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commonplace, yet perhaps harder of accomplish- | unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither ment,- I mean, by entering the battle of life, and let it be afraid.” And turning wearily away from showing that you can conquer its prizes and yet the restless questionings and doubts of men, you hold them at no more than their proper value; will ever find fresh beauty in the words of the thus manifesting that you have learned that most psalm—“Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor difficult of all lessons for the soldier of the Cross, mine eyes lofty : neither do I exercise myself in " to be in the world, yet not of the world." Fol- great matters, or in things too high for me. Surely lowing thus in your Master's footsteps, you will I have behaved and quieted myself, as a child come to know more fully what he meant when that is weaned of his mother : my soul is even he said, “ Peace I leave with you, my peace I as a weaned child. Let Israel hope in the Lord give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I from henceforth and for ever.”
ITALIAN GLEANING S.
SUPPRESSION OF RELIGIOUS HOUSES.
ALIENATION OF CHURCH PROPERTY.
HE great political question of the day in But whatever may be the attitude of the Government
Italy turns on the bill recently brought and its critics, the Church shows no signs of flinching. into Parliament for the settlement of the She refuses with as steady persistence as ever to recog
religious corporations of the capital. All nise any of the consequences of recent changes. In parthrough the autumn this subject has been discussed ticular, she has made a most pertinacious stand on the by the press; and endless as were the rumours set afloat application of the law passed seven years ago for the regarding the expected measure, it was generally suppression of the religious houses of the Italian Peninbelieved by those supposed to be well informed of the sula. This opposition has lately taken a most disagreeintentions of Government, that the new proposals would able shape in the southern parts of the kingdom. For be considerably different from the law of 1865, by which some time back it has been reported that the Roman the religious bodies of the rest of Italy were suppressed. Curia had issued orders to the Italian bishops and clergy These anticipations have not been verified by the actual to withhold the usual benediction from all persons wishresult, the bill lately laid before the Chamber by the ing to marry, who had acquired ecclesiastical property, Minister of Worship having for its basis the extension except on condition of their expressing their readiness to the province of Rome of the law now in force in other to preserve it for the Church, and restore it to the forparts of the kingdom. A good few exceptions are made mer owner whenever an opportunity should present itin favour of the houses of generals of orders, and of self. It turns out that this report was substantially foreign corporations. The sum total of the revenues for correct. A case of the kind described having actually the disposal of which the new law must provide, amounts arisen at Majuri, in the district of Naples, the clergy to no less than £287,680 steriing. It is proposed to refused the nuptial benediction, until the parties conestablish three separate funds with this money ;-one, tracting marriage had made the required declaration. called the Hospital Fund, formed of the property of cor- The Opinione of Florence now publishes the text of porations which maintained hospitals; a second, called the document sent by the Papal Court to the bishops the School Fund, composed of the property of teaching and archbishops of the kingdom on this subject. The corporations; and the third, named the Parochial Fund, question was put thus: “Whether or how those can be derived from the property of corporations which had a absolved who have acquired or possess Church property church and parish. The discussion of this bill, which alienated from the demesne ?" The Roman Curia gave is expected to come on in the course of this month or the following reply: “Penitents are not to be absolved the next, will be looked for with deep interest, more who possess this property, unless they shall first deliver especially when the spirit and bearing of the contending to the ordinary of the place, or to other ecclesiastical perparties are taken into account. The newspaper press sons selected throughout the diocese by the same ordihas commented severely on the feebleness and timidity nary according to his discretion, a declaration signed by with which the Government has acted in dealing with them in the presence of witnesses, in which they shall, the Jesuits and their property ; and argues, from the for themselves, their heirs and successors, submit to the tenderness shown to that body, that the authorities want following conditions :the courage to proceed with the necessary reforms in a “1. That they retain the said property for disposal by resolute manner.
the Church ; 2. That they preserve the said property
for useful purposes ; 3. That they discharge the pious tract the following details of the various descriptions of obligations attached to the same ; 4. That they aid with fire-arms reported to be at present stored in the Vatican the revenues of the said property the pious places and for Papal purposes :persons whom they concern ; 5. That they warn their In the magazines of the Court of the Belvedere there heirs and successors of the obligations incurred by this are six pieces of artillery, somewhat old, but in excellent declaration, that they also may know how to act.” condition, and duly supplied with ammunition. In the
It is plain that these instructions place the Catholic Vatican garden are kept twelve pieces of rified artillery, who possesses Church property beyond the pale of the of large La Rochefoucauld calibre, forming the reserve Church. He cannot receive absolution from his con- of the Pontifical artillery : these guns are heavy, bat fessor, he cannot contract a religious marriage, he can- quite capable of being moved, and have their full supply not act as godfather at the baptismal font, nor receive of ammunition. Lastly, in the Vatican armoury there in the last moments of his life the comfort of the sacra- are the following: ments, unless he first subscribe a declaration which destroys his right of property.
2,000 REFRACTORY ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH.
20,000 The Penitentiary Court of the Vatican has despatched
Revolvers... to the bishops of Italy the following instructions, in the
50,400 form of question and answer :Quest. Is it lawful to sing the Te Deum on the occa
10,000 sion of a proclamation by the intruding government, or Daggers...
10,000 other like circumstance ?
20,000 Ans. No.
Q. Is it lawful to illuminate one's own house on the Here is enough to equip a real army whenever the Pope occasion of the inauguration of the new government, or and his partisans should wish to try a coup de main. other like circumstance ? and likewise, is it lawful to Let it be observed that by the terms of the capitulation wear the badges of the new government, such as cock- agreed to, on the 20th September 1870, between Cadorna, ades, tricolours, &c.
the Italian general, and General Kanzler, the Papal comA. No; unless there is serious danger impending, or mander, it was declared that all arms of every sort, beoccasions of scandal feared.
longing to the Holy See, should be delivered up to the 2. Is it lawful to enlist in the National or Civic Guard, Italian officials. Let it also be observed that in the which the intruding government is organizing for its above list of the thunders of the Vatican, we have not defence in the usurped provinces ?
mentioned the various armed corps which reside in the A. No.
Vatican, and which are all armed to the teeth. These Q. Is it lawful to take part in the election of coun- corps are the Noble Guard, the Swiss Guard, the gencillors and municipal representatives; and may the per- darmes, the Palatine Guard, and the agents of police. sons elected take office as municipal councillors and These people are thoroughly organized, and receive their magistrates ?
orders from General Kanzler, who has his staff and ordA. Provided they do not countenance acts contrary nance officers. The Pontifical commander, according to the laws of God and the Church, and provided they to the same report, frequently calls his officers together, abstain from taking the oath to the invading govern- and recommends to their special attention the Italian ment, they shall be tolerated.
theory, as being the most recent, and because, when the Q. In what manner must reparation be made for the time comes, it will be adopted. public scandal given by those who ask absolution from censures incurred in these times, when such reparation is difficult and perilous ?
In poteworthy contrast with the foregoing, we observe A. Reparation for scandal is of divine right, and that the printing of the first edition of the New Testaought to be made in the way which the bishop or con- ment was completed in Rome some weeks since, under fessor may judge best.
the auspices of the Italian Bible Society. This edition Q. Must they who demand absolution first undertake consists of ten thousand copies, and is expected to be to make good the losses sustained by the Pontifical followed by others of still larger size. The publication Government during the present troubles ?
of the following circular letter is the best answer possible A. It will suffice if they declare their readiness to to the disparaging reports recently raised by Romanists obey the commands of the Holy See.
in this country regarding the progress of evangelical work in the Eternal City :
ROME, 16th November 1872. From a correspondence which appeared in the columns CHRISTIANS OF ITALY,-It is with profound gratitude of the Nazione, a leading Florence newspaper, we ex- to the Author of all good, that we, the undersigned, in
THE BIBLE SOCIETY IN ROME.
THUNDERS OF THE VATICAN.
FATE OF THE SALESIAN NUNS.
CHRISTIAN ACTIVITY IN ROME.
name of the Committee of the Italian Bible Society, | last century strove to compass the destruction of the announce to you all the publication here in Rome of the portrait'; but being opposed by the townsmen, who NEW TESTAMENT OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, under threatened to set fire to the seminary if they did so, the auspices of our Society. The fact of this publication they contented themselves with huddling it away into being made on the banks of the Tiber, nay, even at the a corner of the library. There it has been discovered gates of the Vatican and of the abominable dungeons of by Spina, a photographer at Rome, who, after many difthe Inquisition, will certainly attract your attention and ficulties, has at length succeeded in obtaining copies of it. sympathy. And it is on this account that we appeal to all the evangelical Christians of Italy to put themselves in possession of this New Testament. We cherish the It will be remembered what an outcry was raised last firm confidence that none of you will refuse the privilege year in Italy and elsewhere by the wrong-headed conof purchasing at least one copy, which costs not more duct of the lady-superior of a girls' school at Padua, than fifty cents.—Your devoted brethren in Christ, conducted by Sisters of the Salesian Order. A govern
COTE. W. NELSON,
ment inspector had visited the establishment, and, RAVI VINCENZO,
among other questions, asked the young ladies, “What is SCIARELLI FRANCESCO,
the capital of Italy ?” “Florence,” replied the scholar
to whom the question was put, in a clear and decided The Italian Bible Society has intimated that it is ex- tone of voice. The inspector, seeing there was sometremely anxious to procure a copy of the edition of the thing wrong, turned for an explanation to the ladyNew Testament published in 1849 at Rome, during the superior, who thereupon informed him that it was time of the republic, by Signor Paul of Geneva, and quite proper to teach the geography of Italy in this way, burned in great part by the Pope immediately after his so long as the government set the immoral example of return from Gaeta. If the Society could obtain a copy, taking what was not its own. Shortly after the init would preserve it as a valuable relic in its archives. spector gave in his report, and the school was closed by
orders from head-quarters. But the still more humbling
sequel of the story remains to be told. A correspondent The Baptists, whose unwearied missionary zeal is be writing the other day from Padua informs us, that after Fond all praise, have opened a new place of worship in the shutting up of the seminary the sisters who used to the Borgo Vecchio, right in front of the Basilica of St. teach there without diploma have been reduced to the Peter's. We believe that the following notice, which alternative of giving up teaching or going up for exhas been circulated through Rome, refers to schools amination to obtain certificates. “ It was a strange which are about to be opened in the same place :- sight,” says the writer, " to see these nuns, clad in black, “Signor W. C. Van Meter, founder of the great Free with their white hoods, sitting beside the girls of the School for the children of New York—a school which, normal schools, for the purpose of being questioned by under the well-known name of the Howard Mission, the examiners of an excommunicated government.” At has, since 1861, received, educated, and maintained up-Padua, our fellow-countryman, the Rev. Henry Pigott, wards of eleven thousand pupils of various nationalities- who has a large and flourishing upper girls' school in cordially invites you to come and enrol your children in that city, had been appointed one of the examiners in the registers of the said school, in order to obtain for modern languages ; and on this occasion a Methodist them the right of entrance. The instruction, which will minister was seen seated in the examiner's chair, whilst follow the municipal programme as far as possible, will nuns of the Sacred Heart took their places among the be communicated to the pupils every day of the week, candidates for examination! A more radical change except Thursday and Sunday, from nine to three. At could hardly be imagined. mid-day the pupils will receive a modest but substantial meal. On Sunday morning there will be a Bible-class from nine to eleren, at which persons of all sorts, besides The government and the press could have afforded to the pupils and their parents, may be present.”
treat the "sweet unreasonableness” of the good Sisters
of Padua with the contempt it deserved, had they not PORTRAIT OF AONIO PALEARIO.
been convinced that this case was a type of the general Signor Francesco Sciarelli announces in a letter to condition of public instruction throughout the country. the Corriere Evangelico the discovery, in the Municipal The Italians have begun in consequence to awake to a Library of Veroli, of the original portrait of Aonio sense of the danger they run by leaving education in Paleario, which lay there neglected in a corner. At the the hands of men and women who are the declared enebottom of the picture is an inscription, which declares mies of the State. Some twelve years ago there were, him the first in eloquence after Cicero, and recalls his what with regular and secular clergy together, more having been condemned to the stake as a heretic by sixty thousand ecclesiastics in Italy, the great Pope Pius V. This library belonged, up to 1870, to the majority of whom acted at that time, and act still, in an episcopal seminary; and it is known how the priests of educational capacity. With this staff of instructors, Italy
STATE OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
ought to be one of the best educated countries in the fanciful statement is proved by an order of the day, voted world. Instead of that, however, there were somewhere in the course of last year by the general assembly of the about seventeen millions of people who could not read Cavour Circle. The order ran thus: “The assembly or write,-an aggregate of ignorance which is not as yet having heard the statement of the commission, proving much diminished. Two grave evils have always been that in the schools managed by, or dependent on, eccleassociated with the priestly system of instruction. The siastics in Rome, and especially in the elementary ones, first of these is the practice of occupying the educational the pupils are trained to hatred and contempt of our ground for the sheer purpose of minimising the amount present institutions, charges the President of the Circle of knowledge communicated, and so keeping the pupils in to present an address to the Minister of Public Instruca condition of the grossest ignorance. The way in which tion, praying him to organize an efficient system of inthis is managed has been shown in the case of the spection for the same schools, in accordance with the
Salesian Sisters. That this was no isolated case, the laws now in force.” It is manifest that with a system
more thoughtful and observant Italians are perfectly assured. Massimo d'Azeglio used to say that the secret of the priests consisted in perpetually making the child study without learning anything. But the second evil is, in a political point of view, not less alarming or less mischievous than the first. It is now found that in the hands of a bigoted priest every school may be turned into a focus of insurrection and a nursery of rebellion, in which the child, under sanction of the most sacred names and most venerated influences, is taught to hate and despise the national institutions. That this is no
productive of such results, little peace can be enjoyed, and still less progress made, by a nation which has such long and heavy arrears in almost every department of human activity to clear away. It is to be hoped, however, that the government will soon feel itself sufficiently strong to take up a firm and vigorous tone in dealing with the Old Man of the Vatican, and that one of the first results of this new policy will be the remodelling of the whole system of national education on the principle of lay instruction.
T. T. G.
The Gressons of Grace in the Cranguage of Dature.
BY THE EDITOR.
[It is proposed in this Series to present some of the more outstanding and articulately expressed analogies between grace
and nature which abound in the Scriptures. In some cases, the exposition will be permitted to expand into the dimensions of a discourse; and in others, it may be confined within the limits of a paragraph.]
ADAM A TYPE OF CHRIST.
....who is the figure (type) of Him that was to come.”—Rom. v. 14.
HIS is the earliest of all the types: in behind; and every several point or turn in the
time, it comes first ; in position, it one has an equal and corresponding point or turn lies deepest. There are none before in the other; and yet there is a complete and
it-none beneath it. Bowing down pervading difference, or rather contrariety befrom heaven in love, God the Spirit grasps the tween them. Look first to the engraving on a first fact of man's history, and therewith prints seal, and then to the image which it has left on the lesson of man's redemption. There was no wax : the two are in certain aspects the same, delay, for the King's matter required haste. The and yet they are reciprocally opposite. They Giver was prompt and eager ; the receivers have agree, and yet they are antagonist. The left been indolent and slow.
of this is the right of that: where this reveals Mark the nature of the relation that subsists a hollow, that exhibits a height; where this is between a type and its letter-between a seal shaded, that lies in the light. In their whole and its impression. There is at once likeness aspect they are the reverse of each other. and diversity; they are the same, and yet they After this manner is Adam the type of Christ. are opposite. The type, whether it be a single In some aspects there is a likeness; and in letter or a varied landscape, is of the same size others, not only diversity, but contrariety. Oband shape as the object which its impress leaves serve first the agreement, and then the difference.
I. The agreement or similarity.
who is at once omnipotent and beneficent, lie 1. Adam and Christ were the true sources or weltering in sin and suffering, like the sea when heads of their respective families.
it cannot rest. This state of things has enThere are two conceivable methods of consti- dured from age to age, without intermission, and tuting humanity. Whether both were possible, without mitigation. This is the difficulty : in consistence with all the attributes of God, we the difficulties that you meet in the Bible are cannot tell. One is, to make men such that each small when compared to this. The aim of the should be absolutely independent of all, and the Bible is to throw light on the darkness; but conduct, good or bad, of any one should have even if some parts of the scene remain obscure, no effect, physical or moral, on the condition of
we have no right to lay the blame of the obscuany of the rest. The other is, to constitute the rity on that which, to some extent at least, has race such that the first man should be the head brought us light. and source of humanity, and that the state and The first man, according to the actual constitendencies of all should be determined by the tution of humanity, stood as head and representastanding or the falling of this one.
tive of the race. His fall brought all down. At This latter method our Maker has adopted; the head he stands, and from him the long line and it is useless to agitate the question whether stretches away down the course of time. Two the other method would, in its own nature, have hundred generations constitute the links of the been honourable to God, and salutary for men. chain, and its length extends to six thousand When the bird is shut up within an iron cage, it years. At first the line of march is narrow; on is better for itself that it should not dash itself the apex one; and behind him two or three walk against the bars. It was in an attempt to be as abreast : broader and broader grows the stream God that our first parents fell. If we would as it recedes from the source, until, in our day, escape their fault and fate, we should abandon the file of march is a million of millions deep. speculations on what might have been, and ad- Adam, like the point of the wedge, stands on the dress ourselves to what is. We are men- summit, a unit alone; the generations in the creatures with a short lease and a narrow bound-ranks immediately beneath him are numbered by ary. Let us leave with God the things that are tens, and anon by hundreds, until they have in God's, and evidently require omniscience for their our day reached a number that can indeed be solution, and let us mind our own business. expressed in figures, but cannot be adequately
In point of fact we all come into the world comprehended by finite minds. with darkened minds and wayward hearts. As On the other side stands the second Adamwater flows down and sparks fly up, human he that was to come. Alone he stands at the beings, as they emerge successively into con- head, and his also shall be a numerous offspring. sciousness, turn aside into sin, and fall into suf- Here and there, in the earliest ages, appears a fering. The grandest of God's works is most righteous Abel offering faith's sacrifice, or a awry and out of joint. The highest creature falls righteous Enoch walking in newness of life farthest short of fulfilling its destiny. The Scrip with God. Yonder a Noah preaches righteoustures, acknowledging this fact, explain it by the ness over a world lying in wickedness; and here Fall. Some people complain much of the diffi- an Abraham is called from his home and his culties which they find in the Scriptures regard- kindred to a better country and a higher life. ing this subject. A serious mistake is made, Broader now is the line of their marching since however, in the statement of the question. The Christ came in the flesh. Already a multitude, difficulty lies, not in the Scriptures, but in the whom no man can number, tread the pilgrim's fact : it would have been all there although there path, and shall in due time enter the joy of their had never been a Bible. Creatures, manifestly Lord. All the redeemed in heaven and on earth the head of creation, having an intellectual and are Christ's,-their life as certainly flowing from, moral nature in conjunction with an exquisite and dependent on him, as the natural life of physical frame, under the government of a Being humanity flows from the first man.