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Crying out fo often, " Where is now the Julian law? doft

« thou fleep?"
And thus smiling : “Happy times! which thee
k Oppose to manners: now Rome


take shame : " A third Cato is fallen from heaven :--but yet whence 40 « Do you buy these perfumes which breathe from your rough « Neck? don't be ashamed to declare the master of the

« shop:

1 But if the statutes and laws are disturbed, the Scantinian « Ought before all to be stirred up. Consider first,

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41. Perfumes.] Opobalsama-otos Bangaus i. e. Succus balsami. This was some kind of perfumery, which the effeminate among

the Romans made use of, and of which, it seems, this same rough-looking reprover sinelt very strongly.

42. Your rough neck.] Hairy, and bearing the appearance of a most philosophic neglect of your person.

- Don't be ashamed, &c.] Don't blush to tell us where the perfumer lives, of whom you bought these fine sweet-smelling ointments.

Here her raillery is very keen, and tends to shew what this pretended reformer really was, notwithftanding his appearance of fanctity. She may be said to have smelt him out.

43. Statutes and laws are disturbed.] From that state of neep in which you seem to represent them, and from which you wish to awaken them. The Roman jurisprudence seems to have been founded on a threefold basis, on which the general law, by which the government was carried on, was established that is to say-Consulta patrum, or decrees of the senate--Leges, which seem to answer to our statute-laws--and jura, those rules of common justice, which were derived from the two former, but particularly from the latter of the two, or, perhaps, from immemorial usage and custom, like the common law of Eng, Jand. Hor. Lib. i. Epift. xvi. 1. 41. mentions these three particulars

Vir bonus est quis ?
Qui consulta patrum, qui leges, juraque servat.
See an account of the Roman laws at large, in Kennet's Roman
Antiq. Part ii. Book iii. chap. xxi. & feq.

44: The Scantinian.]. So called from Scantinius Aricinus, by whom it was first introduced to punish sodomy, Others think that this law was so called from C. Scantinius, who attempted this crime on the son of Marcellus, and was punished accordingly.

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45. Examine 50


Et scrutare viros : faciunt hi plura; fed illos

Defendit numerus, junctæque umbone phalanges.
Magna inter molles concordia: non erit ullum
Exemplum in nostro tam deteftabile sexu:
Tædia non lambit Cluviam, nec Flora Catullam :
Hippo subit juvenes, & morbo pallet utroque.
Nunquid nos agimus causas ? civilia jura
Novimus ? aut ullo ftrepitu fora veftra movemus?
Luctantur paucæ, comedunt coliphia paucæ :
Vos lanam trahitis, calathisque peracta refertis
Vellera : Vos tenui prægnantem ftamine fusum 55
Penelope meliùs, leviùs torquetis Arachne,
Horrida quale facit residens in codice pellex.

45. Examine the men.] Search diligently-scrutinize into their abominations.

These do more things.] They far out-do the other sex ; they do more things worthy of fevere reprehension.

46. Number defends.] This tends to Thew how common that deteftable vice was. (Comp. Rom. i. 27.) Such numbers were guilty of it, that it was looked upon rather as fashionable than criminal ; they seemed to set the law at defiance, as not daring to attack so large a body.

Battalions joined, &c.] A metaphor taken from the Roman manner of engaging. A phalanx properly signified a disposition for an attack on the enemy by the foot, with every man's shield or buckler so close to another’s, as to join them together and make a fort of impenetrable wall or rampart. This is said to have been first invented by the Macedonians; phalanx is therefore to be considered as a Macedonian word.

47. There is great concord, &c.] They are very fond of each other, and strongly connected and united, so that, attacking one, would be like attacking all.

49. Tædia-Flora, &c.] Famous Roman courtezans in Juvenal's time-bad as they were, the men were worse.

51. Do we plead, &c.] Do we women usurp the province of the men ? do we take upon us thofe functions which belong to them :

53. A few wreple.) A few women there are, who are of such a masculine turn of mind, as to wrestle in pub.ic. See Sat. i. 22-3, and notes ; and Sat. vi.

and notes. The wreftler's diet.] Prepare themselves for wrestling as the wrestlers do by feeding on the coliphium---2 7w7.c içind



« them

« And examine the men: these do more things-but

45 Number defends, and battalions joined with a buckler. " There is great concord among the effeminate : there « will not be

any 46 Example so detestable in our sex; 66 Tædia caresses not Cluvia, nor Flora Catulla: “ Hippo assails youths, and in his turn is afsailed. 50 « Do we plead causes ? the civil laws " Do we know? or with any noise do we make a ftir in

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“ A few wrestle, a few eat wrestler's diet:
“ You card wool, and carry back in full baskets your finished
« Fleeces ; you the spindle, big with flender thread, 55
“ Better than Penelope do twist, and finer than Arachne,
« As does a dirty harlot fitting on a log.
membra robusta-a kind of dry diet, which wrestlers used, to
make them strong and firm-fleshed. See Ainsw.

54. You card wool,] You, effeminate wretches, forsake manly exercises, and addict yourselves to employments which are peculiar to women.

In baskets.] The calathi were little ofier or wicker baskets, in which the women put their work when they had finished it, in order to carry it back to their employers.

56. Penelope.] Wife of Ulyffes, who, during her husband's absence, was importuned by many noble suitors, whose addresses the refused with inviolable constancy : but, fearing they might take her by force, she amused them, by desiring them to wait, till she had finished a web which she was then about: and to make the time as long as possible, she undid during the night what she had done in the day.

Arachne.] A Lydian damsel, very skilful in spinning and weaving. She is fabled to have contended with Minerva, and, being out-done, she hanged herself, and was by that god. dess changed into a spider. Ov. Met. Lib, vi. Fab. i.

By mentioning these instances, Laronia ironically commends the great proficiency of the men in carding and spinning : both these operations seem to be distinctly marked by the poet.

57. A dirty harlot.] Pellex properly denotes the mistress of a married man. This, and the Greek mannaxos, seem derived from Heb. wabo pilgerh, which we render-concubine.

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Notum eft, cur folo tabulas impleverit Hister
Liberto; dederit vivus cur multa puellæ:
Dives erit, magno quæ dormit tertia lecto.
Tu nube, atque tace : donant arcana cylindros.
De nobis poft hæc tristis fententia fertur:
Dat veniam corvis, vexat cenfura columbas.
Fugerunt trepidi vera ac manifefta canentem
Stoicidæ; quid enim fali Laronia ?


Codex-from caudex-literally signifies a stump or stock of 4 tree-of a large piece of which, a log was cut out, and made an instrument of punishment for female flaves, who were chained to it on any misbehaviour towards their mistresses, but especially where there was jealousy in the case; and there they were to sit and work at spinning or the like.

58. Hister.] Some infainous character, here introduced by Laronia, in order to illustrate her argument.

Filled his will.] Tabula signifies any plate or thin material on which they wrote-hence deeds, wills, and other written instruments, were called tabulæ. So public edicts. See before, 1. 28.

With only his freedman.] Left him his fole heir. 59. Why alive, &c.] Why in his life-time he was so very generous, and made such numbers of presents to his wife, here talled puellæ, as being a very young girl when he married her: but I should rather think, that the arch Laronia has a more se. vere meaning in her use of the term puellæ, by which she would intimate, that his young wise, having been totally neglected by him, remained ftill -- puella, a maiden ; Hifter having no defire towards any thing, but what was unnatural with his favou. rite freedman.

It is evident that the poet uses puella in this sense. Sat. ix, 1. 74. See note on Sat. ix. 1.70.

60. She will be rich, &c.] By receiving (as Hifter's wife did) large sums for huth-money.

Who sleeps third, &c.] By this the would'infinuate, that Hiiter caused his freedman, whom he afterwards made his heir, to lie in the bed with him and his wife, and gave his wife large presents of money, jewels, &c. not to betray his abomina. ble practices.

61. Do thou marry.] This apostrophe may be supposed to be addressed to the unmarried women, who might be standing by, and listening to Laronia's fevere reproof of the husbands of that day, and contains a sarcasm of the most bitter kind.

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" It is known why Hifter filled his will with only “ His freedman ; why alive he gave much to a wench: “ She will be rich, who sleeps third in a large bed. 60 Do thou marry, and hush-secrets bestow gems. " After all this, a heavy sentence is passed against us. 66 Censure excuses ravens,

and vexes doves. . Her, proclaiming things true and manifest, trembling fed The Stoicides-For what falsehood had Laronia[uttered]? 65

As if she had said " You hear what you are to expect ; such « of you as wish to be rich, I advise to marry, and keep their - husbands secrets."

61. Secrets bestow gems.] Cylindros--these were precious stones, of an oblong and sound form, which the women used to hang in their ears. Here they seem to signify all manner of gems.

62. After all this. ] After all I have been saying of the men, I can't help observing how hardly we women are used.

An heavy fenience, &c.] Where we are concerned, no mercy is to be shewn to us ; the heaviest fentence of the laws is called down upon us, and its utmost vengeance is prescribed againft us.

63. Cenfure excuses ravens, &c.] Laronia ends her speech with a proverbial laying, which is much to her purpose.

Censura here means punishment. The men, who, like ra. vens, and other bịrds of prey, are fo mischievous, are yet ex. cused; but, alas ! when we poor women, who are, compara, tively, harmless as doves, when we, through fimplicity and weakness, go aftray, we hear of nothing but punishment.

64. Her proclaiming, &c.] We have here the effect of La. ronia's speech upon her guilty hearersmtheir consciences were alarmed, and away they flew, they could not stand any longer :they knew what the said to be true, and not a tittle of it could be denied ; so the faster they could make their escape, the better : like those fevere hypocrites we read of, John viii. 7-9. Cano fignifies, as used here, to report, to proclaim aloud.

65. The Stoicides.] Stoicidæ. --This word seems to have been framed on the occasion, with a feminine ending, the better to suit their characters, and to intimate the monstrous effem minacy of these pretended Stoics. The Stoics were called Stoici, from a porch in Athens, where they used to meet and dispute. They highly commended apathy, or freedom from all paffions.

Juvenal, having severely lashed the Stoicides, or pretended Stoics, now proceeds to attack, in the person of Metellus Cre


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