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To crimes they owe, gardens, palaces, tables,

75 Old silver, and a goat standing on the outside of cups. Whom does the corrupter of a covetous daughter-in-law

suffer to sleep?
Whom base spouses, and the noble young adulterer?
If nature denies, indignation makes verfe
Such as it can : such as I, or Cluvienus.

80 From the time that Deucallion (the fhowers lifting up the

fea) Ascended the mountain with his bark, and asked for lots, And the soft stones by little and little grew warm with life, And Pyrrha shewed to males naked damsels,

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80. Such as I, or Cluvienus.] i. e. Make or write. The poet names himself with Cluvienus (some bad poet of his time) that he might the more freely satirize him, which he at the same time does, the more severely, by the comparison.

81. From the time that Deucalion.]. This, and the three following lines, relate to the hiftory of the deluge, as described by Ovid. See Met. Lib. i. 1. 264–315. 82. Ascended the mountain, &c.] Alluding to Ovid

Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus aftra duobus,
Nomine Parnassus-
Hic ubi Deucalion (nam cætera texerat æquor)
Cum conforte tori parvâ rate vectus adhæsit.

Asked for lots.] Sortes, here, means the oracles, or billets, on which the answers of the gods were written. Ovid (ubi fuprâ) 1. 367–8. represents Deucalion, and his wife Pyrrha, resolving to go to the temple of the goddess Themis, to enquire in what manner mankind should be restored.

placuit cælefte precari
Numen, & auxilium

per
facras
quærere

fortes. And I. 381. Mota Dea eft, fortemque dedit. Again, I. 389. Verba datæ fortis.

To this Juvenal alludes in this line; wherein fortes may be rendered oracular answers.

83. The soft ftones, &c.] When Deucalion and Pyrrha, haying consulted the oracle how mankind might be repaired, were answered, that this would be done, by their casting the bones of their great mother behind their backs, they picked ftones C 3

from

Quicquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 85
Gaudia, difcurfus, nostri est farrago libelli,
Et quando uberior vitiorum copia? quando
Major avaritiæ patuit sinus ? alea quando
Hos animos? neque enim loculis comitantibus itur
Ad casum tabulæ, pofitâ sed luditur arcâ.
Prælia quanta illic dispensatore videbis
Armigero! simplexne furor feftertia centum
Perdere, & horrenti tunicam non reddere servo?

90

from off the earth, and cast them behind their backs, and they became men and women.

Juffos lapides sua poft veftigia mittunt :
Saxa
Ponere duritiem cæpêre, suumque rigorem,
Mollirique morâ, mollitaque ducere formam, &c.

Ib. l. 3994402 Hence Juvenal says-mollia faxa.

It is most likely, that the whole account of the deluge, given by Ovid, is a corruption of the Mosaical history of that event.-Plutarch mentions the dove sent out of the ark.

86. The composition, &c.] Farrago fignifies a mixture, an hodge-podge--as we say, of various things mixed together, 'The poet means, that the various pursuits, inclinations, actions, and passions of men, and all those human follies and vices, which have exifted, and have been increasing, ever since the flood, are the subjects of his fatires.

88. Bofom of avarice.) A metaphorical allusion to the fail of a ship when expanded to the wind--the centre whereof is called finus-the bosom. The larger the fail, and the more opened and spred it is, the greater the capacity of the bosom for receiving the wind, and the more powerfully, is the ship driven on through the sea.

Thus avarice spreads itself far and wide ; it catches the inclinations of men, as the fail the wind, and thus it drives them on in a full course--when more than at present ? says the poet.

The die.] A chief inftrument of gaming-put here for gaming itself. Meton,

89. These spirits.] Animus fignifies fpirit or courage ; and in this sense we are to understand it here. As if the poet faid, When was gaming fo encouraged ? or when had games of hazard, which were forbidden by the law (except only during the Saturnalia) the courage to appear fo open and frequently as they

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85

Whatever men do---defire, fear, anger, pleasure, - Joys, discourse is the composition of my little book. And when was there a more fruitful plenty of vices? when Has a greater bosom of avarice lain open? when the die. These spirits !--- they do not go, with purses accompanying, To the chance of the table, but a chest being put down is played for.

90 How many battles will you see there, the steward Armour-bearer? is it simple madness an hundred sestertia To lose, and not give a coat to a ragged servant ?

do now? The sentence is elliptical, and must be supplied with habuit, or some other verb of the kind, to govern-hos animos.

They do not go with purses, &c.] Gaming has now gotten to such an extravagant height, that gametters are not content to play for what can be carried in their purses, bet stake a whole chest of money at a time-this seems to be implied by the word politâ. Pono fometimes fignifies-laying a wagerputting down as a stake. See an example of this sense, from Plautus, Ainsw. pono, No 5.

91. How many battles, &c.] i. e. How many attacks on one another at play.

The Reward.] Dispensator fignifies a dispenser, a Neward, one that lays out money, a manager.

92. Armour-bearer.] The armigeri were fervants who fol. Jowed their masters with their shields, and other arms, when they went to fight. The poet still carries on the metaphor of prælia in che preceding line. There gaming is compared to fighte ing; here he humourously calls the steward the armour bearer, as supplying his master with money, a necessary weapon at a gaming-table, to stake at play, instead of keeping and dispenSing it, or laying it out for the usual and honest expences of the family.

Simple madness, &c.] All this is a species of madness, but not without mixture of injury and mischief; and therefore may be reckoned something more than mere madness, where fuch immense sums are thrown away at a gaming table, as that the servants of the family can't be afforded common decent necessaries. The Romans had their feltertius and sester. tium. The latter is here meant, and contains 1000 of the former, which was worth about id. See l. 106, n.

93. And not give a coat, &c.] The poet here puts one in{tance, for many, of the ruinous consequences of gaming. Juvenal, by this, severely censures the gamesters, who had

rather

C4

95

Quis totidem erexit villas ? quis fercula septem
Secretò cænavit avus? nunc sportula primo
Limine parva sedet, turbæ rapienda togatæ.
Ille tamen faciem prius infpicit, & trepidat ne
Suppofitus venias, ac falso nomine poscas :
Agnitus accipies. jubet a præcone

vocari Ipfos Trojugenas : nam vexant limen & ipfi Nobiscum: da Prætori, da deinde Tribuno.

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father lose a large sum at the dice, than lay it out for the comfort, happiness, and decent maintenance of their families.

94. So many villas.] Houses of pleasure for the summer-seafon. These were usually built and furnished at a vast expence. The poet having inveighed against their fquandering at the gaming-table, now attacks their luxury, and prodigality in other respects ; and then, the excessive meanness into which they were sunk.

95. Supped in secret, &c.] The antient Roman nobility, in order to Thew their munificence and hospitality, used, at certain times, to make an handsome and splendid entertainment, to which they invited their clients and dependents. Now they thut out there, and provided a sumptuous entertainment for themselves only, which they sat down to in private. Which of our ancestors,

says the

poet,

did this? Now a little basket, &c.] Sportula-a little basket or pannier, made of a kind of broom called sportum. Kennet, Antiq. p. 375. In this were put victuals, and some small sums of money, to be distributed to the poor clients and dependents at the outward door of the house, who were no longer invited, as formerly, to the entertainment within.

96. To be snatched, &c.] i.e. Eagerly received by the hungry poor clients, who crowded about the door.

The gowned crowd.] The common sort of people were called turba togata, from the gowns they wore, by which they were distinguished from the higher fort. See note before on 1. 3. 97. But be.] i. e. The person who diftributes the dole.

First inspects the face.] That he may be certain of the person he gives to.

And trembles.] At the apprehension of being severely reproved by his master, the great man, if he should make a mistake, by giving people who affume a false name, and pretend themselves to be clients when they are not.

99. Acknowledged, &c.] Agnitus-owned-acknowledged, as one for whom the dole is provided.

Perhaps,

1

Who has erected so many villas ? What ancestor on seven

dishes Has fupped in secret? Now a small basket at the first 95 Threshold is set, to be snatched by the gowned crowd. But he first inspects the face, and trembles, left Put in the place of another you come, and ask in a false name. Acknowledged you will receive. He commands to be

called by the crier The very descendents of the Trojans: for even they molest the threshold

100 Together with us : “Give to the Prætor-then give to the

Tribune.”

Perhaps, in better days, when the clients and dependents of great men were invited to partake of an entertainment within. doors, there was a sportula, or dole-basket, which was diftri. buted, at large, to the poor, at the doors of great men's houses. Now times were altered ; no invitation of clients to feast within doors, and no distribution of doles, to the poor at large, without--none now got any thing here, but the excluded clients, and what they got was distributed with the utmost caution, l. 97-8.

He commands to be called.) i. e. Summoned called together. The poet is now about to inveigh against the meanness of many of the nobles, and magistrates of Rome, who could suffer themselves to be summoned, by the common crier, in order to share in the distribution of the dole-baskets.

100. The very descendents of the Trojans.] Ipfos Trojugenas-from Troja-or Trojanus-and gigno.-The very people, says he, who boast of their descent from Æneas, and the antient Trojans, who first came to settle in Italy ; even these are so degenerate, as to come and scramble, as it were, among the poor, for a part of the sportula. The word ipfos makes the sarcasm the stronger.

Moleft the threshold.] Crowd about it, and are very troublesome. So Hor. Lib.i. Sat. viii. 1. 18.hunc vexare locum. 101. With us.] Avec nous autres as the French fay.

Give to the Prætor.] In Juvenal's time this was a title of a chief magiftrate, something like the lord-mayor of London-He was called Prætor Urbanus, and had power to judge matters of law between citizen and citizen, This seems

to

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