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remember is that of the Yankee's mill- wheel, which and in contemptuously dismissing the notion of developtravelled three times as fast as the stream which drove ment and creation by natural law from the halls of it, while the latter was swift enough to make the saw- science. logs fly up out of the water merely by the force of the “ Up to the present time we are ignorant, as I have current.
already remarked, of any internal necessity--any meThis nebular notion was always as contrary to as- chanical law of nature-which (like the beautiful law tronomical facts as, to mechanical principles. The which connects the square of the periods of revolution orbits of the comets being inclined at angles to the Sun's with the cube of the major axis) represents the above equator, are often out of the plane of his rotation, and named elements—the absolute magnitude of the planets, so in the way of the theory. The noons of Uranus their density, flattening at the poles, velocity of rotation, revolve in a direction contrary to all the other bodies, and presence or absence of moons--of the order of sucand fly right into the face of the theory. According to cession of the individual planetary bodies of each group the nebular theory, the outer planets first cast off from in their dependence upon the distances. Although the the sun ought to be lighter than those nearer him, as planet which is nearest the Sun is densest-even six or these had longer pressing near the middle of the mass; eight times denser than some of the exterior planets, and the sun himself, having been pressed by the weight Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune-the order of of all the rest of the system, should be the densest body succession in the case of Venus, the Earth, and Mars, of the whole. And the author of the “ Vestiges of is very irregular. The absolute magnitudes do generCreation,” in expounding the theory, manufactures a ally, as Kepler has already observed, increase with the set of facts to suit it, and tells his readers that the distances; but this does not hold good when the planets planets exhibit a progressive diminution in density from are considered individually. Mars is smaller than the the one nearest the sun to that which is most distant. Earth ; Uranus smaller than Saturn ; Saturn smaller Our solar system could not have lasted thirty years had than Jupiter, and succeeds immediately to a host of that been the case. The Earth, Venus, and Mars are planets, which, on account of their smallness, are almost nearly of the same density. Uranus is more dense than immeasurable. It is true the period of rotation generSaturn, which is nearer the Sun. Nepture is more ally increases with the distance from the Sun; but it dense than either. The Sun, which ought to be the is in the case of Mars slower than in that of the Earth, heaviest of all, according to the theory is only one-fourth and slower in Saturn than in Jupiter." the density of the Earth. La Place himself has demon- “Our knowledge of the primeval ages of the world's strated that these densities and arrangements are indis- physical history does not extend sufficiently far to allow pensable to the stability of the system. But they are of our depicting the present condition of things as one plainly contradictory to his theory of its formation.* of development." +
The palpable difference of luminosity between the 4. Astronomy not only exposes the folly of past cosSun and the planets, which, as they are all made of the mogonies, but demonstrates the impossibility of framing very same materials, and by the same process, according any true theory of creation, and thus refutes all future to this theory, ought to be equally self-luniinous, is in cosmogonies. itself a self-evident refutation of the nebular hypo- The grand error of all cosmogonies lies in the arrothesis, or of any other process of creation by mere gant assumption, on which every one of them must be mechanical law. “The same power, whether natural founded, that the theorist is acquainted with all subor supernatural, which placed the Sun in the centre of stances and all forces in the universe, and with all the the six primary planets, placed Saturn in the centre of modes of their operation ; not only at the present the orb of his five secondary planets; and Jupiter in period, and on this Earth, but in all past ages, and in the centre of his four secondary planets; and the Earth worlds in widely different and utterly unknown situain the centre of the moon's orbit; and therefore, had tions ; for, if he be ignorant of any substance, or of any this cause been a blind one, without contrivance or de- active force in the universe, his generalization is sign, the Sun would have been a body of the same kind avowedly imperfect, and necessarily false. That unwith Saturn, Jupiter, and the Earth—that is, without known force must have had its influence in framing the light or heat. Why there is one body in our system world. Its omission, then, is fatal to the theory which qualified to give light and heat to all the rest, I know neglects it. A theory of creation, for instance, which no reason, but because the Author of the system thought would neglect the attraction of gravitation, would be it convenient.” So says the immortal Newton.t manifestly false. But there are other laws, as far
The great expounder of modern science-Humboldt, reaching, whose omission must be equally fatal ; for is equally explicit in enumerating the decisive marks of instance, the power of repulsion. choice and will in the construction of the solar system, A conviction of this truth has given rise to a constant
effort to simplify matters down to the level of our * Taking water as the unit of density, Mercury is 6.71 ; Venus,
ignorance, by reducing all substances to one, or at most 5.11; Earth, 5.44 ; Mars, 5.21 ; Saturn, 0.76; Uranus, 0.97 ; Neptune, 1.25 ; the Sun, 1 37. - Cosmos, iv., p. 447. † Newton's "Optics," iv., p. 438.
Cosmos, iv. 425.
† Cosmos, iii. 28.
two, simple elements, and all forces to the form of one Comets constitute by far the greatest number of universal and irrational law; but the progress of science the bodies of our solar system. Arago says seven utterly blasts the attempt. Instead of simplifying millions frequent it, within the orbit of Uranus.* matters, the very chemical processes undertaken with They are the largest bodies known to us, stretching that view revealed new substances ; and every year in- across hundreds of millions of miles. They approach creases onr knowledge of nature's variety. No scientific nearer to this Earth than any other bodies, sometimes man now dreams of one primeval element. In the even involving it in their tails; and generally exciting same way, astronomy, which, it was boasted, would en- great alarm among its inhabitants. But the nature of able us to account for all the operations of the universe, the transparent luminous matter of which they are comby reducing all motion to one mechanical lawr, has re- posed is utterly unknown. As they approach the Sun, vealed to us the existence of other forces as far-reaching they come under an influence directly the opposite of as the attraction of gravitation, and more powerful ; attraction. The tail streams away from the Sun, over a and substances whose nature and combinations are distance of millions of miles, and yet, the rate of the utterly unknown. But every cosmogony is just an comet's motion towards the Sun is quickened, as though attempt to simplify matters, by ignoring the existence it were an immense rocket, driven forward by its own of these unknown substances and mysterious forces; a explosion. process which science condemns, as utterly unphilosophi- Further: while the body of the comet travels towards cal and absurd.
the Sun, sometimes with a velocity nearly one-third of The Sun's heat, at its surface, is 300,000 times that of light, the tail sends forth coruscations in the greater than at the surface of the Earth ; but a tenth opposite direction, with a much greater velocity. The of this amount, collected in the focus of a lens, dissi- greatest velocity with which we are acquainted on Earth pates gold and platina in vapour. When the most is the velocity of light, which travels a million of times vivid flames which we can produce are held up in the faster than a cannon ball, or at the rate of 195,000 miles blaze of his rays, they disappear. If a cataract of ice- per second; but here is a substance capable of travelling bergs, a mile high, and wider than the Atlantic Ocean, twenty-three times faster, and here is a force propelling were launched into the Sun with the velocity of a cannon it, twenty-three times greater than any which exists on ball, the small portion of the Sun's heat expended on Earth. Its existence was first discovered by the coruscaour Earth would convert that vast mass into stean as tions of the comet of 1807. “In less than one second, fast as it entered his atmosphere, without cooling its streamers shot forth, to two and a half degrees in surface in the least degree. “The great mystery, how- length ; they as rapidly disappeared, and issued out ever, is to conceive how so enormous a conflagration (if again, sometimes in proportions, and interrupted, like such it he) can be kept up. Every discovery in our northern lights. Afterwards, the tail varied, both in chemical science here leaves us completely at a loss, or length and breadth ; and in some of the observations, rather seems to remove further the prospect of probable the streamers shot forth from the whole expanded end explanation.” * Yet, the Sun is the nearest of the fixed of the tail, sometimes here, sometimes there, in an stars, and by far the best known, and most nearly re- instant, two and a half degrees long ; so that within a lated to us. In fact, we are dependent on his influences single second they must have shot out a distance of for life and health. But if the theorist cannot tell his 4, 600,000 miles.f Similar exhibitions of this unknown substance, or the nature and cause of the light and force were made by the comet of 1811, by Halley's comet, heat he sends us, how can he presume so far on the and several others. world's credulity as to present a theory of his forma- In these amazing disclosures of the unknown forces tion ?
of the heavens, do we not hear a voice rebuking the “Astronomical problems accumulate unsolved upon presumption of ignorant theorists, with the questions : our hands, because we cannot, as mechanicians, chem- Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? Canst thou ists, or physiologists, experiment on the stars. Are they set the dominion thereof in the earth ? Hear one of built of the same material as our planet ? Are Saturn's the most distinguished of modern astronomers expouni rings solid, or liquid ? Has the moon an atmosphere ? the moral hearings of such a discovery : “ The intimaAre the atmospheres of the planets like ours ? Are the tion of a new cosmical power-I mean, of one so unsuslight and heat of the Sun begotten of combustion ? | pected before, but which yet can follow a planet through And what is the fuel which feeds these unquenchable all its wanderings-throws us back once more into the infires ? These are questions which we ask, and variously definite obscure, and checks all dogmatism. How many answer, but leave unansvered after all.”+ But, till influences, hitherto undiscovered by our ruder senses, he can answer these, and a thonsand questions like may be ever streaming toward us, and modifying every these, let no man presume to describe the formation of terrestrial action! And yet, because we had traced these unknown orbs.
one of these, we have deemed our astronomy complete !
* Herschel's Outlines, vi., $ 400.
# Dr. George Wilson, F.R.S.E., in Edinburgh Phil. Journal, V., 53.
* Somerville's Connection of the Physical Sciences, 300.
Dick's Siderial Heavens, chap. XX.
Deeper far, and nearer to the root of things, is that tainty of our destiny, and but an imperfect acquaintance world with which man's destiny is entwined.” *
with the laws which govern this present world. If the We can have no reason, save our own self-sufficient Bible cannot inform us on these all-important questions, arrogance, to believe that the discovery of these two we must remain ignorant. Science declares she cannot forces exhausts the treasures of infinite wisdom. Hum- teach us. The Word of God remains, not merely the boldt thus well refutes the folly of such an imagination : best, but absolutely the only—the last resource of the “The imperfectibility of all empirical science, and the anxious son). boundlessness of the sphere of observation, render the The Bible gives us 110 theory of creation. It simply task of explaining the forces of matter by that which is asserts the fact, that " in the beginning God created variable in matter, an impracticable one. What has been the heaven and the earth,” but does not tell us how he already perceived by no means exhausts that which is The knowledge could be of no use to us, for he perceptible. If, simply referring to the progress of never means to employ us as his assistants in the work science in our own times, we compare the imperfect of creation. Nor could we understand the matter. The physical knowledge of Robert Boyle, Gilbert, and Hales, force by which he called the worlds into being, and upwith that of the present day, and remember that every holds them in it, exists in no creature. “He stretches few days are characterized by an increasing rapidity of forth the heavens alone. He spreadeth abroad the advance, we shall be better able to imagine the periodi- earth by himself.” “ He upholdeth all things by the cal and endless changes which all physical sciences are word of his power.” destined to undergo. New substances and new forces But it presents anxious, care-worn, humbled souls with will be discovered.+
something infinitely more precious than cosmogonies : Thus, ail true science, conscious of its ignorance, even an explicit declaration of the love towards them of ever leads the mind to the region of faith. Its first him who made these worlds. lesson, and its last lesson, is humility. It tells us that “ Thus saith the Lord, THY REDEEMER, every cosmogony which the children of theory so labori- " And he who formed thee from the womb: ously scratch in the sand, must be swept away by the “I am the LORD, who maketh all things ; rising tide of science. When we seek information on “ Who stretcheth forth the heavens alone, the great questions of our origin and destiny, and cry, “ And spreadeth abroad the earth, by myself.” “Where shall wisdom be found, and what is the place of Yes, the Creator of heaven and earth, who upholds understanding ?” the high priests of science answer, in all things by the word his power, became a man like her name, “ It is not in me; the measure thereof is you, and dwelt on earth, and suffered the sorrow, the longer than the earth, and broader than the sea.” shame, the pain, the death, that sinful man deserved ;
We receive this honest acknowledgment as an in- and when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down estimable boon. We are saved thereby the wearying at the right hand of the Majesty on high. From that labour of a vain and useless search after knowledge heavenly throne his voice now sounds, reader, in your which lies not in her domain. We come down to the ear, “Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy Bible with the profound conviction that science can laden, and I will give you rest.” give us no definite information of our origin, no cer
JOOD morning, uncle dear!” said Flora, cheeks ?" added he ; as, placing his hand affectionately
bounding into the rector's study in a under her chin, he tried to raise the little face to his most unceremonious manner on the fol- own. “What! no breath to answer with ? You must
lowing morning. A privileged visitor at not run so fast another time." all times was she.
With an arch sınile, Flora looked into her uncle's kindly “Good morning, mad-cap," said Mr. Sanar, returning face and said, “Oh, it will come back again soon. I ran her kiss. “What has brought such colour to these fast because I have a favour to ask—will you grant it me?"
“ First tell me what it is.” * Nicholl's Solar System, 76. # Cosmos, iii. 27. " It is to go and see my sweep, and to help him be
cause he has such a bad cold and cough. He can't go
to Before the latter left, he read a few verses from the school because his mother is too poor to send him, so I Bible, and besought Charlie to thank the great God, who want you to teach him—will you ?”
had brought such a blessing within his reach. Mr. 'Stop, stop, my pet; one question at a time. Who Sanar then left the cottage, followed by the blessing of is this sweep in whom you are so suddenly interested ? the widow. A woman of few words, she ever felt more Sit down quietly and explain all.”
than she could express to man. Not so with God, howThus urged, Flora sat down, still holding the hand of ever ; to him her heart spoke out of its abundance, and her uncle, and repeated the history of yesterday as calmly gratefully did she thank him now for this unlooked-for and connectedly as her excitement would allow.
answer to prayer. “And now, uncle dear, won't you help me, because I On his way home Mr. Sanar called upon his sister, am a little girl and cannot help him, you know ?” and told her that one difficulty in the way of Charlie
“Not so. I know nothiug of the kind, Flora dear. was the lack of suitable clothing. Flora, who was presNo little follower of the Lord Jesus is without power to ent, looked grave at this announcement; but her mother help another. Once brought to him, even a little child relieved her at once by promising to give him some of has work for him to do, that none other can do. There- her brother's, which had lain by ever since his death. fore there is work for you, with this little boy, and you | Fully did Mr. Sanar and Flora appreciate this sacrifice must ask your Master to show you what it is."
and effort on the part of Mrs. Westmore; for both rell “Oh, uncle ! do you really think so. I am glad if knew that the loss of Fred had been so keenly felt by
his mother, that the sound of his name, or the sight of “Yes, darling, I do think so. Even now I think that aught belonging to him, tried her to the uttermost. you have begun to do it, in seeking him and bringing the Even now, as she spoke, her face paled and her vcice case before me; but remember you must pray as well as faltered. Was this the first step in a new and bitherto work. Prayer, even from a child—if one of faith-moves untried path in the “narrow way”-that which excludes the great God to draw nigh to such, while it brings down SELF-was it? Was this a step taken, perchance, in an answer of peace to the pray-er. Yes ; wonderful is the dark ; guided by an unseen hand, yet the first in the thought that prayer can bend the Ruler of the the right way? Was this the first link in the cliain universe to stoop at the voice of a little child! Does which should afterwards bind the soul of Mrs. Westmore your little friend know the Saviour ?”
to her Saviour? Who can say? for God alone knows “No, uncle ; that is why I wanted your help.” the exact moment when his child begins to live. He
“Very well, dear. Then remember to pray that he only hears the first feeble wail which proves the life of may be brought to know Him. At present, that is work his infant. But this we do know, that from this very enough for you to do. I will go to see Charlie to-day morning, little by little, was Mrs. Westmore led to walk Though I have been here only a few months, I thought with God, following in the footsteps of a little child, who I knew all my people. But it seems that I do not.” showed her the way to Jesus ;—that child was Flora!
“Ah, uncle! that is because they used to go to a Already had her Master shown to her the work she was church nearer to them. They have only come to Swan to do for him, in answer to her own prayer. Alley lately, and he has not been well enough to go to Swiftly flew past the remaining days of the week. school--but that reminds me. Papa says he will pay On Saturday the suit of clothes was given to the grateful Charlie's school-fees for one year.”
widow, with the promise of one shilling a week, in “All right. Now, unless you niean to dine with us, future, to make up the loss she would sustain in allosyou must start at once, for it is just one o'clock, pet.” ing Charlie to attend school regularly. Flora looked
“No, thank you, I must not stop to dinner. So forward to Sunday for the pleasure of seeing her protege good-bye, dear, good uncle.”
at church among the school children; but she was “Good-bye, little flatterer," was Mr. Sanar's answer, doomed to disappointment. Clear and fine as the day as his little niece ran out of the room, shaking her head proved, no Charlie appeared either morning or afternoon. reprovingly at him for this last epithet.
Keenly did Flora feel her disappointment-so keenly, The afternoon found Mr. Sanar seated by the fireside of that it evidenced to others how niuch this disappointment the widow, in conversation with Charlie, and making ar- was needed in order to teach her that her will was not rangements for his regular attendance at school. Will- yet bent to the will of God. Eagerly had she seized ingly had his mother given her consent, for she felt that the upon a piece of work to do for him, with a heart full of little he earned, though a loss to her, would be nothing love. But she was ignorant of the fact that her heart compared with the gain of having her boy educated. must do God's work in his own time and manner. This Gratefully, therefore, she thanked the clergyman for his she had to learn from her uncle in the afternoon, who interest, and promised that Charlie should be at school wisely put it before her as they walked home from church on the following Monday. As for Charlie, his joy knew together. no bounds when he heard the good news.
In his own
* God is teaching his little one to be patient, Flora mind he called Flora a "little angel ;" but he was too dear; asking her to give up her own way, to trust bim shy to express his thoughts before the clergyman. to do what is best for his little wanderer, Charlie. Shall
he ask in vain ? Will his child turn away and sulk this This came at last. “Yes, pet. If Miss Prescott do not afternoon, because she cannot have all she wanted done mind, perhaps she will kindly wait outside for you, while carried out at once ?”
you speak with Charlie. I cannot let you walk there As Mr. Sanar ceased speaking, he looked down kindly alone, remember.” upon the little child at his side. For a few moments no “Oh no, mamma, that would not do, it is so cold ; answer canie ; then he felt his hand gently pressed, and but if Miss Prescott would take me to Mrs. Astlake, looking into the face now raised to his, he read the and then go on into the town, and call for me on her wished-for answer before he heard the whispered, “No, way back, that would do nicely ;-don't you think so, uncle, I won't fret; I will leave Charlie to God.” mamma ?”
“That is right, my pet. You have still the way of “It would, therefore you may ask her.” prayer open ; take it for to-day, and to-morrow we will Permission obtained, Flora found herself soon after in find out, between us, what has come to Charlie.” the room of the widow, standing all alone by the bedside
The morrow told its tale. Charlie's cough was so much of Charlie. For a time both children were too shy to worse, that he could not leave his bed. The doctor de- speak; then recollecting that Miss Prescott would soon sired that he should not do so for some days. All parties return from the town, Flora conquered her timidity, and concerned felt the disappointment and delay in Charlie's anxious to disburden her heart of its load, she turned attendance at school. None felt it so keenly as the to Charlie with the question, “Do you love the Lord little invalid himself, however.
Jesus?" Days passed rapidly. Charlie did not improve ; yet “Don't know, miss; not much, I fear.” nourishment in every form found its way into his room “But why not, when you know all he has done for us, from the “ big house," as it was still called by him. Charlie ?" Gratefully as all was received, the strength of Charlie “Yes, I know the story; but somehow I don't care did not return. Mr. Sanar visited the cottage daily, and much about him, 'cause he is so far off.” sought to build upon the foundation of texts and hymns "O Charlie, don't speak so. He is not far off. He is which had been stored in the boy's memory, even while close to us now, and hears all we are saying. I wish you his heart was untouched. But in this case no fruit ap- did love him !” added the little girl, while tears came peared; for though Charlie would listen respectfully to into her eyes as she spoke. Mr. Sanar, he yet showed no interest in the subject of “Oh! don't take it to heart like that, little miss. I'll conversation. This was a great trial to the good clergy try to love him, if it bothers you so. If he'd only take man, as well as to the poor widow. “ Persevere in away this cough, and let me go to school now, I'd love
,” him then
one morning, when she had followed him to the end of “ No, Charlie, I do not think so, because the Bible says
the alley to tell out her heart trouble. “ Persevere, we cannot love him of ourselves. If you do not love and in God's time a blessing will surely come.”
Jesus for dying to save you and make you good-dying And what of Flora all this time-was she forgetful of to open a way for you to go to heaven-then, I do not her little protegé? No. Daily in her own small cham- think you could love him, even if he let you get well ber did she kneel and pray for Charlie, that God would and go to school. No, Charlie, I think you want what make him learn to love Jesus ; that if he did not wish uncle calls the new heart ;' that means God's Spirit in Charlie to get well, and go to school, then that he would it, making you quite different from what you were born, take charge of him and teach him himself ; teach him, and able to love God!” too, without their help in any way, if only he were Turning restlessly in the bed, Charlie looked away, thus taught of God.
while a fit of coughing prevented him speaking for a few Did the Hearer of prayer turn a deaf ear to the voice moments; then he said, “ But, miss, I want to go to of his own Spirit rising from the heart of a little child ? school; and when it was all so near. Everything square He could not, and the result will prove that he did not. for me to go, too; why, if he loves me, did Jesus go and
upset it all."
A sudden thought flashed across Flora's mind. “I CHAPTER IV.
think I know, Charlie: it is this,- I think you have been
at school all this time, only you didn't know it." CONCLUSION.
“Oh, miss, how do you make that out, when I ain't “ MAMMA, may I stay and speak with Charlie all alone left this bed for months, except to sit in the chair by the to-day?" Such was the request of little Flora sone fire? weeks after the decision given by the doctor that Charlie was not to leave the house during the winter months. school to himself. This bed is the school-room. He is March had now set in, and though the morning was cold, going to be your teacher; and the lesson you have to it was a day to delight in for a brisk walk. Flora stood learn, is to love him thongh he will not give you your now before her mother, anxiously waiting for the answer own way. There now, Charlie ; I am sure I have made it
I to her petition.
out, and all right, too! And just think,-you have the
* This way, Charlie : I think God has put you to