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Horum fimplicitas miferabilis, his furor ipse
this disease was, may appear from line 12, 13,
of this Satire, as it stands in the original. Perhaps Rom. i. 27, latter part, may allude to something of this fort.
18. The fimplicity of these.] The undisguised and open man. ner of such people, who thus proclaim their vice, is rather pi. tiable, as it may be reckoned a misfortune, rather than any thing else, to be born with such a propensity. See notes on I 16.
-- These madness itself, &c.] Their ungovernable mad. ness in the service of their vices, their inordinate passion, stands as fome excuse for their practices, at least, comparatively with those who affect to condemn such characters as Peribonius, and yet do the same that he does.
20. Of Hercules.] This alludes to the story of Hercules, who, when he was a youth, uncertain in which way he should whether in the paths of virtue, or in those of pleasure, was supposed to see an apparition of two women, the one Virtue, the Other Pleasure, each of which used many arguments to gain him but he made choice of Virtue, and repulsed the other with the feverelt reproaches. See Xen. Memor, and Cic. de Offic. Lib. i.
21. Sextus.] Some infamous character of the kind above mentioned.
22. Varillus.] Another of the same stamp. The poet here supposes one of these wretches as gravely and severely reproaching the other. What! says Varillus, in answer, need I fear any thing you can say ? in what can you make me out to be worse than yourself?
23. Let the strait, &c.] These proverbial expressions mean to expose the folly and impudence of such, who censure others for vices which they themselves practise. See Matt. vii. 3-5 See Hor. Sat. vii. Lib. ii. 1. 40_2.
The fimplicity of these is pitiable; these madness itself
thou art ?
This fentiment is pursued and exemplified in the instances following:
24: The Gracchi.] Caius and Tiberius, tribunes, who raised great disturbances, on their introducing the Agrarian law, to divide the common fields equally among the people. At length they were both flain : Tiberius, as he was making a fpeech to the people, by Publius Nasica; and Caius, by the command of the consul Opimius.
25. Mix heaven with earth.] i.e. Exclaim in the loudeft and strongest terms, like him in Terence.
O ccelum ! O terra ! O maria Neptuni ! 26. Verres.] Prætor in Sicily, who was condemned and banished for plundering that province.
Milo.] He killed P. Clodius, and was unsuccessfully defended by Tully.
27. Clodius.] "A great enemy to Cicero, and the chief promoter of his banishment. This Clodius was a most debauched and profligate person. He debauched Pompeia the wife of Cæfar, and likewise his own fifter. Soon after Cicero's return, Clodius was llain by Milo, and his body burnt in the Curia Hoftilia.
Catiline Cethegus.] i. e. If Catiline were to accuse Cethegus. These were two famous conspirators against the ftate, See Salluft. Bell. Catilin. 28. The table of Sylla.] Sylla was a noble Roman of the
Qualis erat nuper tragico pollutus adulter
family of the Scipios. He was very cruel, and first set up tables of proscription, or outlawry, by which many thousand Romans were put to death in cold blood.
28. Three disciples.] There were two triumvirates, the one consisting of Cæsar, Pompey, and Craffus, the other of Auguftus, Antony, and Lepidus, who followed Sylla's example, and therefore are called disciples, i. e. in cruelty, bloodthed, and murder.
29. Ike adulterer.) Domitian. He took away Domitia Longina froin her husband Ælius Lamia.
A tragical intrigue.] He debauched Julia, the daughter of his brother Titus, though married to Sabinus. After the death of Titus, and of Sabinus, whom Domitian caused to be assassinated, he openly avowed his pasfon for Julia, but was the death of her, by giving her medicines to make her miscarry. See below, l. 32-3.
30. Recalling laws.) At the very time when Domitian had this tragical intrigue with his niece Julia, he was reviving the fevere laws of Julius Cæfar against adultery, which were afterwards made more severe by Augustus.
Bitter to all.] Severe and rigid to the last degree. Many persons, of both sexes, Domitian put to death for adultery. See Univ. Hift. vol. xv. p. 52.
31. Mars and Venus.) They were caught together by Vulcan, the fabled husband of Venus, by means of a net with which he inclosed them. Juvenal means, by this, to satirize the zeal of Domitian against adultery in others (while he indulged, not only this, but incest also in his own practice) by saying, that it was so great, that he would not only punish men, but gods also, if it came in his way so to do.
32. Abortives.] Embryos, of which Julia was made to mir. carry.
33. Lumps.] Offas, lumps of Aesh, crude births, deformed, and fo resembling her uncle Domitian, the incestuous father of them.
Such was the adulterer lately polluted with a tragical
30 Toall, and even to be dreaded by Marsand Venus themselves : When Julia her fruitful womb from so many abortives Released, and poured forth lumps resembling her uncle. Do not therefore, justly and deservedly, the most vicious Despise the feigned Scauri, and, being reproved, bite again?
35 Laronia did not endure a certain four one from among them,
34. Juftly and defervedly.) With the highest reason and jaftice.
The most vicious.] Ultima vitia, i. e. ultimi vitiofi, the most abandoned, who are to the utmost degree vicious, fo that they may be termed themselves—vices. The abstract is here put for the concrete.
Met. 35. Despife.) Hold them in the most sovereign contempt, for their impudence in daring to reprove others for being vicious.
The feigned Scauri.] Æmilius Scaurus, as described by Salluft, Bell. Jugurthi was a nobleman, bold; factious, greedy of power, honour, and riches, but very artful in disguising his vices. Juvenal therefore may be supposed to call these hypocrites fietos, as feigning to be what they were notScauros; as being like Æ. Scaurus, appearing outwardly grave and severe, but artfully, like him, concealing their vices.
However; I question whether the character of Scaurus be not rather to be gathered from his being found among fu many truly great and worthy men-Sat. xi. 1.90-1. Pliny also represents him, as a man, fummæ integritatis, of the highest integrity. This idea seems to suit best with fietos Scauros, as it leads us to consider these hypocrites, as feigning themselves men of integrity and goodness, and as seeming to resemble the probity and severity of manners for which Scau. rus was eminent, the better to conceal their vices, and to de ceive other people.
And being reproved, bite again.) Such hypocrites are not only despised by the most openly vícious for their infincerity, but whenever they have the impudence to reprove vice, even in the most abandoned, these will turn again and retaliate: which is well expressed by the word remordent.
36. Laronia.] Martial, cotemporary, with Juvenal, defcribes a woman of this name, as a rich widow,
Clamantem toties, ubi nunc lex Julia ? dormis ?
Abnegat & retinet noftrum Laronia fervum,
Respondens, orba eft, dives, anus, vidua. By what Juvenal represents her to have said, in the following lines, she seems to have had no small fhare of wit.
36. Did not endure.] She could not bear him ; she was out of all patience.
Sour.] Crabbed, ftern in his appearance. Or torvum may be here put for the adverb torvè motorvè clamantem. Græcism. See above,
and note. From among them. i. e. One of these dissemblers-one out of this hypocritical herd.
37. Crying out so often.) Repeating aloud his seeming in. dignation against vice, and
calling down the vengeance of the law against lewdness and effeminacy.
Where is the Julian law?] Against adultery and lewdness (see l. 30, note) why is it not executed ? As it then food, it punished adultery and sodomy with death.
Dof thou fleep?] Art thou as regardless of these enormities, as a person fast asleep is of what passes about him?
38. And thus smiling.] Laronia could not refrain herself at hearing this, and, with a smile of the utmott contempt, ready almost at the same time to laugh in his face, thus jeers him.
Happy times! &c.] That have raised up such a reformer as thou art, to oppose the evil manners of the age!
39. Rome may now take frame.] Now, to be sure Rome will blush, and take shame to herself, for what is practised within her walls, since such a reprover appears. Irony. 40.
A third Gato.] Cato Censorius, as he was called, from his great gravity and strictness in his cenforship; and Cato Uticensis, so called from his killing himself ai Utica, a city of Africa, were men highly esteemed as eminent moralifts; to these, says Laronia (continuing her ironical banter) heaven has added a third Cato, by sending us so severe and respectable a moralist as thou arı