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An hundred farthings seek; and the wife follows the husband, And, fick or pregnant, is led about. This asks for the absent, cunning in a known art, Shewing the empty and shut-up sedan instead of the wife. “ It is my Galla (says he) dismiss her quickly: do you delay?”

125 « Galla put out your head ”. « don't vex her, she is

“ asleep." The day itself is distinguished by a beautiful order of

things: The sportula, then the forum, and Apollo learned in the law, And the triumphals: among which, an Ægyptian, I know

not who, Has dared to have titles : and an Arabian præfect; 130

1

¥28. The forum.) The common place where courts of juftice were kept, and matters of judgment pleaded. Hither they next resorted to entertain themselves with hearing the causes which were there debated.

Apollo learned in the law.] Auguftus built and dedicated a temple and library to Apollo, in his palace on mount Palatine ; in which were large collections of law-books, as well as the works of all the famous authors in Rome. Hor. Lib. i. Epist. iii. 1. 16, 17. mentions this

Et tangere vitat Scripta Palatinus quæcunque recepit Apollo. But I should rather think, that the poet means here, the forum which Augukus built, where, it is said, there was an ivory ftatue of Apollo, which Juvenal represents as learned in the law, from the constant pleadings of the lawyers in that place. Here idle people used to lounge away their time.

129. The triumphals.] The statues of heroes, and kings, and other great men who had triumphed over the enemies of the state. These were placed in great numbers in the forum of Auguftus, and in other public parts of the city,

-- An Ægyptian, &c.] Some obscure low wretch, wlio for no desert, but only on account of his wealth, had his statue placed there.

130. An Arabian prefect.] Arabarches--So Pompey is called by Cic. Epift. ad Attic. 1. 2. Epift. xvii. because he con

quered

Cujus ad effigiem non tantùm meiere fas eft.
Vestibulis abeunt veteres, lassique clientes,
Votaque deponunt, quanquam longissima cænæ
Spes homini : caules miferis, atque ignis emendus.
Optima fylvarum interea, pelagique vorabit

135 Rex horum, vacuisque toris tantùm ipse jacebit : Nam de tot pulchris, & latis orbibus, & tam Antiquis, unâ comedunt patrimonia menfà. quered a great part of Arabia, and made it tributary to Rome. But Juvenal means, here, some infamous character, who had probably been præfect, or vice-roy, over that country, and had, by rapine and extortion, returned to Rome with great riches, and thus got a ftatue erected to him, like the Ægyptian above mentioned, whom fome suppose to have been in a like occupation in Ægypt, and therefore called Ægyptius. Arabarches from Agal or Agaboos and acxa.

131. To make water.] There was a very severe law on those who did this, at or near the images of great men.

This our poet turns into a jest on the statues above mentioned. Some are for giving the line another turn, as if Juvenal meant, that it was right, or lawful, not only to do this non tantùm meire, but something worse. But I take the first interpretation to be the sense of the author, by which he would intimate, that the ftatues of such vile people were not only erected among those of great men, but were actually protected, like them, from all marks of indignity. So Perf. Sat. i. l. 114. Sacer est locus, ite prophani,-extrà meite.

132. The old and tired clients.] The clients were retainers, or dependents, on great men, who became their patrons : to these the clients paid all reverence, honour, and obfervance. The patrons, on their part, afforded them their interest,

protection, and defence. They also, in better times, made entertainments, to which they invited their clients. See before, note on 1.

95. Here the poor clients are represented, as wearied out with waiting, in long expectation of a fupper, and going away in despair, under their disappointment. Cliens is derived from Greek xheww, celebro-celebrem reddo-for it was no small part of their business to flatter and praise their pa

Vestibules.] The porches, or entries, of great men's houses.

trons.

Vestibulum ante ipsum, primoque in limine.

Virg. Æn. ii. 1. 469.

134. Pota

At whose image it is not right so much as to make water.
The old and tired clients go away from the vestibules,
And lay aside their wishes, altho' the man has had a very long
Expectation of a supper: pot-herbs for the wretches, and

fire is to be bought. Mean while their lord will devour the best things of the woods, and of the sea,

135 And he only will lie on the empty beds : For from so many beautiful, and wide, and antient dishes, They devour patrimonies at one meal.

134. Pot-herbs.) Caulis properly denotes the stalk or stem of an herb, and, by Synecdoche, any kind of pot-herb-especially coleworts, or cabbage. See Ainsw. Caulis, No 2.

- To be bought.] The hungry wretches go from the patron's door, in order to lay out the poor pittance which they may have received from the sportula, in some kind of potherbs, and in buying a little firewood, in order to dress them for a scanty meal. The

poet seems to mention this, by way of contrast to what follows.

135. Their Lord.) i. e. The patron of these clients. Rex, not only signifies a king-but any great or rich man: so a patron. See Juv. Sat. v. I. 14. This, from the power

and do. minion which he exercised over his clients. Hence, as well as from his protection and care over them, he was called Patronus, from the Greek nalewo-wvos from maing, a father.

Mean while.) i.e. While the poor clients are forced to take

up with a few boiled coleworts. - The best things of the woods, &c.] The woods are to be ransacked for the choicest game, and the sea for the finest forts of fish, to satisfy the patron’s gluttony: these he will devour, without asking any body to partake with him.

136. On the empty beds.] The Romans lay along on beds, or couches, at their meals. Several of these beds are here supposed to be round the table, which were formerly occupied by his friends and clients, but they are now vacant-not a single guest is invited to occupy them, or to partake of the entertain. ment with this selfish glutton.

137. Dishes.). Which were round-in an orbicular shape.com hence called orbes.

Beautiful.] Of a beautiful pattern-antient valuable for their antiquity; made, probably, by some artists of old time.

138. At one meal.] Mena- lit. table-which (by Meton) ftands here for what is set upon it. Thus they waste and devour their estates, in this abominable and felfish gluttony.

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139. No

140

Nullus jam parasitus erit : sed quis feret istas
Luxuriæ fordes ? quanta eft gula, quæ sibi totos
Ponit apros,

animal

propter convivia natum ? Pæna tamen præsens, cum tu deponis amictus Turgidus, & crudum pavonem in balnea portas : Hinc fubitæ mortes, atque intestata senectus. It nova, nec tristis

per

cunctas fabula cænas :
Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis.
Nil erit ulterius, quod noftris moribus addat
Posteritas : eadem cupient, facientque minores.

145

139. No parasite.). From augue, near--and oilov, food.

These were a kind of jesters, and Aatterers, who were frequently invited to the tables of the great; and who, indeed, had this in view, when they Aattered and paid their court to them. Terence, in his Eunuch, has given a most spirited and masterly specimen of parasites, in his inimitable character of Gnatho.

But fo fallen were the great into the meanest avarice, and into the most sordid luxury, that they could gormandize by themselves, without even inviting a parasite to flatter or divert them. But who, even though a parasite, would endure (feret) such a fight?

140. Filthiness of luxury.) Sordes--nastinessma happy word to describe the beastliness of such gluttony with regard to the patron himself--and its stinginess, and niggardlinels, with respect to others.

How great is the gullet.] The gluttonous appetite of these men.

--Puts.] Ponit-sets--places on the table.

141. Whole boars, &c.] A whole boar at a time the wild boar, especially the Tuscan, was an high article of luxury, át, all grand entertainments. The word natum is here used as the word natis. Hor. Lib. i. Od. xxvii. 1.1.-See also Ov. Met. Lib. xv. l. 117.

Quid meruiftis, oves, placidum pecus, inque tuendos

NATUM homines ? Juvenal speaks as if boars were made and produced for to other purpose than convivial entertainments. 142. 1 present punishment.] Of such horrid gluttony.

Put of your cloaths.) Strip yourself for bathing. 143. Turgid.] Turgidus--swoln-puffed up, with a stomach.

143. Ar

There will now be no parasite: but who will bear that Filthiness of luxury ? how great is the gullet, which, for itself, puts

140 Whole boars, an animal born for feasts? Yet there is a present punishment, when you put off your

cloaths,
Turgid, and carry an indigested peacock to the baths :
Hence sudden deaths, and inteftate old age.
A new story, nor is it a sorrowful one, goes thro' all com-
panies :

145
A funeral, to be applauded by angry friends, is carried forth.
There will be nothing farther, which posterity can add
To our morals : those born after us, will defire, and do the

same things.

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143. An indigested peacock.] Which you have devoured, and which is crude and indigested within you.

To the baths.] It was the custom to bathe before meals ; the contrary was reckoned unwholesome. See Pers. Sat. iii. l. 98-105. and Hor. Epift. Lib. i. Ep. vi. l. 61.

144. Sudden deaths.] Apoplexies and the like, which arise from too great repletion. Bathing, with a full ftomach, must be likely to occasion these, by forcing the blood with too great violence towards the brain.

Inteftate old age.] i. e. Old gluttons thus suddenly cut off, without time to make their wills.

145. A new story, &c.] A fresh piece of news, which nobody is sorry for.

146. A funeral is carried forth.) The word ducitur is peculiarly used to denote the carrying forth a corpse to burial, or to the funeral pile. So Virg. Geor. iv. 256.

Exportant tectis, & tristia funera DUCUNT. Owing, perhaps, to the procession of the friends, &c. of the deceased, which went before the corpse, and led it to the place of burning, or interment.

Applauded by angry friends.] Who, disobliged by having nothing left them, from the deceased's dying sud. denly, and without a will, express their resentment by rejoicing at his death, inftead of lamenting it. See Pers. Sat. vi. 33-4.

148. To our morals.] Our vices and debaucheries, owing to the depravity and corruption of our morals.

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148. Those

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