just as if sleep. They were so strange and unceasing, that one of the grandest of Turner's wonderful pic- | I could not account for them. I formed all tures had been realized.
sorts of theories about them, but none, were On we swept amid silence, and solitude, and a satisfactory. In the morning the whole was ex
, vastness like the ocean itself, towards that dazzl- plained. The apartments round mine were ocing halo.
cupied by a troop of Japanese jugglers, who CHICAGO
spent, as it appeared, the quiet hours practising It was late on a Saturday night when I their tricks, and teaching the little boys and reached Chicago, and to get a quiet resting- girls to perform. This, of course, accounted for place for Sunday was a weary work. I first the vacant room ; but a man who has slept in a tried Tremont House, formerly one of the finest Bedawy tent can tolerate, when necessity dehotels in the States—now a congeries of moder- mands, the neighbourhood even of Japanese ately-sized houses, fitted up, I presume, as well jugglers. as possible, but with accommodation for about
Early on Sunday morning I asked the landhalf its ordinary number of guests. The old lord whether he could direct me to a Presbyhotel was burned to the ground. “ Can I have terian church. He replied sulkily that he knew a beu?” I inquired at the office, in company nothing about such places; he calculated that
score of others who had made a race most of them had been burned. So I went out from the train.
to explore, and wandered away among the ruins. "Certainly ; No. 159."
I had seen many ruined cities in Egypt, Syria, I called a porter to take up my portmanteau. and elsewhere, but never aught like Chicago.
"Just wait a bit,” said the clerk, as he gave Looking over it from an elevated point, the out, in rapid succession, ticket after ticket to general aspect was that of the debris of an the dusty travellers; and each ticket No. 159.
enormous quarry of white limestone. There “You must have made a mistake,” I ventured were no houses half-burned, no remains of to suggest ; No. 159 is my room.
blackened walls, no beams and fragments of " There are seven beds in it,” was the curt, charred timber, such as one generally sees on the but not very encouraging reply.
site of a great fire. The fire of Chicago appears Can I not have a bedroom to myself ?” I to have been so intense, that it burnt up everyasked submissively.
thing that would burn, and maile the strongest "Guess not in Chicago. Fortunate you get walls dissolve before it into heaps of shapeless a bed at all at this hour;" and having so said, rubbish. I saw here and there immense masses or" finished me off," as a gentleman behind re- of fused metal, and lumps of vitrified pottery, marked, the clerk turned to others.
mixed up oddly with nails, and bolts, and I resolved to try elsewhere. I went from joiners' tools ; and in one place a doll's head hotel to hotel, for there are a number grouped appeared projecting quaintly from a conglometogether. The answer I got was pretty much rate of china-ware, brass-screws, and knives and the same in each—no single room to be had on forks. A few large warehouses were already reany terms. I turned at last into the open door built, and more were in progress; but not a oi a small house-I forget the name, if it had a tithe of the ruins had yet been touched. They name—went up a long, straight flight of stairs, lay there as the fire left them.
Their exand fortunately found there a vacant room, toler- tent far exceeded what I had expe for ably comfortable. The landlord, it is true, Chicago was not compact like a European city. looked rather seedy, the dining-room was not in
It covered a vast area. Its streets were wide;