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his usual vulgar insolence. He stormed and sivore, he differently.” “There's not an honest man in England roared and snorted, and, we are told, he squeaked but regards thee as a knave,” was the brutal reply.* through his nose with uprolled eyes in imitation of The old man, bowed and broken with seventy years Baxter's supposed manner of praying. “When I saw," of toil and suffering, penniless, homeless, wifeless, childsays an eye-witness, “the meek man stand before the less, was haled to the cells of King's Bench Prison, flaming eyes and fierce looks of this bigot, I thought of where he languished well-nigh two years, hoping no Paul standing before Nero." His conduct, says Bishop respite but that of death. But the celestial vision of Burnet, would have amazed one in the bashaw of the Lord he loved cheered the solitude of his lonely Turkey. The accused asked for time to prepare his chamber ; and sweetly falling on his inner ear, unheeddefence. “Not a minute to save his life !" was the ing the obscene riot of the gaol, sang the sevenfold chorus amiable reply; and, pointing to the infamous Oates, of cherubim and seraphim on high. Pain and sickness, who stood pilloried in Palace Yard, Jeffreys thundered, bereavement and sorrow, persecution and shame, were “There stands Oates on one side of the pillory, and if all forgotten in the thrilling anticipation of the divine Baxter stood on the other, the two greatest rogues in and eternal beatitude of the redeemed before the throne. the kingdom would stand together. This is an old The rude stone walls seemed to his waiting soul but the rogue, a schismatical knave, a hypocritical villain.” | portals of the palace of the great King, the house not When the counsel reminded the judge of King Charles's made with hands in heaven. “He talked,” says Calamy, esteem for the accused, and his offer of a mitre, he “about another world, like one who bad been there." shonted, “What ailed the old blockhead, the unthank- But persecution and sickness had done their work. ful villain, that he would not conform ? the conceited, His feeble frame broke down beneath his accumulated stubborn, fanatical dog !” “My lord,” said the vener- trials. After his release he lingered about four years able old man, “ I have been much censured by dissenters" in age and feebleness extreme," preaching as opporfor speaking well of bishops.” “Ha! Baxter for tunity and strength permitted, till at last the weary bishops!" jeered the ermined buffoon, “ that's a merry wheels of life stood still.“ In profound lowliness," conceit indeed ; turn to it, turn to it.” The proof being writes a sympathizing biographer, “with a settled given, he exclaimed, “ Ay, that's Kidderminster bishops, reliance on the divine mercy, repeating at frequent rascals like yourself, factious, snivelling Presbyterians. intervals the prayer of the Redeemer, on whom his Thou art an old kpave,” continued the browbeating hopes reposed, and breathing out benedictions on those bully, “ thou hast written books enough to load a cart, who encircled his dying bed, he passed away from a life and every book as full of treason as an egg is full of of almost unequalled toil and suffering" to the rest that meat. Hadst thou been whipped out of thy writing remaineth for the people of God. forty years ago it bad been well, I see many of your The malice of his enemies sought to pursue him brotherhood waiting to see what will become of their beyond the grave, by asserting that his last hours were mighty don ; but, by the grace of God Almighty, I will darkened by doubt and despair.t But his dying words crush you all. Come, what do you say for yourself, old are the best refutation of this posthumous slander. To knave ? speak up! I am not afraid of you for all your Dr. Increase Mather, of New England, he said the day snivelling calves," alluding to some of the spectators before his death, “ I have pain ; but I have peace, I who were in tears. “Your lordship need not,” replied have peace...... I believe, I believe.” To a later inquiry Baxter, “I'll not hurt you. But these things will of how he was, he replied, in anticipation of his speeds surely be understood one day; what fools one sort of departure, “Almost well.” His last words were, Protestants are to persecute the other!” Lifting up speaking of his Divine Master, “0, I thank him! I his eyes to heaven, he said, “I am not concerned to thank him!” and turning to a friend by his bedside, answer such stuff, but am ready to produce my writings «The Lord teach you to die.” for the confutation of all this ; and my life and conver- Thus passed away in his seventy-seventh year, on the sation are known to many in this nation.”

8th of December 1691, one of the noblest and bravest After Jeffreys had passionately charged the jury, spirits of the seventeenth century. In primitive times, Baxter inquired,“ Does your lordship think they will says Bishop Wilkins, he would have been counted a pass a verdict after such a trial as that?” “I'll Father of the Church. He rests from his labours, but warrant you, Mr. Baxter," he sneered, “don't trouble his works do follow him. Being dead, he fet speaketh. yourself about that ;” and bring in a verdict of guilty His words of wisdom can never die. In camps and they did, without retiring from the box. He was fined five hundred marks, to lie in prison till he paid it, and

* When Baxter was on this or some previous occasion brought bound to his good behaviour for seven years; and but before Jeffreys, "Richard," said the brutal. Chief-Justice, "I see for the remonstrance of his fellow-judges, Jeffreys would a rogue in your face." "I had not known before," replied Barhave added the sentence of whipping at the cart's tail

ter, “that my face was a mirror."--ED.

† Among the phrases applied to Baxter in a scurrilous Latin through the city. “My lord, there was once a Chief- epitaph by the Rev. Thomas Long, prebendary of Exeter, are the Justice,” said Baxter, referring to his deceased friend, following:~"Reformed Jesuit, brazen heresiarch, chief of schis. court, in his parish and in prison, in pain and sickness, | spirit to the quick, to point out the inveterate disease in poverty and persecution, his busy pen and copious of the soul and its unfailing antidote, to quicken to a mind poured forth a flood of written eloquence,--of flame of devotion the sluggish feelings of the mind. argument, counsel, entreaty,--that, still living in the Throughout all time will the “ Reformed Pastor” be a printed page, is his truest and niost enduring monument manual of winisterial conduct and duty, an inspiration ---aere perennius.

matics, cause of the leprosy of the Church, the sworn enemy of Sir Matthew Hale, “who would have treated me very king and bishops, and the very bond of rebels."

and example of pastoral diligence and zeal. His collected works amount to no less than one The secret of this power is the intense earnestness of hundred and sixty-eight volumes, many of them ponder- the man. He poured his very soul into his books. ous folio tomes of forgotten controversy, or of superseded They seem written with his heart's blood. He walked ecclesiastical lore. We know of no parallel instance of continually on the very verge of the spirit-world. The such intense literary activity, conjoined with such a shadows of death fell ever broad and black across his busy life, save in the kindred character of John Wesley. path. All his acts were projected against the backBaxter's “ Methodns Theologicæ Christianæ," written, ground of eternity. The awful presence of the king of he tell us, “ in a troublesome, snioky, suffocating room, terrors stood ever with lifted spear before him. Chronic in the midst of daily pains of sciatica, and many worse,' and painful disease grappled ever at the springs of and his “ Catholic Theology” are now left to the un- life. A premature old age,-præmatura senectus, as he disturbed repose of ancient libraries--the mausolea of himself called it,--accompanied him through life from the labours of the mighty dead-the prey of the book- his very youth. "As waves follow waves in the worm, insect or human. His - Holy Commonwealth, or tempestuous sea," he writes, " so one pain and danger Plea for Monarchy under God the Universal Monarch,” follows another in this sinful, miserable flesh. I die was condemned to the flames by the University of Ox- daily, and yet remain alive.” His spirit gleamed more ford, for the assertion of the constitutional, but, as then brightly for the extreme fragility of the earthen vessel thought, seditious principle, that the laws of England in which it was enshrined, like a lamp shining through are above the king. In a Dantean vision of hell, one an alabaster vase. He walked a stranger on earth, as of his clerical opponents represents the pious Puritan as a citizen of heaven. The evanescent shows and semthroned in perdition, crowned with wreaths of serpents blances of time were as nothing ; the fadeless verities of and chaplets of adders, his triumphal chariot a pulpit eternity were all in all. Like a dying man, dissevered drawn by wolves. “Make room," exclaims the amiable from the ephemeral interests of life, he wrote and spoke critic, "scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, atheists and as from the borders of the grave. Each day must be politicians, for the greatest rebel on earth, and next to redeemed as thongh it were the last. “I live only for him that fell from heaven." The tumult of the strifes work,” he says. The worst consequence of his afflicand controversies in which Baxter was engaged has tions was, he considered, the loss of time which they passed away. Most of the principles for which he con- entailed. He therefore wasted no midnight oil in tended have long since been universally conceded. But minute revision, for he knew not if to-morrow's sun even in the sternest polemical conflict his zeal was would permit the completion of the task he had begun. tempered with love. “While we wrangle here in the Each sermon bad all the emphasis of dying words. Indark," with a tender pathos he exclaims, “ we are dying deed, the last time he preached he almost died in the and passing to the world that will decide all our con- pulpit. Therefore he fearlessly administered reproof troversies ; and the safest passage thither is by peaceable and exhortation alike before king of protector, before holiness."

parliament or parishioners. He feared God, and feared Baxter was not exempt from a touch of human in-only him. He had no time or disposition to cultifirmity and a tinge of superstition, incident to the age vate the graces of style, the arts of rhetoric.

He in which he lived-a superstition that was shared by sought not to catch the applause or shun the blame Sir Matthew Hale and Sir Thomas Browne, one of the of men, beyond both of which he was soon to pass for ablest judges and one of the subtlest intellects of Europe. In the remarkable witchcraft delusion of Old Hence he poured the tumultuous current of his and of New England he saw unquestionable evidence thought upon the page, often with impassioned and unof the certainty of the world of spirits ; and wrote a premeditated eloquence, often with thrilling and pathetic treatise commemorating the fact.

power, sometimes with diffuseness or 'monotony, but But it is by his “practical works” that he is best never with artificial prettiness or fanciful conceits. "I known; and these will never grow old nor lose their must cast water on this fire,” he exclaims, “though I spell of power. As long as weary hearts and bruised have not a silver vessel to carry it in. The plainest consciences ache with a sense of sin and sorrow; as words are the most profitable oratory in the weightiest long as heavy-laden spirits struggle, often baffled and matters. The transcript of the heart has the greatest defeated, with the ills of earth, and yearn with an in- force on the hearts of others.” When the success of finite longing for the repose of heaven,-so long will the his labours was referred to, he meekly replied, “I am “Call to the Unconverted,” the “Dying Thoughts,” but a pen in the hand of God; and what praise is due the "Saint's Rest," continue to probe the wounded to a pen ?

ever.

He was not insensible to the defects of his writings, | the nearness of eternity, are the principal causes of this and admits that “fewer and well-studied had been effect.” better.” But he adds, in explanation of their character, Well were it for each of us who read the record of “ The knowledge of man's nothingness and God's tran- this noble life, if similar lofty principles and solemn scendent greatness, with whom it is that I have most sense of our duties and relationships inspired each to do ; and the sense of the brevity of human things and I thought and act, and moulded our daily life and conduct.

Apologetics for the People.

BY DR. R. PATERSON, CHICAGO.

VII.

INFIDELITY AMONG THE STARS.

PART II.

[graphic]

3. HE progress of astronomical discovery, tensely heated—a vast fire mist-placed in a region of

has utterly refuted the notion of crea- space much cooler; and that this cloud, by gradual tion by natural lav, known as the cooling, and the pressure of its parts, settled down into

Development Theory, or the Nebular solid forms. It was supposed that some portions of this Hypothesis.

cloud would begin to cool sooner than others, and so Scientific infidels knew that there was too much order become solid sooner, and that the hot gas, rushing to and regularity in the motions of the planets to allow the solid part, would form a vortex, which would set the any rational mind to ascribe these motions to accident, cloud in motion around its centre. As the speed of its according to Buffon's notion. They saw that these rotation would increase, and the outside condense and movements must be regulated by law. La Place, an grow solid before the inside, the cloud would whirl off eminent mathematician, saw that there are at least five the rings of solid matter, which would keep revolving in great regularities pervading the system, for which the same orbits in which they were cast off, and would Buffon's theory gave no reason :

revolve faster and faster as they grew cooler and more 1. The planets all move in elliptical orbits, nearly solid, till they broke up, by the force of their velocity, circular. They might, on the contrary, have been as into sinaller pieces ; which fragments, in their turn, elongated as those of comets.

repeated the process, until the present number of planets 2. They revolve in orbits nearly in the plane of the and their satellites was produced. sun's equator. They might have revolved in orbits in- This theory differs from Buffon's much as a low-presclined to it at any angle, or even in the plane of his sure engine, deriving most of its power from the conpoles.

denser, differs from one of high-pressure. La Place 3. They revolve around the sun all in the same does not explode the boiler to make his planets, but direction, which is the direction of his rotation on his merely runs his train so fast as to break an axle every axis.

now and then, when the wheel runs off with the velocity 4. They rotate on their axes, also, so far as known, it had got, and keeps its track as well as if it had an in the sanie direction.

engineer to guide it, grows into a little locomotive by 5. The satellites (with the exception of those of dint of running, and after a while breaks an axle tooUranus) revolve around their primary planets, and also breaking is a bereditary failing of these sans and rotate on their axes, in the same normal direction. planets that had no God to make them--and the wheels

It was evident, even to the believers in chance, that thus thrown off supply it with moons and rings, like 80 many regularities were not produced by chance. Saturn's. The illustration is not nearly so absurd as La Place found, by computing the chances by the the theory, inasmuch as a locomotive is an incomparably formula of probabilities, that the chances were two less complicated contrivance than a planet. However

, millions to one against these regularities happening by the nonsense was cradled in the halls of philosophy in chance, and four millions to one in favour of these the manner following. motions having a common origin. The grand pheno- Herschel had discovered numbers of nebulæ, o menon being a motion of rotation in the whole system, luminous clouds, in the distant heavens, shining with a of which the rotation of the sun is the central part, he distinct light, but which, with the highest magnifying thought if he could account for this, he could explain power he could apply, presented no trace of stars. all the rest.

Some nebulæ, it is true, his largest telescope resolved, He set ont by supposing that the sun and planets like our own Milky Way, into beds of distinct stars; originally existed as a vast cloud of gaseous matter, in- but there were others-for instance, one in the belt of Orion--visible to the naked eye as a cloud, but which earth. The first creation of primeval elements demands his forty feet telescope only displayed as a larger cloud, a creator, and the contrivance of the law of development without any shape of stars. Now, reasoning upon the a contriver ; and the force, either of gravity, chemical matter, he found that if these nebulæ were composed of attraction, or any other, by which it operates, must prostars as large as those distinctly visible, they must be ceed from an agent. The Development Theory, then, immensely distant to be indistinguishable by bis tele- cannot exist without God. scope, and exceedingly numerous and close together to However, as it seems to remove nim a few steps from give a cloud of light visible to the naked eye. In fact, his works, and as all ungodly men desire his absence, the suns of those firmaments must be so close to each Atheists and Pantheists of all kinds have earnestly laid other as to present a blaze of glory, and complexities of hold of it as the foundation of their system of the derevolution inconceivable to the dwellers on earth. But velopment of the universe from eternal, self-existent, as this daring idea seemed incredible, even to his giant homogeneons matter. All the Atheists and Pantheists, wind, he thought the appearance of these nebulæ might with one voice, assert the eternity of the matter out of be more rationally accounted for by supposing that they which the universe made itself, as a simple, unconwere not stars at all, but simply clouds of gaseous pounded, nebulous cloud of gas. It is quite indispensmatter, like the matter of comets, from which he sup- able to their system to allege that the nebulæ was homoposed that stars were formed by a long process of con- geneous ; for if they alleged that it was compounded of densation and solidification. He thought this theory different ingredients, nobody would believe that it was was favoured by the fact that nebulæ are generally seen eternal. They could not persuade a child that a plamin those portions of the heavens that are not thickly pudding, or a wall of brick and mortar, had existed just strewn with stars; and also by the various forms of these so from eternity; much less a steam-ship filled with clouds. Some were merely loose clouds, without any passengers, or a planet with a vastly larger crew and definite form ; others seemed gathering towards the company. They therefore alleged that, though we see centre. In some, of a roundish or oval form, the no homogeneous, simple, or uncompounded substance central mass seemed well defined. In a few, the process on earth, it was there, far away in the heavens. They seemed nearly complete-- a bright star shining in the thought it was so far away that nobody would ever get midst of a faint nebulous halo. Here, then, it was said, there to see whether or no, and so they were quite safe we see the whole progress of the growth of stars: their | in asserting its existence. development from the gaseous, nebulous fluid into solid, Now, one does not see, even if the nebulæ had been brilliant suns. La Place accepted Herschel's discoveries exactly what the Development men assert - simple, as conclusive proof of the truth of his theory, and it was homogeneous matter-how they could ever have made generally accepted by the scientific world. Oddly such a compound world as this out of it; or how they enough, nobody seems to have noticed that those could have made anything at all ont of it. No chemical appearances of condensation toward the centre, which actions, or reactions, or combinations, can begin in a seemed to Herschel so strongly in favour of his theory simple substance: there must always be at least two of the 'nebulous fluid, were diametrically opposed to different substances to make a compound. Heating or La Place's requirements of condensation at the circum- cooling a simple substance will never make it a comference; and these two contradictory notions were sup- pound. You may heat water in a boiler, and cool it posed to support each other, and to furnish a solid basis again as often as you please, but your heating and cooling for the Development Hypothesis.

will never make coffee out of it, unless you put coffee This theory, as stated by Herschel, and expounded into it. So you may heat and cool your simple nebulæ by Nicholl, Dick, and other Christian writers, is not to all eternity, but you will never get coffee out of it, necessarily atheistical. On the contrary, they allege much less coffee and coffee-pot, china and company, that it furnishes us with greater evidences of the power with the biscuits and butter-all which, and a great of God, and gives us higher ideas of his wisdom, to snp- deal more, our philosophers continue to churn out of pose a system of creation by development, under natural the nebulæ. law, than by a direct exercise of his will. Undoubtedly, But the progress of science has enabled us to show had God so pleased, he could somehow have made suns that the nebulæ, far from being simple, homogeneous from fire mists, but not according to La Place's plan, matter, are compounded of as many ingredients as the as we shall presently see. Or he could have caused fame of your lamp or gas light, which is combined of firmaments to grow from seeds, as forests do, according half a score of different substances. In another place to some sublime and uniform law of such celestial vege. I have discussed this subject fully, and have shown how, tation. In such a case, we should have had the same by the discovery of Spectrum Analysis, we are able to kind of evidence of his being, power, wisdom, and good-analyze the chemical composition of the most distant ness, in creation by natural law, which we now have from flames, to tell whether they proceed from solids or gases his providence by natural law, when he sends us rain in a state of combustion, and what are the gases and from heaven, and fruitful seasons; and so much greater an amount of it, as the heavens are greater than the

* Scientific Atheism, ch. I.

minerals consumed in them. As space forbids the saw a condenser, and every woman who has cooled a details of this discovery here, I can only state the dish of mush, knows, it could not begin to cool at all; results,-namely: that some of the nebulæ consist of and so no motion could be produced. This is so well clouds of small solid stars, of which the nebulæ in Orion known in the machine-shops and dockyards, that it is is an instance; but others consist of tiames of gases, in very rare to find an intelligent millwright or machinist all cases compound, and showing, besides the oxygen- acknowledge the theory. ated flame, the lines which declare the presence of Even were the rotation and the cooling process to hydrogen, and of several metals. Thus it is proved take place, as is supposed, no such results would prothat no such eternal, homogeneous nebulæ are to be ceed from these combined operations as the case refound in heaven, and consequently nobody could ever quires ; for, according to the theory, as the cooling and make worlds out of a substance which had no existence. contracting rings revolve in the verge of a vortex of To say that this notion was mere moonshine, would be fluid less dense than themselves, one of these two results far too favourable a judgment, for moonshine has an must take place: either, as is most probable, from their actual existence, and may be both seen and felt; but exceeding tenuity, the rings will break at once into no such nebulæ as this theory demands was ever seen fragments, when, instead of flying outwards, they will or felt.

It was a mere castle in the air. Indeed it sink towards the centre, and as long as they are heavier never was pretended that anybody ever did see the than the surrounding fluid, they will stay there; and nebulæ scaling off into rings, and the rings breaking up as the cooling goes on on the outside, so will the coainto planets and moons, nor was it likely anybody ever centration of the heavier matter, till we have one great would see such a phenomenon. Its author merely put spheroid, with a solid centre, liquid covering, and gaseit forth as a probable theory, and no scientific man ever ous atmosphere. A vortex will never make, nor allow pretended to demonstrate it as a discovered fact. to exist beyond its centre, planets heavier than the fluid Among scientific astronomers it was merely a notion. of which it is composed. The other alternative, and

It was always an unsatisfactory notion. It made us no the one which La Place selected, was the supposition wiser about the origin of things. It gave no answer to that the cooling and contracting rings did not at first the all-important questions: Where did the gaseous break up into pieces, but retained their continuity; but, matter come from? How did it get to be so hot, while contrary to all experience and reason, he supposed that the space around it was so cold? Whence came the fire these cooling rings kept contracting and widening out that heated it? Did it contain within itself all the from the heated mass at the same time. The only fluid principles of things now found in the resulting planets, planetary rings which we can examine—those of Saturn such as attraction, repulsion, chemical affinity, animal –have been closing in on the planet since the days of and vegetable life, and intellect? If so, how came they Huygens, and in a dozen of years or so will be united there? If not, where did they come from?

with the body of the planet ;* and erery boy who has Besides, it was an impracticable notion, contrary to seen a blacksmith hoop a cart-wheel, has learned the the known principles of mechanics. The great require principle that a heated ring contracts as it cools, and in ment of the whole system—the power to work the engine doing so presses in upon the mass around which it -the motion of rotation upon which the whole world-clings. But according to this nebular notion, the fire turning business depends-never could, by any possi- mist keeps cooling and shrinking up, while the rings, of bility, be raised either by La Place's, or any other the very same heat and material, keep cooling faster, mechanical plan. If he had the moving power, no and widening out from it-a piece of schismatical bedoubt he could scatter off pieces of matter from his haviour without a parallel among solids or fluids, either rotating sun, as drops of water are scattered from a in heaven or earth, or under the earth. rotating grindstone; but his theory is a plan to make Plateau's experiment of making a globule of oil rotate the grindstone turn itself, and is precisely of the same and disperse into drops, by centrifugal force communivalue as any of the hundreds of ingenious schemes for cated by clockwork, while floating in a mixture of alcohol a perpetual motion, whose inventors have dreamed of and water, all of the same density, is no illustration of creating power by machinery, in defiance of the funda- the nebular theory, the essential condition of which is, mental law of mechanics, that “action and reaction are that the cooling contracting rings be of a different denequal." The power is to be raised by making his gas sity from the rest of the mass. Their divergence from cool at one part of the surface faster than at another, the more fluid portion is supposed to arise from their and so make a vortex around that spot, which would growing heavier as they cool, and therefore capable of a set the whole revolving. No conceivable reason can be greater centrifugal force; in consequence of which they assigned why it should begin to cool at one place of the rotate so much faster than the fluid from which they surface faster than another; or indeed why, if eternally derived their motion, that finally they fly out of it. The hot, it ever should begin to cool at all. But to make only other instance of such a performance which I can the required vortex for the rotation of the mass, it should not begin to cool at any part of the surface, but

* Bond, of Cambridge, U. S., quoted by Sir David Brewster in near the middle, where, as every engine-driver who ever More Worlds than One," 35.

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