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Nor can he bear the weight of a larger gem;
It is difficult not to write satire. For who can so endure 30
The wicked city-who is so insensible, as to contain himself?
When the new litter of lawyer Matho comes
Full of himself: and after him the secret accuser of a great

And who is soon about to seize from the devoured nobility
What remains : whom Maila fears: whom with a gift 35
Carus fooths, and Thymele sent privately from trembling

Latinus, When they can remove you, who earn last wills By night, and whom the luft of some rich old woman (The best way of the highest success now-a-days) lifts up

into heaven.

But, by the poet's manner of expression, it should rather seem, that, the person meant, was some great man, who had been a friend to Matho, and whom Matho had basely betrayed. :. 34. From the devoured nobility.) i. e. Destroyed through secret accusations, or pillaged by informers for hush-money.

35. Whom Massa fears.] Babius Massa, an eminent informer ; but so much more eminent was M. Regulus, above mentioned, in this way, that he was dreaded even by Massa, left he should inform against him.

36. Carus fooths.] This was another of the same infamous profession, who bribed Regulus, to avoid some secret accusation,

Thymele.] The wife of Latinus the famous mimic; Me was sent privately by her husband and prostituted to Regu. lus, in order to avoid some information which Latinus dreaded, and trembled under the apprehension of.

37. Can remove you.] i. e. Set you aside, supplant you in the good graces of Tettators.

Who earn laft wills, &c.] Who procure wills to be made in their favour.—The poet here satirizes the lewd and indecent practices of certain rich old women at Rome, who kept men for their criminal pleasures, and then, at their death, left them their heirs, in preference to all others.

39. The best way, &c.] By this the poet means to expose and condemn these monstrous indecencies. Into heaven.) i. e. Into the highest state of affluence.

40. Proculeius

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Unciolam Proculeius habet, fed Gillo deuncem:
Partes quisque suas, ad mensuram inguinis hæres;
Accipiat fanè mercedem fanguinis, & fic
Palleat, ut nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem,
Aut Lugdunensem rhetor dicturus ad arain.

Quid referam ? quantâ ficcum jecur ardeat irâ, 45
Cum populum gregibus comitum premat hic fpoliator
Pupilli proftantis ? & hic damnatus inani
Judicio (quid enim falvis infamia nummis ?)
Exul ab octava Marius bibit, & fruitur Dîs
Iratis: at tu victrix provincia ploras!


40. Proculeius-Gillo.] Two noted paramours of these old ladies.

A small pittance a large share.) Unciola, literally fignifies, a little ounce, one part in twelve.-Deunx-a pound lacking an ounce--eleven ounces-eleven parts of any other thing divided into twelve.

42. Of his blood.] i.e. Of the ruin of his health and conftitution, by these abominable practices.

43. Presed a snake.] By treading on it. See Virg. Æn.ii. 1. 379-80.

44. The altar of Lyons.] The emperor Caligula instituted, at this place, games, wherein orators and rhetoricians were to , contend for a prize. Those, whose performances were not approved, were to wipe them out with a spunge, or to lick them out with their tongue: or else to be punished with ferules, or thrown into the sea.

45. What shall I say?] Q.D.-How shall I find words to express the indignation which I feel?

My dry liver burns.] The antients considered the liver, as the seat of the irafcible and concupiscible affections. So Hor. Lib. 1. Od. xiii. 1. 4. says.

Dificili bile tumet jecur—to express his resentment and jea. lousy, at hearing his mistress commend a rival.

Again, Lib. 4. Od.i. 1. 12. Si torrere jecur quæris idoneumby which he means-kindling the passion of love within the breast. Our poet here means to express the workings of anger

and resentment within him, at feeing so many examples of vice and folly around him, and, particularly, in those instances which he is now going to mention.

46. A spoiler of his pupil, &c.] The tutelage of young men, who had lost their parents, was committed to guardians, who



Proculeius has a small pittance, Gillo has a large share: 40 Every one takes his portion, as heir, according to the fa

vour he procures : Well let him receive the reward of his blood, and become as Pale, as one who hath pressed with his naked heels a snake, Or as a rhetorician, who is about to declaim at the altar of

Lyons. What shall I say?-With how great anger my dry liver burns,

45 When here a spoiler, of his pupil exposed to hire, presses on

the people With flocks of companions? and here, condemned by a

frivolous Judgment (for what is infamy when money is safe) The exile Marius drinks from the eighth hour, and enjoys the Angry gods? but thou, vanquishing province, lamentet! 50

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were to take care of their estates and education. Here one is represented, as spoliator--a spoileri.e. a plunderer or pillager of his ward as to his affairs, and then making money of his person, by hiring him out, for the vileft purposes. Hence, he says-- Prostantis pupilli.

Preses on the people.] Grown rich by the spoils of his ward, he is Tupposed to be carried, in a litter, along the streets, with such a crowd of attendants, as to incommode other pafsengers.

49. The exile Marius.] Marius Priscus, proconsul of Africa, who, for pillaging the province of valt sums of money, was condemned to be banished.

47–8. By a frivolous judgment.) Inani judicio-because, though inflicted on Marius, it was of no fervice to the injured province; for, instead of restoring to it the treasures, of which it had been plundered, part of these, to a vast amount, were put into the public treasury. As for Marius himself, he lived in as

puch feftivity as if nothing had happened, as the next two verses inform us.

49. From the eighth hour.] Began his caroufals from two o'clock in the afternoon, which was reckoned an instance of difsoluteness and luxury, it being an hour fooner than it was cur. tomary to fit down to meals, See note on Sat. xi. 1. 204, and on Persius, Sat.iii. 1. 4. 49-50. He enjoys the angry gods.] Though Marius had in


Hæc ego non credam Venusinâ digna lucernâ ?
Hæc ego non agitem ? fed quid magis Heracleas,
Aut Diomedeas, aut mugitum labyrinthi;
Et mare percuffum puero, fabrumque volantem?
Cum leno accipiat mcechi bona, fi capiendi
Jus nullum uxori, doctus spectare lacunar,
Doctus & ad calicem vigilanti stertere naso:


curred the anger of the gods by his crimes, yet, regardless of this, he enjoyed himself in a state of the highest jollity and feftivity.

Vanquishing province, &c.] Victrix-was used as a forensic term, to denote one who had got the better in a lawfuit. The province of Africa had sued Marius, and had car: ried the cause against him, but had still reason to deplore her losses: for though Marius was sentenced to pay an immense fine, which came out of what he had pillaged, yet this was put into the public treasury, and no part of it given to the Africans; and, besides this, Marius had reserved sufficient to maintain himself in a luxurious manner. See above note on 1. 47-8.

51. Worthy the Venufinian lamp?] i.e. The pen of Horace himself ?- This charming writer was born at Venusium, a city of Apulia. When the poets wrote by night they made use of a lamp.

52. Shall I not agitate, &c.] Agitem-implies pursuing, as hunters do wild beasts-hunting-chasing.--So inveighing against by Satire, driving such vices as he mentions out of their lurking places, and hunting them down, as it were, in order to destroy them.

But why rather Heracleans.] Juvenal here anticipates the supposed objections of fome, who might, perhaps, advise him to employ his talents on some fabulous, and more poetical subjects--Such as the labours of Hercules, &c.--" Why should “ I prefer these (as if he had said) when so many subjects « in real life occur, to exercise my pen in a more useful


53. Or Diomedeans.] i.e. Verses on the exploits of Dio. mede, a king of Thrace, who fed his horses with man’s flesh Hercules flew him, and threw him to be devoured by his own horses.

The lowing of the labyrinth.) The story of the Minotaur, the monster kept in the labyrinth of Crete, who was half a bull, and Aain by Theseus. See Ainsw. Minotaurus. 54. The sea Aricken by a boy.] The story of Icarus, who Ay

Shall I not believe these things worthy the Venusinian lamp? Shall I not agitate these (subjects ?)—but why rather He

racleans, Or Diomedeans, or the lowing of the labyrinth, And the sea stricken by a boy, and the Aying artificer? When the bawd can take the goods of the adulterer (if of taking

55 There is no right to the wife) taught to look upon the ceiling, Taught also at a cup to snore with a vigilant nose.

ing too near the sun, melted the wax by which his wings were faftened together; and fell into the sea; from him called Icarian. See Hor. Lib. 4. Od. ii. 1. 2-4.

The flying artificer.] Dedalus-who invented and made wings for himself and his son Icarus, with which they fled from Crete. See Ainsw. Dædalus.

55. The Bawd.] The husband—who turns bawd by prostituting his wife for gain, and thus receives the goods of the adulterer, as the price of her chastity.

56. There is no right to the wife.] Domitian made a law to forbid the use of litters (see note, 1. 32.) to adulterous wives, and to deprive them of taking legacies or inheritances by will. This was evaded, by making their husbands panders to their lewdness, and so caufing the legacies to be given to them.

Taught to look upon the ceiling.) As inobservant of his wife's infamy then transacting before him-this he was well killed in. See Hor. Lib. 3. Ode vi. 1. 25–32.

57. At a cup, &c.] Another device was, to set a large cup on the table, which the husband was to be supposed to have emptied of the liquor which it had contained, and to be nodding over it, as if in a druken sleep.

To snore with vigilant nose.] Snoring is an evidente that a man is fast asleep, therefore, the husband knew well how to exhibit this proof, by snoring aloud, which is a peculiar symptom of a drunken sleep. The poet uses the epithet Vigilanti, here, very humourously, to denote, that though the man seemed to be fast

alleep by his snoring, yet his nose seemed to be awake by the noise it made. So PLAUT. in Milite.

An dormit Sceledrus intùs ? Non naso quidem,
Nam eo magno magnum clamat.
Is Sceledras alleep within?
Why, truly, not with his nose ; for with that large inftru-
ment he makes noise enough.


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