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And even when both character and circumstances are and more." “ Be kindly affectioned one to another, favourable, friendship, to reach its noblest manifestations, with brotherly love.” “Let all your things be done needs much culture. It comes under the law of habit. with love." So far, then, from friendship being ignored Its growth is slow; and it is all the more precious that it by Christian morals, the loftiest ideal of friendship, even has been long in growing. So many favourable circum- | Christian brotherly love, is made the badge and the instances are needed to form this higher class of friend- alienable mark of a true discipleship. ships, that one does not wonder at the complaint of the And herein lies matter for gravest consideration by aniable Alexander Bethune, himself so capable of a not a few professing Christians. Partiality the most noble attachment: “As to that other sort of friendship, blind could not dream that it had discovered in them which consists in mutual confidence and reciprocity of the workings of a love akin to this. They have, of feeling, I should almost despair of finding it.” If, then, course, their natural friendships ; and these they carry the reader is already blessed with a suitable friend, to on in the ordinary spirit of the most meagre attachments whom he could wish to be knit in the attachment of a which are flattered by the name of friendship; but in love which shall make each to other as a man's own what direction shall he turn who seeks in their lives soul, let him not be discouraged though the little plant for the tokens of a true Christian brotherhood ? What be still small and delicate. Only let him be true to his Christian David ever finds in them, for Christ's sake, friendship, let him be trusting, let him shrink from no another Jonathan who loves him as he loves his own sacrifice ; and the tiny plant, which he thus continues soul ; or what sorrowful Naomi among the Lord's to water and to dress, shall grow up before his eyes into afflicted ever hears from their lips the fervent words, a vigorous tree, under whose shadow the two may rest “ The Lord do so to me, and more also, if ought but in riper years, if God shall spare them both.
death part thee and me”? What Damon ever found “Who seeks a friend, should come disposed
his Pythias in them? As men, and by first nature, they To exhibit, in full bloom disclosed,
are altogether incapable of such lofty flights of love ; The graces and the beauties That form the character he seeks;
as Christian men, it would be hard to discover the workFor 'tis a union that bespeaks
ings of any Christian love at all. Their natural friendReciprocated duties."
ships have in them the very smallest modicum of It has often been objected, as a grave deficiency in genuine affection ; as for Christian brotherhood, the use Christian morals, that the New Testament makes so of such a term in their case sounds like an extravagant little of friendship and its duties ; nay, that the whole figure of speech. Now, all this is a most serious matter, subject is, as nearly as possible, totally ignored. It is when we remember that if we love not our brother whom not ignored, however ; for if the New Testament do not we have seen, this lack of brotherhood is proof that we formally and by name enjoin friendship, the reason is, love not the God whom we have never seen. If God's that it creates and fosters a spirit which is much loftier children find not in each of us a brother or a sister
, and more comprehensive, and which includes in it all our personal want of this divine storgē, this spiritual that is involved in friendship. If the point at which instinct of heavenly kinship, is evidence that God is the New Testament aims be secured, the very noblest not yet our Father. The love demanded by the moral and most elevating forms of friendship shall infallibly re- law is set before us, in Christ's exposition of it, as & sult. And though a reader may search the epistles in vain love which will make every man to us as our own sou ; for commendations of friendship under its well-known and the gospel, instead of abrogating the duty, unname, the thing itself has not been forgotten ; it is only speakably enhances it, while it also furnishes us with merged in a much higher and holier attachment. On help to discharge it. “A new commandment I give almost every page, we shall find earnest exhortations unto you, That ye love one another ; as I have loved to brotherly love ; and this same brotherly love, you, that ye also love one another. By this shall all according to the scriptural estimate of it, includes all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one that is most noble in friendship, with something more. to another.” Let no one, then, censure Christian norals So far from ignoring friendship, as many insinuate, the for unworthy neglect of friendship ; let him rather Bible exalts it to an eminence which neither popular tremble at the height to which the New Testament nor philosophic morality has ever assigned it: “As elevates the claim. touching brotherly love,”-a love that includes Christian There is no conceivable position more perplexing friendship—"ye need not that I write unto you; for ye than that of the man who is the warm mutual friend of yourselves are taught of God to love one anothor.” two parties at enmity with each other. Oh, the heart“Faith worketh by love." “The fruit of the Spirit is break that is experienced, the caution that is needed, love." The second commandment is like the first: the unfriendly reserves that are unavoidable. The un“Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself ;" that is, happy man must needs suffer keenly ; and he will be thou shalt put every one of thy fellow-men into that sure to do all that he can to bring the two discordant place in thine affections which is occupied only by the beloved ones into harniony. Until this is accomplished
, friend who has become to thee as thine own soul. there is no peace for him ; and if his efforts to attain it “And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more fail, it seems as if he must make a choice between the
TOOK leave of kind friends on the which commands one of the grandest views in quay of Detroit, and ten minutes Canada. Immediately below, in a rich valley, afterwards stood for the first time on lies the town of Hamilton; on each side are the soil of Canada. A powerful low ridges and picturesque glens
, wooded like steam ferry-boat crossed the rapid river from an English park; while away beyond, the blue Detroit to Windsor, where the railway cars were waters of Lake Ontario stretch to the horizon. waiting to receive the crowd of passengers. From Hamilton to Niagara the railway follows There was little to mark difference of nation- the coast, and the scenery is charming. At one ality, except a V.R, here and there, and a rail- spot especially, where the lake recedes, leaving a way guard in uniform. The gentlemen who con- vast plain covered with foliage and verdure, I duct the cars in the United States won't stoop to was reminded of the Ghûtah of Damascus, which wear any such badge of service. In race, lan- Mohammed pronounced an earthly paradise. guage, accent, manner-indeed, in all outward
NIAGARA. appearance—the subjects of the Queen in Upper Canada are identical with the citizens of the I left the train on the Canadian side of the Great Republic. But there is a difference in suspension bridge, and drove to Clifton House feeling. No people in the world are more loyal Hotel, some two miles distant. The first into throne and Constitution than the Canadians. timation of the Falls was a transparent white
Windsor is a small town; it might almost be cloud hovering over the fields and foliage away called a suburb of Detroit, were it not in another in front. Then gradually a deep, penetrating country. Our route now led for miles along the roar, as of the distant ocean, rose above the ratshores of Lake St. Clair, which forms the con- tling of the carriage. But it was not until the necting link between Huron and Erie. The horses drew up in front of the Clifton House that I country, far as I could see, was flat and rich; got my first sight of Niagara. The hotel comand it was interspersed with remains of primeval mands both Falls; and in this respect the situation forests, large clearings studded with black stumps, could not be surpassed, though for purposes of saw-mills surrounded by immense piles of “lum- close inspection the American side is preferable. ber,” wooden farm-houses, with here and there a The first view was disappointing. The phynew town; just such as I had left behind in sical features of the surrounding country detract Michigan and Illinois.
from the grandeur of the Falls. An undulating At London we had half an hour for dinner. table-land separates Lake Erie from Ontario. It is not often one enjoys a meal at a railway Its general elevation is some fifty feet above the station; but here the food and arrangements were former, and perhaps three hundred above the excellent, and the charge moderate.
latter. Through this table-land a rugged, torPassing through Woodstock and Paris, the tuous chasm, eight miles long, from three to line ascends to the eastern end of a great plateau four hundred feet deep, and averaging about three hundred yards in width, has, in the lapse play with the leaping torrent. I sat there for of countless ages, been cut by the falling waters. hours, looking on one of the grandest sights I The chasm is unseen till one reaches its very ever saw—the rush of the clear water along the brink, and the cataract itself, which tumbles into deeper channels, the white-crested wares dashing the upper end of it, bursts upon the view sud- madly over opposing rocks, the changing hues denly and unexpectedly. The regularity of the as the sunlight fell, here on smooth torrent, there Fall spoils the effect as seen from a distance down on a spurt of foam, yonder on a wreathing cloud the river. It is like a colossal weir. It is only of vapour. Then there was the deep, penetratwhen one gets below the Fall, or close beside it ing, unceasing roar, that seemed to hush and ababove, that he becomes impressed with its un- sorb all other sounds. There, if anywhere on rivalled magnitude and real grandeur. The best earth, one is taught the lesson of the weakness general views I got were from the centre of the of the creature, and of the might and majesty of upper suspension bridge, from a point in the bot- the Creator. tom of the chasm a little below the bridge, from
TORONTO. Prospect Point on the American side, and from Starting from the American side of the Falls, the Museum on the Canadian. The general the railway follows the course of the river, affordview, however, is not the most imposing; at ing some grand views of that ravine which drains least, it was not so to me. I was far more deeply half a continent. The small town of Lewiston impressed when I entered the little ferry-boat stands on the flat bank of the river, below the below the Clifton House, crossed to the American table-land and the rapids. Here our steamer Fall, and persuaded the brave boatman to row was waiting, and we embarked for Toronto, crossme, through surf and whirlpool, into the midst ing Lake Ontario. The day was bright, but I did of the thick white spray at the bottom of the not see the northern shore until the southern was cataract, and when I looked up to the full | melting away in the distance behind me. volume of the river flowing in one thick unbroken The view of Toronto from the lake is not imcurve of vivid green over the jagged edge of the posing. The town is in a great measure covered cliff, then breaking into long strips of white and by a barren island, within which is a safe and pink and delicate azure, and at length disappear- commodious harbour. My short stay in the city ing, with a roar of thunder, in that abyss before was made doubly pleasant by the presence of an me, which is covered with an eternal veil of snow- old Edinburgh college friend, the Rev. William white vapour. Once seen from that spot, Nia- Gregg, then of Cooke's Church, now professor of gara can never fade from the memory.
theology. In his hospitable house I felt at home, I spent days at the Falls. The more I looked, and under his guidance I was able to inspect the by day and by night, by sunlight and by moon- educational institutions of one of the capitals of light, the more their stupendous magnitude and Canada. grandeur grew upon me.
I went under them on both sides, as far as I could go without risk. I
COLLEGIATE EDUCATION. looked down upon the Horse-shoe from the Ter- In the year 1827 George IV. granted a charter apin Tower, and upon the American Falls from for the establishment of a university at York, Luna Island. I walked among the thickets of now Toronto, under the name of King's College. Goat Island, gazing out upon the expanse of Various changes were subsequently made ; rapids above the Falls. I was alone. There finally, in 1853, it was divided into two instiwas no one to interfere with my wandering, or tutions: the University of Toronto, whose funeinterrupt my study of Nature. I crossed the tions are to examine, and confer degrees on all bridges to the three little islets which lie ranged qualified applicants, wherever educated ; and abreast, as if to bear and brave together the first University College, which, as the name implies, fury of the rapids. I crawled out on the trunk both teaches and examines. of a great tree, whose roots still cling to the University College is supported by the State, rocky bank, while its branches, stripped of foliage, I and is unsectarian. Religion, however, is not
ignored in it. Matriculated students are re- admirably adapted for the thorough training of quired to reside in the college, unless permitted those who aspire to be leading members of a by the president to occupy lodgings selected for Christian State. Under such a distinguished them by their parents or guardians; and all in president as Dr. M'Caul, and such an able staff the college are under the charge of the dean. of professors, it could not fail to prosper. Lecture-rooms are provided, and suitable hours I feel bound to express my thanks to the set apart for their religious instruction, either president, the dean, and the several professors by the dean or by ministers of their respective whom I had the honour of meeting, for their kinddenominations. When a student is about to ness and courtesy in giving me access to every enter, the following circular is addressed by the part of the college, and placing in my hands all dean to his parent or guardian :—“As your documents connected with its state and history. proposes coming into residence in this college, I beg inform you that it is the desire of the
THE SCHOOLS OF ONTARIO. council that, where there are no conscientious The plan of elementary education now adopted objections, all students under their charge shall in the province of Ontario is not excelled by that be present in the hall at daily morning and of any country in the world, with the exception evening prayers, with reading of the Scriptures. of Prussia. It has just one little defect, which I It is also their wish that they should regularly shall mention in due time. attend on Sunday their respective places of wor- The province is divided into school sections. ship, and receive such other religious instructions The schools are supported by a rate levied upon as their parents and guardians may desire. I houses and lands; and each school is under the have to request that you will be so good as to immediate management of a trustee, elected by let me know whether you desire your to the sectional rate-payers. A number of sections attend such daily prayers in the college; and that may unite to place their schools under one board you will also mention the minister under whose of trustees. The raising of the school tax and charge you wish to place him. The council will the expenditure of the money are under the afford every facility for the carrying out of your supervision of municipal councils; and superinintentions; and, with this view, will exercise tendents of schools are appointed by the school such control over your during his residence boards of the several cities and counties. At the as may be best calculated to effect your wishes. head of the whole is a chief superintendent, apIn the event of your not informing me of your pointed by the governor of the province. In desire on the subject, the council will assume addition to this very efficient system of managethat you have no objection to his being required ment and supervision, it is provided that “all to attend the daily prayers of the college, and clergymen recognized by law, of whatever dewill exercise an oversight as to his attendance on nomination, all judges, magistrates, members of the ministrations of a clergyman of the denomi-county councils, and aldermen, shall be school nation to which he belongs.”
visitors in the places where they reside." The course for the degree of B.A. is fixed. The fundamental principle upon which the It extends over four years; and in addition to whole educational system of the province is now the ordinary branches of classics, science, and based is this: “A public school education is the literature, I was pleased to observe that it em-right of every child in the land; and every man braces ethics, natural theology, and the evidences should contribute according to his property to of Christianity. There are no "gagging clauses the education of every child in the community, in the charter of the University College of by whose influence and labours such property is Toronto : religion there occupies its rightful protected and rendered valuable. The State is place, and religious and moral training are responsible to the existing citizens for the traindeemed necessary parts of sound education. It of those who are to become citizens. It struck me, on a careful examination of the whole alone ought to do the work; and it alone can.” laws and regulations, that the college course is It follows from this that the attendance of children must be secured, if necessary, by compulsion; prayer hereto annexed, may be used, or any other “ for if every man is to be taxed according to his prayer preferred by the trustees and master of property for the public school education of every each school. But the Lord's Prayer shall form child in the land, every tax-payer has a right to part of the opening exercises, and the Ten Comclaim that every child shall be educated in the mandments be taught to all the pupils, and be revarious branches of a good English education, peated at least once a week. But no pupil shall otherwise it is raising money by taxation under be compelled to be present at these exercises false pretences.” The compulsory clauses of the against the wish of his parent or guardian, exnew Act, however, are framed in a gentle and pressed in writing to the master of the school.”
be sufficient to attain the desired end, especially as the 4566 public schools in the province, 3246 it was found in 1871, just when the Act was first were opened and closed with prayer, and the put in operation, that out of
entire school popu- Bible was read in 3097. The report goes on to lation of 483,966, there were 420,488 already in say: “This fact indicates the prevalent religious attendance. The new Act provides that all chil- principles and feelings of the people; although dren between the ages of five and sixteen shall the absence of such religious exercises in a school be required to attend school; and, further, that does not by any means indicate the absence of the school shall be free to all residents in the religious principles or feelings in the neighbourprovince between the ages of five and twenty-one. hood of such school. There are many religious
persons who think the day-school, like the farmRELIGION IN SCHOOLS.
fields, the place of secular work; the religious In Canada, as in other countries, this has been exercises of the workers being performed, in the found the one grand difficulty in the way of a one case as in the other, in the household, and general scheme of education. The statesmen of not in the field of labour. But as Christian Canada have laid down a right principle; but, principles and morals are the foundation of all unfortunately, they have not carried it out fully. that is most noble in man, and the great fulerum They hold, that as Christianity is the basis of the and lever of public freedom and prosperity in whole system of elementary education, so it the country, it is gratifying to see general and should pervade it throughout; and while thus avowed recognition of them in the public recognizing the Christian basis, they have effec- schools.” tually secured individual rights of conscience by It might have been supposed that a system 80 enacting that “no person shall require any pupil free and a conscience clause so comprehensive in any school to read or study in or from any would have satisfied all parties. But such is not religious book, or to join in any exercise of de- the case. Some Roman Catholics thought themvotion or religion, objected to by his or her selves aggrieved; and the Legislature-unfortuparents or guardians; but within this limitation, nately, as I think-yielded to their demands, by pupils shall be allowed to receive such religious enacting that wherever five or more Roman Cathoinstruction as their parents or guardians desire, | lic heads of families in any school section shall according to any general regulations provided for unite, they may secure a separate sehool, supthe government of common schools.” In regard ported in part from public funds, and in part to the opening and closing exercises of schools, it from a rate levied upon those who send their is further stated that, “with a view to secure the children to it, those who pay the latter being free divine blessing, and to impress upon pupils the from the ordinary school-rate. It is wisely proimportance of religious duties, and their entire vided, however, that all separate schools “shall dependence upon their Maker, the Council of be subject to such inspection as may be directed Public Instruction recommends that the daily from time to time by the Chief Superintendent exercises of each common school be opened and of Education; and shall be subject also to such closed by reading a portion of Scripture and by regulations as may be imposed by the Council of prayer. The Lord's Prayer alone, or the form of Public Instruction.” The report shows that