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the events connected with the secession of Newman prose, his chief works are “ The Life of Bishop Wilson," are spoken of with an air of as much reticence and and a treatise “ On Eucharistical Adoration." All the mystery, as if the secession itself had taken place in a others (with the exception of his Latin lectures as pro

Keble, Pusey, and Newman were the origi- fessor of poetry) are sermons, or tracts, or articles, many nators of the Oxford movement of 1833—they were of which might be called ephemeral, but that they have literally the first “ Tractarians”—the responsibility a permanent historical interest in connection with the connected with the publication of the famous tract rise in England of Anglo-Catholicism. The death of “No. 90,” which brought things to a crisis, was avow- Keble's father, at the age of ninety, in 1835, at last edly shared by all the three ; and to have been obliged to broke his connection with Fairford, and be accepted make that part of Keble's life a blank where it mingled some time after a presentation to the vicarage of Hursley, with the lives of his two chief friends was, in the cir- a parish in the vicinity of Winchester, in which he bad cumstances, a lamentable necessity. Perhaps it is too previously served for a short time as curate. Here he strong to say that it is a new case of the play of Hamlet found his final resting-place. The delicacy of his wife's with the part of Hamlet left out; but we speak within health and of his own necessitated frequent changes to bounds when we affirm that, owing, as it seems to us, milder regions, and he occasionally spent long periods very much to the morbid delicacy of his biographer, we at such places as Torquay and Penzance. He travelled, are still left without the means of forming a complete esti- too, now and again, and paid visits to Switzerland and mate of one of the most interesting men of modern times. Scotland. But his home was Hursley, and by far the

The facts connected with his external history are most interesting chapters in his life, to us, are those in easily told. He was born in 1792 at Fairford, in Glou- which he is exhibited as the earnest and laborious cestershire, his father being at the time the vicar of Coln parochial minister. Death came to him very unexpectSt. Aldwins, a neighbouring parish. Having received at edly, when he was on one of the many health trips home from his father the elements of a good education, which he had to take for the sake of Mrs. Keble. While he went in his fifteenth year to Oxford, and competed he and other friends were watching for her removal, a successfully for a scholarship in Corpus Christi College. sudden stroke laid himself low, and he died at BourneFrom that time to his death his connection with the mouth on the 29th of March 1866. university continued to be exceedingly intimate. In It is as a Christian poet that Keble is best known, course of time he took his degree with first-class honours and that chiefly as the author of “The Christian Year." both in classics and mathematics. He formed friend- That book appeared seven years before Puseyism was heard ships with Arnold, Coleridge, and others, which affected of, and it was a happy circumstance its publication so early. more or less his whole after-life. And at various periods For if the author bad delayed issuing it until the time he held the offices of fellow and tutor of Oriel, examin- when he became so pronounced an Anglican as to be ing master, and professor of poetry. He was ordained ready to vindicate a tract so objectionable in every was deacon in 1815, and priest just a year after, but for seve- “No. 90," there are many chances to one that it ral years he undertook no regular ministerial work of his would have had a very much stronger flavour of Catholiown. The precarious health alike of his father and cism than it has, and would in consequence have met with sisters made it seem to him right that he should be as a very much less hearty welcome in evangelical circles. much with them as possible, and he was content to Keble was always a Tory in politics and a High Churchlabour in a desultory way, sometimes in one place and Very early he showed a keen animus against sometimes in another, but always with Fairford as a Milton because he was a Puritan, and a corresponding centre to fall back upon. The greatest event of his preference for others because they were Cavaliers. And history was reached in the end of 1826, when “The “ The Christian Year," in its whole construction, reveals Christian Year” was given to the world. Its value was the stand-point of the writer. But there are marvelrecognized at once, and it has never lost its hold since. Up lously few sentiments in the book with which LOF to January 1854, 108,000 copies had been issued in forty- Churchmen cannot sympathize ; and approving itself three editions ; and within nine months of the author's thus to the Christian heart and conscience everywhere, death seven new editions were exhausted, comprising it is not wonderful that it should have been accepted as 11,000 copies in all. This great success could not but a contribution to the literature of the universal Church. encourage him to devote more time to literature, and About one stanza only has there ever been awakened his works came by-and-by to be somewhat numerous. anything like bitterness of feeling; and we regret ex. In poetry be published" Lyra Innocentium; or Thoughts tremely that, in the later editions, the version adopted in Verse on Christian Children, their Ways and their is that which sectarianizes the work. As first issued

, Privileges,"—which Sir John Coleridge thinks in some one of the verses in the piece, called “ Gunpowder respects superior to “The Christian Year," but the Treason" ran thus:world has not agreed with him in this estimate, and the book is rather neglected. There have also been issued

O come to our communion feast;

There present, in the heart of his, “The Psalter, or Psalms of David in English

Not in the hands, th' eternal Priest Verse," and a volume of Miscellaneous Poems. In

Will his true self impart."



What Keble meant to say in the third line was, that

Abide with me from morn till eve,

For without thee I cannot live; Christ is present “not (only) in the hands ;” and when

Abide with me when night is nigh, his attention was called to the inference which was

For without thee I dare not die.” being drawn from his language-namely, that it favoured the evangelical as against the ritualistic view of the Like all true poets, Keble was keenly susceptible of Lord's Supper-he was accustomed to defend himself impressions produced by natural objects, and his pieces by quoting like usages of speech with his own from the everywhere show traces of this. For example,Scriptures and elsewhere. To all appeals, however, to

“Of the bright things in earth and air, alter the words, he turned a deaf ear; and it was only

How little can the heart embrace ! at the very last, when what he considered to be an un

Soft shades and gleaming lights are therejustifiable controversial use was made of the line in

I know it well, but cannot trace. Convocation, that he consented to the change, which was made after his death by his executors. The stanza now

" Mine eye unworthy seems to read runs thus :

One page of Nature's beauteous book;

It lies before me fair outspread-
« O come to our communion feast;

I only cast a wishful look.
There present, in the heart
AS IN THE HANDS, th' eternal Priest

I cannot paint to Memory's eye
Will his true self impart.”

The scene, the glance I dearest love;

Unchanged themselves, in me they die, There is certainly no doubt now as to the doctrine

Or faint, or false, their shadows prove. taught in the poem. It is clearly that of Mr. Bennett of Frome. But we must repeat our regret that the

“ The distant landscape draws not nigh

For all our gazing; but the soul alteration has been made. With the fuller knowledge

That upward looks may still descry we possessed of Mr. Keble's sentiments, there was no

Nearer each day the brightening goal." risk of our misinterpreting his views on the Eucharist; and, for himself, he had all his life-long been content to The rhythm of the following verse is as beautiful as the have the verse stand as he originally wrote it. The thought which it expresses, only tangible effect of the change actually effected is,

“The scent of water far away that it makes the line needlessly grate on the feelings

Upon the breeze is flung; of many of the devoutest of his admirers.

The desert pelican to-day Those who have attempted to read at one sitting a

Securely leaves her young: large section of the “Olney Hymns,” will readily testify

Reproving thankless man, who fears that one does not need the initial letters at the end in

To journey on a few lone years

Where on the sand Thy step appears, order to be able to say which piece is Cowper's and which

The crown in sight is hung. is Newton's. In Newton's hymns the piety is generally more conspicuous than the poetry. In Cowper's there

And this, it seems to us, is exquisite,is never wanting a nameless charm, which is like the

" What is the heaven we idly dream? dewy freshness of a flower. Keble had, in a high de

The self-deceiver's dreary theme, gree, what appears in the bymns of Cowper. There are

A cloudless sun that softly shines, some pieces in “ The Christian Year” very much better

Bright maidens and unfailing vines, than others, and in not a few of them there are stanzas

The warrior's pride, the hunter's mirth, which are prosaic and flat. But the work, as a whole,

Poor fragments all of this low earth: is remarkably even, and on very many pages are lines

Such as to sleep would hardly soothe which are so exquisitely beautiful that they lay hold at

A soul that once bad tasted of immortal truth. once on the memory and imagination of all who can

" What is the beaven our God bestows? appreciatively read them. What, for example, could be

No prophet yet, no angel knows; finer than these ?

Was never yet created eye

Could see across Eternity;
“We need not bid, for cloistered cell,

Not seraph's wing for ever soaring
Our neighbour and our work farewell;

Can pass the flight of souls adoring,
Nor strive to wind ourselves too high

That nearer still and nearer grow
For sinful man beneath the sky;

To th' unapproachëd Lord once made for them so low."
The trivial round, the common task,

We can make room only for two more extracts. The Would furnish all we ought to ask:

first is the opening verse of a hynın for Good Friday, Room to deny ourselves; a road To bring us daily nearer God."

“ Is it not strange, the darkest hour

That ever dawned on sinful earth Or this, which has now found a place in every book of

Should touch the beart with softer power praise in the English tongue,

For comfort than an angel's mirth ?

That to the Cross the mourner's eye should turn “The tradition which goes by the name of Justification Sooner than where the stars of Christmas burn."

by Faith, and which in reality means that one who has The other appears in connection with the text, sinned and is sorry for it is as if he had not sinned, “Nevertheless I tell you the truth ; it is expedient for blights and benumbs one in every limb, in trying to you that I go away.”

make people aware of their real state." If Keble had

been a skilled theologian, as he certainly was an honest “My Saviour, can it ever be

one, he would never even incidentally have undertaken That I should gain by losing thee? The watchful mother tarries nigh,

the responsibility of uttering so absurd a caricature as Should sleep have closed her infant's eye;

that. Nor, we believe, would he have expressed himFor should he wake and find her gone,

self as he does regarding his fellow-Christians in ScotShe knows she could not hear his moan.

land. We shall see immediately how tender he could be But I am weaker than a child,

with the Papists; but it is clear that Presbyterians were And thou art more than mother dear;

viewed by him with a sort of horror as outer barbarians. Without thee heaven were but a wild. How can I live without thee here !"

“The Kirks,” he writes in 1853, when making a tonr

north of the Border, “the Kirks, and the manner in Sir John Coleridge roundly asserts that “The Chris- which they defile and insult the sacred places-for ertian Year” has made Keble “the Sacred Poet of the ample, Jedburgh Abbey--are even more horrid than I Nation.” It is a big affirmation, and we shall not com- had expected. I would not be in one of them at service mit ourselves by absolutely endorsing it. But we cannot time on any consideration. They proclaim aloud, every hesitate to say that in that collection there are passages inch of them. ' Down with the altar.' The true churches, which, for purity of thought, and beauty of diction, and except the ruins, seen few and far between...... As to elevation of feeling, and true poetic colouring and glow, Melrose, I like it altogether the best of any ruin I ever sin are unsurpassed in any other volume in the English .I suspect the Presbyterian Teacher there is afraid language. If God sends us our Singers, certainly Keble of the effect of the abbey on people's minds, as he has came with a mission from above.

built up a high wall in his garden to obstruct the view But there are other lights in which the author of where he could”! All this is spoken quite seriousis, " The Christian Year” must be looked at. He was a and sounds to us somewhat silly. But it just illustrates parish minister, for one thing; and for another, he the state of ignorance in which he was kept by the sort played a great part in one of the most momentous of training under which he was brought up, and the dismovements of the age. As we should like to end this tortion of vision produced by the prejudices of High paper with a pleasant impression of the subject of it, we Churchism. “The Presbyterian Teacher," as he is conshall notice his work as a controversialist first.

temptuously styled, had, we venture to guess, quite The university system of Oxford and Cambridge other ends to serve in rearing his garden wall than that makes very inadequate provision for the systematic of shutting out the light of Melrose Abbey; and s for theological training of candidates for orders. A man the “Kirks," at which good Mr. Keble shudders as if who has taken his degree is, ipso facto, entitled to they were beathen temples, there were certainly some of apply for ordination, and although he will be examined, them into which God had condescended to enter, and in of course, to some extent in divinity, he may always which there had been an abundant gathering of the get what he asks without being able to show that he fruits of the Spirit. It is not unreasonable to test a has studied theology as he has studied classics. Thus theory sometimes by looking at the character of its it is quite usual to find in clerical biographies that their practical issues. Abstractly, it may sound very nice to subjects have begun to acquaint themselves in earnest talk of a Church Authority received from Christ, and with their own proper science after they have been called transmitted unimpaired from primitive times; but that practically to apply it. There are some indications that theory does not look so attractive when one sees it this was the case with Keble. When he entered the applied. The narrowness which leads a man to unministry he was a scholar in the academic sense; but he church all but the Episcopal denominations, and to did not, or we are mistaken, know much of those great pronounce Father Newman a truer minister of God systems which the learning and piety of generations than M'Cheyne, is something so utterly unlike what have conspired to construct; and hence we cannot ad- one would have expected from the Founder of Chrismit for a moment that he was entitled to speak as he tianity, and so repulsive in itself, that, however logicaly did either of the doctrines of the Evangelicals within perfect the theory may seem to be, we could not pos his own communion, or of those still more unfortunate sibly accept it on account of the shocking character of individuals who are outside the three “ Catholic " its conclusions. Churches altogether. The following definition of There is indeed, to us, something intensely melanLuther's “ Articulus Stautis aut Cadentis Ecclesiæ," choly in this controversial chapter of Keble's history

, for example, might have been excusable from a layman's and we are heartily glad that we can separate it 80 lips, but what can one say for it as delivered by a entirely from the book which has gained for him so clergyman of thirty years' standing in the ministry: warm a place in so many hearts. It is no mistake which has made the whole Protestant world claim “The here is how he applied these views in his own parish. Christian Year” as its own. That book was really In an address to the newly confirmed at Hursley, he written from the heart of Protestantism, and there says: “Let nothing tempt you to lose time about it actually came a time when its author himself became [the holy communion); but go directly to your minister, too " Catholic" to sympathize with it. “When I wrote and tell him you wish to be prepared for it, if you have it," he tells Sir John Coleridge, “I did not understand not done so already; for, depend upon it, that bread is (to mention no other points) either the doctrine of as necessary to your soul's life, as your daily bread is Repentance or that of the Holy Eucharist-as held, for for the life of your body.Again, he says elsewhere: example, by Bishop Ken-nor that of Justification ; and “Our one great grievance is the neglect of Confession.such points as these must surely make a great differ- | “Mr. Keble's power of fasting was very great, and for ence.” He is arguing in defence of a new volume of many years his own habit was to take no food on Fridays poems which he proposed to publish, and which con- until evening." "He always received the holy comtained a piece in honour of the Virgin Mary, at which munion fasting." Then, when the “ Tracts for the even his High Church biographer stumbled. “Why,” he Times” were projected, their chief aim was stated to be pled, “ should there be any objection to such a piece in the circulation of primitive notions regarding the such a work? The new volume is not to be judged by apostolical succession,” &c.,—notions, it will be rememthe old. I have advanced beyond it; and the poenis bered, which led naturally to the conclusion that all who of the latter issue may fairly contain what will make are outside the Greek, Latin, and Anglican Churches are that manifest.” We admit the validity of his arguments, given over to the uncovenanted mercies of God. and we are glad that the question was ever raised; for “I remember," writes Sir John Coleridge, "on occaagain we say, it allows us to think of “ The Christian sion of some early secessions to Rome, it was reported Year” as the efflorescence of a mind that had not yet to have been said by Dr. Pusey, that however much he been corrupted by the baleful influence of Tractarianism. regretted it, he could not deny that some were to be

Mr. Keble, as has already been said, was born and anticipated. It was,” adds Sir John, somewhat naively, bred a High Churchman, and all his surroundings at "a sensible remark, if I may be allowed to say so.” college contributed to confirm his early impressions. We venture to re-echo the sentiment. The remark was While, therefore, he continued through life to be a a sensible one--so sensible as to sound in our ears devout student of the Word, the idea of “Tue Church" | absolutely trite. Secessions to Rome could not but always more or less coloured his ecclesiastical horizon. issue out of the Tractarian movement; and, worse than Hence his study of the Fathers – hence his interest in that, it could not but follow that many would be renthe apostolic succession--and hence his union with dered mischievously disloyal who were restrained from others in 1833 in a movement, the object of which was taking the final step. It is almost with a feeling of the restoration of the Church of England to its place in bitterness that we notice the extent to which Keble was the “Catholic” system. The part he played in this shaken. He loved, his biographer tells us, his own last connection was particularly conspicuous. Newman branch as, on the whole, a faithful representative of the and others expressly declare him to have been the true primitive Church, but “the more she admitted what he and primary author of the movement. Certainly he called Puritanical doctrines or practices, the less loyal and was one of the originators of the celebrated “ Tracts for dutiful could he be.” “I deprecate,” he says himself, the Times.” And it is allowed, on all hands, that there the word and the idea of Protestantism.” “I suppose was no man whose counsel was so much sought in those it is one's duty,” he writes again, “to long for and aim days, or who did more by his advice to shape the issues at a kind of neutrality in one's judgment and demeanour of the agitation. We have no intention, of course, of towards Rome.” “Much of our talk," says his biodetailing the events of the period here; but it may help grapher, describing a visit,“ was respecting the honour to vivify our impressions of the mischievous character due to the blessed Virgin, which it seemed to me he was of the Oxford “Revival,” as it was called, if we look at desirous of raising as much too bigh as many among us that revival as it is illustrated in the conduct and were for reducing it too low.” But a still more signifiteachings of one of those who were affected by it. The cant circunstance is mentioned by Dr. Newman, in the result in Keble's case was that he came virtually to only letter which he contributes to the “Life.” A remarkadopt the leading doctrines of the Church of Rome, and able meeting took place in 1868 between the three to view that Church with a kindliness which made him friends who had done most to Romanize the Church of appear quite out of place in any Protestant communion. | England-Keble, Newman, and Pusey. Newman by This is putting it strongly; but the statement can be that time was a Popish priest; and he speaks as if the thoroughly established out of his biography.

conversation were somewhat constrained. But towards For example, he taught that the Bible is not our only the end of the interview the subject was introduced of supreme rule of faith; but that we are bound also to the Disestablishment of the Church in Ireland, and the hear the Voice of Tradition, the “ Quod semper, quod following singular and suggestive incident occurred. ubique, et quod ab ominibus," of the early Church. His “Mr. Gladstone's rejection at Oxford was talked of,” views of the Eucharist we have already noticed ; and says Newman, “and I said that I really thought that

forward way.

had I been still a member of the University, I must have in closing at some more pleasant aspects of the biography. voted against him, because he was giving up the Irish No one can wonder at Keble being personally loved by Establishment. On this Keble gave me one of his re- so many, who considers what is told about his private markable looks, so earnest and so sweet, came close to and domestic character. He was "home-loving and me, and whispered in my ear, (I cannot recollect the affectionate” as a boy; and such he appears to have exact words, but I took them to be,) 'And is not that continued to be all his days. His filial piety was somejust ?' It left the impression on my mind that he had thing extraordinary. To be near his father, be abstained no great sympathy with the Establishment in Ireland as from marrying; he refused all ecclesiastical preferment, an Establishment, and was favourable to the Church of and undertook only such work as would not take him the Irish !” The “ Church of the Irish” is of course far from the parental roof. How warmly attached too the Ultramontane Church, of which Cardinal Cullen is he was to his sisters may be inferred from bis speaking the chief ruler ; and the impression conveyed to Father of them as “my wife, Elizabeth,” and “my sweetheart, Newman's mind was that the author of "The Christian Mary-Anne.” And long after his biographer had become Year” had an affectionate interest in that communion, a judge, he addresses him in his letters as “ My dearest and would have had the national countenance given to Coleridge.” it rather than to Protestantism. The attitude assumed It is also a most pleasant and instructive picture here toward what we are accustomed to call the Apos- which is given of him as a parochial minister. To protasy, is so different from what seems natural and seemly vide churches for his flock, he gave away a very large on the part of one occupying the position of a minister in portion of his annual income ; and the diligence, and a Reformed Church, that one thinks with dismay of thoughtfulness, and earnestness, which he displays in the extent to which the Bennetts and Mackonocbies of promoting the spiritual welfare of his parishioners, make the Church of England may fairly shelter themselves him in these respects a model worthy of the initation of under Keble's shadow. Newman passed over to Rome, all pastors, to whatever branch of the Church they nay and his influence came to be exerted in a straight- belong. “When he preached, it was with an affection

Keble and Pusey remained within the ate, almost plaintive earnestness, which was very morChurch, and have done incalculably greater mischief, by ing. His sermons were at all times full of that scripfamiliarizing the people of England with the idea that tural knowledge which was a remarkable quality in him Rome is not so black as it is called, and that the Refor- as a divine. He was most scrupulous in going to the Sunmation was an extravagance.

day school from 9.15 to 10.30 in the morning, and fron It is much the fashion in these days to sneer 2 to 3 in the afternoon. I think it might be truly said at "illiberality” and “intolerance,” especially when that unless he was hindered by illness (which happily oethese are displayed towards men who personally have curred very rarely), or by some special call of parochial been conscientious and earnest; and certainly there are duty, he never missed it during the thirty years he was at few in connection with whose life one feels less dis- Hursley. Besides this, it was his habit for several years position to speak strongly than of Keble. But it is to go to the boys' school every morning soon after 9, apel impossible to be loyal to our common faith without teach the first class until service time at 10, taking openly lamenting the influence of this good man as a con- them through one part of the Bible after another...... troversialist. It is vain to think we can consistently He made a point at all times of the children reading maintain any kind of neutrality with the Church of their Bibles in church, and following the lessons; and Rome. It is an insult to one's common sense to say for some years it was his daily custom to call up some that its possession of an unbroken line of bishops is to of them after the service, and question them for a fer over-ride all other considerations whatsoever--that we are minutes in the two chapters which had been read...... not to allow ourselves to think fatally ill of system with regard to the visitation of the sick and poor, under which the Word of God is shut up, and the per- those who were in any trouble, his principle and the son and work of Christ obscured, and the idolatry of the spirit of bis practice may be summed up with exact Virgin encouraged and defended, and that it is any want truth in the words of St. Paul :-Ourselves your serof charity in Protestants to affirm that the man who has vants, for Jesus' sake. He used habitually to speak of helped to reconcile the English people to the Papacy it as waiting on them; and you could not be any time again, has not deserved well of his country. Popery has in the vicarage as a guest without becoming aware how, been a curse to all those lands which it has over- without the least ostentation, this principle was acted shadowed. The Ritualism into which the High Church- on as a matter of course...... Working oy others did not ism of Keble has effloresced cannot be distinguished prevent him from occupying himself much in personal frons Popery, except in some unimportant particulars. visitations ; in this he was unwearied, in all weathers, And the great and really acceptable gift of The at all hours, and sometimes to the injury of his own Christian Year" can hardly be said to compensate for health...... In all these ministrations great simplicity the legacy of evil which the Oxford “Revival” has left and paternal loving-kindness were the characteristics, behind.

especially in the administration of the Holy Eucharist We turn, however, from this painful subject, to look to the sick; he would shake hands with all present; and


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