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of Rone, and which is held by the members of that part. This conflict was about the teaching of St. Church in at least as tenacious a way, it became a very Augustine. His works were not formally condemned serious question indeed with the Old Catholics, when by the Tridentine Council, because he was recognized as they resolved to have an organization of their own, how one of the Fathers, but the whole current of opinion in they were to maintain it. Without a bishop their days the Church was decidedly hostile to him. Toward the were obviously numbered. They might linger on for a close of the sixteenth century, however, Michael Bains, a time with the priests they had, but these would die in distinguished professor in the Louvain University, came the course of nature; and with no successors to them forth openly as his expositor and disciple. Among the the Hocks would, of course, find their way back again in distinctive Augustinian doctrines are these, - that human time into the ancient fold. And suppose they elected nature is totally depraved, and that salvation is entirely any one of themselves to the episcopate, who would or of grace; and Dr. Bains, who is described as having been could consecrate him? For the performance of such a “equally remarkable on account of the warmth of his service there was needed what, a priori, one could hardly piety and the extent of his learning," had the courage have expected to find-a-body near enough Rome to publicly to censure the tenets commonly received in the approve of Old Catholic principles; and yet on such Church of Rome in relation to the natural powers of terms with it as to be willing to dare its displeasure by man and the merit of good works. These efforts were helping to perpetuate a schism from its ranks. Strange met in the usual way. The inconveniences which had to say, however, there did happen to exist just such a arisen from what was now felt to have been the inconreligious community as was able to satisfy all the re- siderately rash treatment of Luther were too fresh in quired conditions—the community, namely, of the Jan- the recollection of the Vatican to move it to extreme senists; and an immense amount of fresh interest has measures ; and so the Louvain professor was not excomthus gathered around a sect which, on other grounds, municated: but two Popes in succession issued circular has always held a notable place in the Post-Reformation letters condemning what he had taught, and Augustinhistory of the Church of Rome.
ianism was virtually placed under a formal ban. NotThe Jansenists are so called because they are supposed withstanding of this-or shall we say because of this ?to hold the doctrines of Cornelius Jansen, or Jansenius, the name of the Bishop of Hippo was not allowed to be wbo was born in 1585 near Leerdam in Holland, who forgotten in Louvain. The students read his works was appointed Bishop of Ypres in 1636, and who died with probably all the greater relish that the waters were of the plague in 1638. At the University of Louvain, in a manner stolen. At any rate this is certain, that where he studied, the young Dutchman became the in- Jansen and de Hauranne left the university enthusiastic timate friend of John Duverger de Hauranne, after- | Augustinians, and that the former devoted the greater wards so well known as the Abbé de St. Cyran and the part of his subsequent life to the preparation of a digest spiritual director of the famous monastery of Port Royal. of the Augustinian system. With what care this digest The two young men were both aiming at the priesthood, was accomplished may be guessed from the circumstance and, as both were very much in earnest, they soon came that Jansen is said to have read through the works of into keen contact with the religious currents of the day. | Augustine (ten volumes folio) ten times, and to have At the time the great services rendered to the Church thirty times collated those particular passages which of Rome by the Society of Jesus, in rallying it at home related to Pelagianism. He did not live, however, to after the shock of the Reformation, and extending its see his own work given to the world, or to share in the confines abroad by missions, were being fully recognized, afflictions which it brought upon such as accepted its and the Jesuits were showing that they intended to teaching. He died, as we have seen, in 1638 ; and it make the most of their merits by claiming the chief say was some time after that that the volume was published, in all ecclesiastical matters. But at the end of the six- under the editorship of two friends to whom he had teenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries committed it on his death-bed. Its title was as follows: Romanism was in a more fluid state than it is at present, “ Augustinus Cornelii Jansenii Episcopi, seu Doctrina and they met with many difficulties in getting their own Sancti Augustini de Humanæ Nature Sanitate, Egridoctrines accepted as of exclusive authority in the tudince medica, adversus Pelagianos et Massilienses;" Church. Even in the Council of Trent, which sat from and the earliest edition is dated “ Louvain, 1640.” The 1645 to 1663, there was by no means absolute unanimity book is divided into three parts: the first being a reabout the most essential questions-for example, about futation of Pelagianism, the second showing the spirijustification-one archbishop, two bishops, and five others tual disease of man, and the third exhibiting the remedy ascribing the acceptance of a sinner before God simply provided. Its defects, looked at from the Protestant and solely to the merits of Christ through faith. And evangelical point of view, are very apparent. For one all doctrinal disputes did not end when the Council rose. thing, the Holy Scriptures are not assigned their rightfal Controversies continued to be as rife as ever; and when position as the supreme rule of faith, and Jansen fights Jansen and De Hauranne took up their abode in Lou- the Jesuits with the authority of Augustine and of vain, they found themselves in the drift of a conflict in tradition, instead of with the authority of God. Nererwhich the university of that city had taken a leading theless the grand essentials of the gospel system are undoubtedly in the work, and we believe it may be said one in the history of Jansenism, because it involved in that to it, as much as to any other book that can be the controversies of the time far greater names than named, may be ascribed the preservation of whatever that of the Bishop of Ypres. The monastery was divided evangelical salt was found within the Church of Rome into two sections. There was a town house and a counfor a century after the Reformation,
try house. Port Royal de Paris, as the former was The publication of Jansen's “ Augustinus” at once called, was usually inhabited by nuns. Port Royal des produced a great sensation. By many it was welcomed Champs, or the farm in its neighbourhood, was the with enthusiasm, but by the Jesuits it was recognized abode of cartain male recluses, who occupied their time immediately to be an enemy which could not be safely partly with devotions and partly with literature and left to go at large; and steps were instantly taken by agricultural pursuits. Among the latter were such men them to discover something which might furnish an as Antoine Arnauld, Blaise Pascal, Le Maitre, and excuse for its suppression. This something was found Nicole ; and by them the battle for Augustinianism was by Nicolas Cornet, a member of the Society of Jesus, fought, with a skill and wit and learning which nothing who, after patiently sifting the book, extracted out of it but the brute force which the Jesuits were able to comseveral propositions which he declared to be heretical. mand could ever have successfully resisted. As it was, These propositions were subnitted to the Pope, and by the Port Royalists actually stayed the tide of oppression him were formally condemned. But the sentence so for some years.
The tactics of their enemies were procured did not reach the root of the matter. The mercilessly exposed and ridiculed in the Provincial Jansenists agreed in condemning the propositions, but Letters; and while all France was laughing at the abthey affirmed that they were not in the book; and when surd figures which the unfortunate ecclesiastics were a second decree was got; asserting that they were in the made to cut, the Church would not have been sustained book, they answered by questioning the right of the if it had ventured to proceed to extremities against those Pope to affirm anything of the sort. The Pope's infalli- in whose interest the Letters were written. But laughter bility, they said, did not extend to a judgment of facts. is not a thing which lasts ; and the Jesuits were not Of course they had the best of the argument; but they diverted fron their purpose by the light though stinging were weak in the matter of authority, and the end of shafts of wit which were discharged against them. it was that the “ Augustinus” was placed in the “Index," Biding their time, they again, after a season, resumed and that a splendid monument erected over the grave of the weapon which was weightiest in their hands-that Jansenius was ordered to be demolished, in the hope of absolute authority; and they so applied their influthat "the memory of Jansen might perish from the ence at Rome, and at the French Court, that Jansenism, earth."
so far at least as the open profession of it was conIn the meantime the other of the two friends who cerned, was by-and-by completely suppressed in France. were associated in the origination of this movement was The method which they employed in this connection advancing it elsewhere, not so much by argument as by was very simple, but very effectual. A formulary was example. De Hauranne had taken up his abode in prepared, which was used as a Shibboleth, and those Paris, where, as the Abbé de St. Cyran, he became the who refused to sign it were mercilessly persecuted. centre of a religious circle, which, under his influence, The formulary was as follows: "I condemn from my expanded continually. He is described as having been inmost soul, and by word of mouth, the doctrine of the one of those men to whom the Church of Rome would Five Propositions, which are contained in the work of have delighted to give the title of “Saint," if it had not Cornelius Jansenius; a doctrine which is not that of St. been for certain drawbacks which made him an incon- Augustine, whose sentiments Jansenius has misintervenient member of the communion. His holiness was preted"! Very many resolutely refused to take this of the ascetic type. He went about in a humble garb, test, and the dungeons of the Bastile, and of other and with a “mortified” air; and all his public acts tended prisons, were crowded from time to time with men and to increase the ghostly reputation of the Church of which women who preferred to suffer rather than to defile he was a minister. But then, on the other hand, his their consciences by swearing falsely. The battle consanctity was real. He was in the habit not merely of tinued long, with intervals of peace, but the final victory studying the Scriptures for himself, but of recommend remained with the Society of Jesus; and in the year ing the study to all his disciples; and the doctrines he 1710 the monastery which had been the stronghold of taught were not of the sort by which "the priest” is what remained of the evangelical faith was ražed to the made to occupy the first place in a sinner's thoughts. ground. These things did not help to gain for him the favour of In the meantime an illustration was being given of the Jesuits. On the contrary, he became increasingly the difficulty of really exterminating any faith which a obnoxious to them; and it is probable that their enmity number of men are in earnest in maintaining. Jansento Port Royal derived a good deal of its bitterness from ism was suppressed in France, but one result of that the circumstance that the inmates of that celebrated was that it flourished in consequence all the more monastery chose the Abbé de St. Cyran as their spiritual vigorously in Holland. Holland was a Protestant coundirector. This incident, however, became a memorable try, so that the Jesuits could not enlist the secular
power on their side, and put down by the strong hand | decessors, and the Jesuits resorted to a characteristic whatever they happened to dislike there; and besides, device to destroy his influence. He was invited to of all the Protestant nations, the Dutch best under- | Rome and detained there, the affairs of his diocese being stood in those days the principles of toleration. It thus administered the while by a Vicar Apostolic. The trick happened that the Augustinus of Jansen (himself a so far succeeded. During the three years of his detenDutchman) circulated freely among the Roman Catho- tion the seeds of disanion were carefully sown, and the lics of the Netherlands, and that fugitives from France Church in Holland ceased to present an unbroken front met with a hearty welcome when they sought there the to its oppressors. But Codde made his escape and freedom of conscience which they were denied at home. returned home, and the Jansenist party rallied under Among the refugees, for example, who in this way him ; so that when he died there was as decided a carried the light of his teaching and example to Holland determination manifested as ever to elect to the episwas the famous Quesnel, against whose works the noto- copate no man who did not hold the prevailing sentirious Papal bull Unigenitus was launched. He died ments. It is too long a story to tell minutely. Suffice at Amsterdam 1719. Two things followed from this it to say that for twelve years after this Holland restate of matters. In the first place, the whole Dutch mained without a bishop. The Chapters of Utrecht Catholic community came to be more or less leavened and Haarlem made many attempts to come to an with Jansenism ; and secondly, the Roman Church in understanding with the Vatican, but in vain ; and at Holland was driven to take up, as against the Jesuit last, after registering an appeal to the first General controllers of the Papal See, a position of quasi inde- Council that might be held, they proceeded in 1723 to pendence.
make an election to the vacant see. Cornelius SteenAbout the time of the Reformation there were five hoven was thus chosen. But after that act they seemed dioceses in Holland, but when Protestantism was adopted as far from the end of their troubles as ever. No as the established religion of the country these were answer was given to the request which they sent to abolished, and the residuary Catholics were placed under Rome that the appointment might be confirmed; and one archbishop, who was elected by the Chapters of the neighbouring bishops were officially warned against Utrecht and Haarlem, and who took his title from some taking any part in the ceremony of consecration place in partibus infidelium. These Dutch bishops Happily, however, they were relieved from their pershowed a decided sympathy for Jansenism--a sympathy plexity in an unlooked-for manner. One of the refugees which was probably intensified by the insolence of the who had been compelled to seek shelter in Holland Jesuits, who claimed the right to carry on their opera- from the persecutions of the Jesuits was an ecclesiastic tions in Holland without any respect to the constituted of episcopal standing. Where he had previously labourel authorities, and in direct and exclusive submission to we have not happened to notice, but his title, in partithe General of their own order. During the episcopate bus, was that of Bishop of Babylon; and at the time of one of them, Dr. Arnauld himself-whose contest when his services were called into requisition he had with the Sorbonne made the occasion for the publication the charge of a congregation of his own in the city of of the Provincial Letters—found for a time a refuge in Amsterdam. This man did for the Dutch Jansenists the Low Countries. As may be imagined, this state of what the Bishop of Deventer has recently done for the things was highly distasteful to those who were resolved German Old Catholics. He had the succession. He never to rest until they had exterminated Port-Royal- was entitled in cases of extreinity to perform the act of ism; and since they could not hope to persuade the civil consecration alone. And through hin the true and government to interpose in their favour, they addressed gennine episcopate was continued to the Church in themselves to the task of either getting the hierarchy Holland. By him Steenhoven was installed as Archunder their own power or of suppressing it altogether. bishop of Utrecht in 1724; and the hierarchy as it now In the first of these attempts they failed. The Chapters exists was completed when the suffragan See of Haarwould not give up to the Pope (which meant, of course, lem was restored in 1742, and that of Deventer in 1768. giving up to the Jesuits) the right to nominate' to His Holiness, however, did not see all these arrangevacant sees; and the endeavour to carry out the alter- dients made witli indifference. Every fresh act of indedative object ended in the formation of that separatist pendence called forth a fresh fulmination from Rome; community whose continued existence has proved such and every new bishop was, as a rule, formally excomia godserd to the Old Catholics of the present day. municated. “The schism of Utrecht," as it is called
In 1689 the two Chapters forwarded to Rome the in the Papal bulls, has been å painful event in the name of a M. Van Heussen whom they wished to have history of Romanism. Many efforts have been made at consecrated to the archbishopric, which was then vacant. various times to heal the breach, but in vain; and, i Difficulties, however, were made about him, and it was all signs do not fail, the Vatican Council, which at one agreed to send up a leet of three. Out of this list the time promised to lead the wanderers back to the fold, Pope chose M. Codde, as to him the least objection may prove to be the means of making the Jansenists able, and he was appointed to the office. But the new more fatal to the Papacy than they erer could have prelate proved to be quite as impracticable as his pre- been even if they had got all that they originally askel
for. But having offered these preliminary explanations, We asked a boy who was blowing the bellows of a forge I now proceed to tell what came under my own obser- immediately opposite if the Jansenists' “ kerk” stood vation.
over the way, and he said, Yes; but to this hour we
have only his word for it. In all this, however, we saw When in Amsterdam in 1869, I made the acquaint- much that was interesting and suggestive! The Jesuits ance of an intelligent Scotchman resident in Holland, in the end got the best of it, even in Holland. They from whom I received a great deal of information about had the world at their back, and all the influence of the religious condition of that country. In proposing the great Catholic Church. Popery, therefore, is at to myself, therefore, to revisit the Low Countries in the present day everywhere represented by fine places the autumn of 1873, with this purpose, among others, of worship, and receives the homage of multitudes of to inquire into the state of the Jansenist community, I worshippers, while Jansenism bears all the marks of wrote to this friend asking if he could help me in the a suffering sect. It lives in the shade ; it shrinks prosecution of the objects I had in view. He replied at into corners; and, like our old Scottish Seceders, once, cordially promising assistance, and mentioning it probably seeks compensation for the want of the particularly that, if I chose, he could procure for me sunshine of temporal prosperity in the maintenance the advantage of an interview with the only represen- of a severer style of Christian profession and life. But tative of the Jansenist episcopate then living,—the in the upholding unbroken of the old hierarchical Bishop of Deventer. I of course accepted this offer framework it has no doubt high purposes in view. gladly; and on the morning of the 18th of August a The Jansenists remeinber how near they were to beDutch gentleman, who could speak his own language coming extinct in the beginning of the eighteenth cenand English with equal facility, called for me at my tury. But for the providential presence of the Bishop hotel in Rotterdam, and brought a message from the of Babylon in Amsterdam, the precious link of the bishop to the effect that he would be glad to see me apostolical succession would have been broken. It was that same evening. He left with me at the same time to increase the security for the preservation of the holy a pamphlet, in English, written by a Mr. Fallow, a seed that they restored the suffragan sees of Haarlem Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, which he said and Deventer. It is of course for the same reason that might give me some of the information I was in want the bishopric of Deventer is continued, although there of. I found Mr. Fallow's pamphlet to be written from is now no flock in that diocese to oversee. And they the High Anglican point of view; and there were some will feel less inclined than ever to diminish the number statements made in it with regard to the present atti- of their dignitaries, now that they have lived to render tude of the Jansenists which my own inquiries did not important service to Germany, and to see how nearly confirm. Nevertheless his statistics may, I suppose, be they had failed, even with all their care, to be able to accepted as correct, and I give them here. He says he render the service which was required of them. For on tras informed that the community now consists of only the very day on which Reinkens was elected to the twenty-five congregations, sixteen of which are attached episcopate by the Old Catholics, the Archbishop of to the diocese of Utrecht, and nine to that of Haarlem. Utrecht died. At the same time the bishopric of HaarThere is no church now in Deventer, and the bishop of lem was vacant. And the transmission of grace in a that see lives in Rotterdam, where he acts as pastor of valid form to thousands of people hung thereafter by a one of the two congregations there. The community is single thread-on the precarious life of the Bishop of all but entirely Dutch. One congregation alone exists Deventer! outside Holland, in the island of Nordstraad, Sleswick. Under the guidance of my Dutch friend I found my It is connected ecclesiastically with the diocese of way to the house of Monsignor Heycamp about seven Utrecht. The whole together have a membership of o'clock in the evening. He lives in a quiet, narrow, about five thousand. It is very plain from this that unpretentious street in Rotterdam ; and when we were the number of prelates is out of all proportion to the shown into a plain parlour, opening with folding-doors present size of the flock; and the extravagance of hav- into another room behind, which appeared to be his ing an archbishop with two suffragans to govern so small library, the daylight-seemed to have already begun to a Church looks particularly marked when you visit their wane. The bishop received us both very kindly. He places of worship. The “Cathedral" at Utrecht we is a man of about sixty years of age, with a pleasant found to be a small chapel in the corner of a square, cast of countenance, and a benevolent expression of with nothing whatever outside to distinguish it as an face. He wore a clerical dress,-a white necktie, a long ecclesiastical building ; wbile at Haarlem we could not black surtout buttoned up to the throat, and a velvet even manage to get within sight of the church in which skull-cap; but there was nothing specially to distinthe bishop of that ancient see officiates. After much guish him either as a Church dignitary or as a Catholic; wandering we reached the narrow back-lane in wbich and certainly in the conversation which followed there we were told it sto but both sides of the street were was not much compelling me to feel that any great fully occupied with shops and houses, except at one gulf of separation was dividing us from one another. point, where a high dead wall broke the uniformity. At his invitation we drew our chairs to the round table which occupied the centre of the room, and at once line before you begin to doubt or deny its apostolicity. began a talk which lasted until the shadows of evening In other words, have not recent events, especially, led had almost filled the apartment.
you to suspect that there may be some truth in what First of all, referring to an impression conveyed by others have asserted,—that Rome is Antichrist ?" Mr. Fallow's pamphlet, to the effect that the Jan- The answer of the bishop was long, and somewhat senists no longer occupy the ground held by their elaborate. He had a good many qualifications and exfathers, I asked if it was the case that they now reject planations to make ; and it was evident that the concluAugustinianism, and particularly his doctrine of grace ? sion to which Old Catholicism-if it is not to die-is “No," was the answer, given very emphatically; “ we tending, was one from which he instinctively shrunk. But maintain the old position as firmly as ever. Indeed it the upshot of the whole was, that in his opinion confiis there that our distinctive principles lie." [What dence in the Papacy has been fatally shaken, and the misled Mr. Fallow, I believe, was this :-Those whom new attitude is that of determined protest against it, as we call " Jansenists” object to the name, as the mem- not merely an erring, but a perverted system. bers of the Catholic Apostolic Church object to being I asked, then, if, in these circumstances, they did not called “Irvingites.” They honour Jansenius, but they feel bound to join in the endeavour to overturn the do not wish to be regarded as building their faith upon system, viewing Rome, not as the Mother Church, him, or upon any other mere man, and they ask in underneath whose care it would be happiness to return, Holland to be recognised as “the Old Bishopic (or but as “an harlot,” who had usurped a place which did Episcopal] Communion."]
not belong to her ? “ You have, I suppose, the Bible in the Dutch He answered, that as yet they could not see what language ?” I next said ; "and permit the free use of it active steps they were warranted to take to bring about among the members of your congregations ?”
the overthrow of the Roman Church. They were “Most certainly,” the bishop replied. “We not only waiting, he said, until God opened the way more clearly permit our people to read the Holy Scriptures in their to them in his providence. But he left on my mind own tougue, but we command them to do so.” (This one very distinct impression,—that the Jansenists vien also was said with great energy.)
the Papacy with very different feelings from those “ Then I understand your past relation to the Church which animate the bastard Romanists in the Church of of Rome to be this: You have not seceded from it. England. To the latter the See of St. Peter is surYou still hold that you belong to the communion of rounded with a glory which recent events have scarcely the Catholic Church. In regard to the oppressions you dimmed. To the former the same object is black and have suffered, you assert that you have been treated forbidding, and they are turning from it with an inillegally ; and you maintain a standing appeal against creasing horror and dislike. them to the next General Council ?”
Turning from this point, I asked the bishop whether, “ Yes."
in his opinion, the German Old Catholic movement is “And you did not recognise the Council of the most a spiritual or most a political movement. Vatican as Ecumenical ?
“If I had not believed it to be mainly a spiritual
movement,” he replied, with emphasis, “I would not “In calling together any Council of the Christian have held out my hand to it." Church, would you consider it proper to include the I said I had noticed that the Archbishop of Utrecht Anglican Church in the list of invitations ?”
had consented to take part in the consecration of a The bishop answered in the affirmative, but he did German bishop, only on condition that an Old Catholic so with apparently some hesitation ; and as he had not constitution should first of all be drawn up and subprobably considered the matter, I do not know what mitted to him. might come to be his decision ultimately. Of course, I That, M. Heycamp said, had been done ; and he did not ask if there was any chance of people who were himself had been fally satisfied on the point before eaPresbyterians, or Methodists, or Congregationalists, gaging in the ceremonies of the previous week. He being owned in this connection ; for I knew that they added, that no new Church had been set up, nor had wanted the episcopate and the apostolical succession, and there taken place anything like an incorporating union I did not wish to put the good man to the pain of tell- between the Jansenists of Holland and the alt ing me that my orders were utterly invalid. I went on, Catholics of Germany. They all professed to belong to however, to submit this difficulty to him :
the one Catholic Church ; and the effect of what had “You tell us," I said, “ that the Church of Rome been done was simply to recognise, in a formal way, has excommunicated you, a faithful section of the the church-standing of the members of both comCatholic communion. You also believe that, in decree-munions. He also entered at considerable length into ing the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception of the an exposition of the place which, in his view, German Virgin and of the Pope's Infallibility, it has promul- Old Catholicism is filling. He told us that, in the gated damnable heresies ; now, I am anxious to know meantime, Bishop Reinkens has no local diocese, but how long and how far it will require to go on in the saine that it was likely he might soon have one, for that there