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'Their foreheads, and have placed ornaments all over the neck,
85 And, with the belly of a tender sow, appease the good Goddess, and with a large goblet : but, by a perverted
custom, Woman, driven far away, does not enter the threshold: The altar of the goddess is open to males only—“Go ye
“ profane"Is cried aloud : with no horn here the female minstrel founds.
90 Such orgies, with a secret torch, used The Baptæ, accustomed to weary the Cecropian Cotytto. as men were excluded from those of the women ; by the latter of which alone the Bona Dea was to be worshipped, and no men were to be admitted.
Sacra bonæ maribus non adeunda Deæ. Tib. i. 6, 22. So that the proceeding of these men was an utter perversion of the female rites--as different from the original and real institution, as the left hand is from the right, and as contrary.
89. Go ye profane.] Profanæ-meaning the women; as if they banished them by solemn proclamation. Juvenal, here, humouroully parodies that passage in Virgil, relative to the Sybil-Æn. vi. 258-9.
Procul, procul, este profani, Conclamat vates, totoque abfiftite luco ! 90. With no born here, &c.] It was usual, at the sacrifices of the Bona Dea, for some of the women to make a lamentable noise (well expressed here by the word gemit) with a horn. The male worshippers had no women among them for this purpose. Nullo tibicina cornu, for nulla tibicina cornu. Enallage,
91. Such orgies.] Orgia--fo called áno ons Oems, from the furious behaviour of the priests of Bacchus, and others by whom they were celebrated but the part of the orgies, here alluded to, was that, wherein all manner of lewdness, even of the most unnatural kind, was committed, by private torchlight--Tædâ secretâ. Coluerunt—they practised, celebrated, folemnizen.
92. The Baptæ.] Priests of Cotytto at Athens, called Baptæ, because, after the horrid impurities which they had been guilty of, in honour of their goddess, they thought themselves entirely purified by dipping themselves in water.
Ille supercilium madidâ fuligine tactum
92. The Cecropian Cotytto.) Cotytto was a strumpet (the goddess of impudence and unchastity) worshipped by night at Athens, as the Bona Dea was at Rome. The priests are faid to weary her, because of the length of their infamous rites, and of the multiplicity of their acts of impurity, which were continued the whole night. Cecrops, the first king of Athens, built the city, and called it, after his name, Cecropia.
93. His eyebrow.] It was customary for the women to paint the eyebrows, as well as the eyes: the first was done with a black composition made with foot and water ; with this they lengthened the eyebrow, which was reckoned a great beauty. This was imitated by those infamous wretches, spoken of by the poet, to make them appear more like women.
94. With an oblique needle.) Acus fignifies also a bodkin ; this was wetted with the composition, and drawn obliquely over, or along the eyebrow.
And paints, lifting them up, &c.] This was another practice of the women, to paint their eyes. It is now in use among the Moorish women in Barbary, and among the Turkish women about Aleppo, thus described by Dr. Shaw and Dr. Ruffel.
“ Their method of doing it is, by a cylindrical piece of “ filver, steel, or ivory, about two inches long; made very “ smooth, and about the size of a common probe.
“ This they wet with water, in order that the powder of lead ore may
stick to it; and applying the middle part hori. “ zontally to the eye, they shut the eyelids upon it, and so
drawing it through between them, it blacks the inside, leava ing a narrow black rim all round the edge.”
This is sufficient, for our present purpose, to explain what the poet means by painting the eyes. This cuftom was practised by many eastern nations among the women, and, at last, got among the Roman women : in imitation of whom, these male. prostitutes also tinged their eyes.
Lifting up-trembling.--This describes the situation of the eyes under the operation, which muli occafion some pain from the great tenderness of the part. Or, perhaps, by trementes, Juvenal may mean something lascivious, as Sat. vii. I. 241,
95. Another 95"
One, his eyebrow, touched with wet foot,
95. Another drinks, &c.] A practice of the most impudent and abandoned women is adopted by these wretches.
96. A little golden net, &c.] Reticulum-here denotescoif, or cawl of net-work, which the women put over their hair. This too these men imitated.
With a vaft quantity of hair.) They left vast quantities of thick and long hair upon their heads, the better to resemble women, and all this they stuffed under a cawl, as the women did.
97. Female garments.] Scutulata-garments made of needle-work, in form of shields or targets, worn by women.
Smooth white vefts.] Galbana rasa-fine garments, fhorne of the pile for women's wear. Ainsworth says they were white, and derives the word galbanum from Heb. gas white. But others say, that the colour of these garments was blueish or greenish.
The adjective galbanus-a-um, fignifies spruce, wanton, effeminate. So Mart. calls an effeminate person-hominem galbanatum : and of another, he says galbanos habet mores. Mart. i. 97
98. The servant swearing, &c.] The manners of the masters were copied by the servants : hence, like their masters, they swore by Juno, which it was customary for women to do, as the men by Jupiter, Hercules, &c. 99. A mirrour.) Speculum-such as the women used.
The bearing, &c.] Which, or such a one as, Otho, infamous for the crime which is charged on these people, used to carry
about with him, even when he went forth to war as em-, .peror.
The poet in this passage, with infinite humour, parodies, in derision of the effeminate Otho, and of these unnatural wretches, some parts of Virgil--first, where that poet uses the word gestamen (which denotes any thing carried or worne) as descriptive of the shield of Abas, which he carried in battle. Æn. iii. 286.
re cavo Clypeum, magni gestamen Abantis
Postibus adversis figo, &c.--and again, secondlyin Æn. xii. 246. Virgil, speaking of the ornaments which
Actoris Aurunci spolium, quo se ille videbat
Priam worè, when he sat in public among his subjects, as their
. In imitation of this, Juvenal most farcastically calls Otho's mirrour---pathici geftamen Othonis.
100. The spoil of Auruncian Aktor.Alluding to Virgil, Æn. xii. 93, 94. where Turnus arms himself with a spear, which he had taken in battle from Acor, one of the brave Auruncian chiefs.
Juvenal seems to insinuate, that this wretch rejoiced as much in being possessed of Otho's mirrour, taken from that emperor after his death (when he had killed himself, after having been twice defeated by Vitellius) as Turnus did in having the spear of the heroic Actor.
101. Commanded the banners, &c.] This was a signal for battle. When they encamped, they fixed the banners in the ground near the general's tent--which was called statuerć figna. When battle was to be given, the general gave the word of command to take up the standards or banners--this was tollere figna.
At such a time as this was the effeminate Otho, when he was armed for the battle, viewing himself in his mirrour.
103. Baggage of civil war.] A worthy matter to be recorded in the annals and history of these times, that, among the warlike baggage of a commander in chief, in a civil war, wherein no less than the possession of the Roman empire was at ftake, there was found a mirror, the proper implement of a Roman lady! This civil war was between Otho and Vitellius, which last was set up, by the German soldiers, for emperor, and at last succeeded.
104. To kill Galba, &c.1 The nimirùm-doubtless--to be fure-throws an irony over this, and the following three linesas if the poet faid-To aim at empire, and to have the reigning prince affaffinated in the forum, in order to succeed him, was,
The spoil of Auruncian Actor, in which he viewed him
self Armed, when he commanded the banners to be taken up: A thing to be related in new annals, and in recent History, a looking-glass the baggage of civil war! To kill Galba is doubtless the part of a great general, And to take care of the skin, the perseverance of the highest citizen.
105 In the field of Bedriacum to affect the spoil of the palace, And to extend over the face bread squeezed with the fingers: Which neither the quivered Semiramis in the Assyrian world, Nor sad Cleopatra did in her Actiacan galley.
doubtless, a moft noble piece of generalfhip, worthy a great general; and, to be sure, it was the part of a great citizen to take so much care of his complexion-it must be allowed worthy the mightiest citizen of Rome, to attend to this with unremitting constancy!
This action of Otho's, who, when he found Galba, who had promised to adopt him as his successor, deceiving him, in favour of Piso, destroyed him, makes a strong contrast in the character of Otho : in one instance, bold and enterprizing-in another, soft and effeminate.
105. In the field to affect, &c.] To aim at, to aspire to, the peaceable and fole poffeffion of the emperor's palace, as mafter of the empire, when engaged in the battle with Vitellius in the field of Bedriacum (between Cremona and Verona) was great and noble ; but how fadly inconsistent with what follows !
107. To extend over the face, &c.] The Roman ladies used a fort of bread, or paíte, wetted with asses milk. This they pressed and spread with their fingers on the face to cover it from the air, and thus preserve the complexion. See Sat. vi. 1. 461. This was practised by the emperor Otho.
Otho, at last, being twice defeated by Vitellius, dreading the horrors of the civil war in which he was engaged, killed himself to prevent it, when he had sufficient force to try his fortune again,
108. The quivered Semiramis.] The famous warlike queen of Assyria, who, after the death of her husband Ninus, put on man's apparel, and did many warlike actions. 109. Sad Cleopatra.] The famous and unfortunate
of Ægypt, who, with M. Anthony, being defeated by Auguftus, in the sea-fight at Actium, fied to Alexandria, and there, de