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Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est 15
and are not warranted by any account we have of the Jewish customs.
Others say, that the hay was to feed their cattle-But how could these poor Jews be able to purchase, or to maintain, cattle, who were forced to beg in order to maintain themselves ? Others--that the hay was for their bed on which they lay-but neither is this likely; for the poet, Sat. vi. 541. describes a mendicant Jewels, as coming into the city, and leaving her basket and hay behind her ; which implies, that the basket and hay were usually carried about with them when they went a begging elsewhere. Now it is not to be supposed that they fhould carry about fo large a quantity of hay, as served them to lie upon
when at home in the grove. It is clear, that the basket and hay are mentioned together here, and in the other place of Sat. vi. from whence I infer, that they had little wicker baskets in which they put the money, provisions, or other small alms which they received of the passers by, and, in order to ftow them the better, and to prevent their dropping through the interstices of the wicker, put wisps of hay, or dried grass, in the inside of the baskets. These Jew beggars were as well known by these bafkets with hay in them, as our beggars are by their wallets, or our foldiers by their knapsacks. Hence the Jewels, Sat. vi. left her basket and hay behind her when she came into the city, for fear they should betray her, and subject her to punishment for infringing the emperor's order againft the Jews coming into the city. Her manner of begging too, by a whisper in the ear, seems to confirm this supposition. The Latin cophinus is the same as Gr. xoQuyos—which is used several times in the New Testament to denote a provision-basket, made use of among the Jews. See Matt. xiv. 20. Matt. xvi. 9, 10. Mark viii. 19, 20. Mark vi. 43. Luke ix. 17. Joh. vi. 13.
15. To pay rent.] The grove being let out to the Jews, every tree, as it were, might be said to bring in a rent to the people at Rome. The poet seems to mention this, as a proof of the public avarice, created by the public extravagance, which led them to hire out these sacred places, for what they
For every tree is commanded to pay a rent to the people : 15
inclosed The waters, nor had marbles violated the natural stone? 20 Here then Umbritius:-Since for honeft arts, says he,
could get, by letting them to the poor Jews, who could only pay for them out of what they got by begging.
16. The wood begs, &c.) i. e. The Jews, who were now the inhabitants of the wood (meton.) were all beggars ; nothing else was to be seen in those once-facred abodes of the muses, who were now banished. • 17. We descend, &c.] Umbritius and Juvenal fauntered on, till they came to that part of the grove which was called the vale of Ægeria, so called, probably, from the fountain, into which she was changed, running there.
17.-18. And caves unlike the true.] These caves, in their primitive state, were as nature formed them, but had been profaned with artificial ornaments, which had destroyed their native beauty and fimplicity.
How much better.) How mych more suitably situated. 19. The deity of the water.] Each fountain was supposed to have a nymph, or naiad, belonging to it, who presided over it as the goddess of the water-Ægeria may be supposed to be here meant.
If, with a green margin, &c.] If, instead of ornamenting the banks with artificial borders made of marble, they had been left in their natural state, simple and unadorned by human art, having no other margin but the native turf, and the sude stone (tophum) which was the genuine produce of the soil. These were once consecrated in honour of the fountain-nymph; but had now been violated and destroyed, in order to make ivay for artificial ornaments of marble, which Roman luxury and extravagance had put in their place.
21. Here then Umbritius.] Juvenal and his friend Umbrițius, being arrived at this spot, at the profanation of which they were both equally scandalized, Unbritius there began to inveigia against the city of Rome, from which he was now about to depart, and spake as follows.
Honest arts.] Liberal arts and sciences, such as poetry; and other literary pursuits, which are honourable. Conp. Sat. vii. 1-6. Honeltis artibus, in contradistinction to the dir
Nullus in urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum,
Vivant Arturius iftic, Et Catulus : maneant qui nigra in candida vertunt, 30 Queis facile eft ædem conducere, flumina, portus,
honest and shameful methods of employment, which received countenance and encouragement from the great and opulent, Umbritius was himself a poet. See this Sat. 1. 321–2.
22. No emoluments of labour.] Nothing to be gotten by all the pains of honelt industry.
23. One's fubftance, &c1] Instead of increasing what I have, I find it daily decrease; as I can get nothing to replace what I Spend, by all the pains I can take.
And the same, to-morrow, &c.] This fame poor pittance of mine, will, to-morrow, be wearing away something from the little that is left of it to-day: and lo I must find myself growing poprer from day to day. Deteret is a metaphorical expression, taken from the action of a file, which gradually wears away, and diminishes, the bodies to which it is applied. So the necessary expences of Umbritius and his family were wearing away his substance, in that expensive place, which he determines to leave, for a more private and cheaper part of the country.
24. We propose,] i.e. I and my family propose or proponimus for propono. Synec.
25. Thither to go.) i.e. To Cumæ, where Dædalus alighted after his flight from Crete.
26. Greyness is new.) While grey hairs, newly appearing, warn me that old age is coming upon me.
-- Fresh and upright.) While old age in its first stage appears, and I am not yet so far advanced as to be bent double, but am able to hold myself upright.' The antients supposed old
age firit to commence about the 46th year. Cic. de Senectute. Philosophers (says Holyday) divide man's life according to its several stages.--1. Infantia to 3 or 4 years of age.-2. Pueritia, thence to 10. From 10 to 18, pubertas. Thence to 25, adolescentia. Then juventus, from 25 to 35 of
There is no place in the city, no emoluments of labour, One's substance is to-day less than it was yesterday, and the
fame, to-morrow, Will diminish something from the little: we propose thither To go, where Dædalus put off his weary wings, 25 While greyness is new, while old age is fresh and upright, While there remains to Lachesis what she may spin, and on
Myself I carry, no staff sustaining my hand,
Let Arturius live there, And Catulus : let those stay who turn black into white, 30 To whom it is easy to hire a building, rivers, ports,
40. Thence to 50, ætas virilis. Then came senectus prima & recta till 65 ; and then ultima & decrepita till death. 27.
While there remains to Lachefs, &c.] One of the three deftinies; she was supposed to spin the thread of human life.
The Parcæ, or poetical fates or deftinies, were Clotho, La. chesis, and Atropos. The first held the distaff--the second drew out, and spun the thread, which the last cut off when finished.
And on my feet, &c.] While I can stand on my own legs, and walk without the help of a staff.
29. Let us leave, &c.] Let me, and all that belongs to me, take an everlasting farewel of that detested city, which, though my native place, I am heartily tired of, as none but knaves are fit to live there.
29-30. Arturius and Catulus.] Two knaves, who, from very low life, had raised themtelves to large and affluent circumstances. Umbritius seems to introduce them as examples, to prove that such people found more encouragement in Rome, than the professors of the liberal arts could hope for, See be. fore, 1. 21, note 2.
Let them remain, &c.] He means those, who by craft and subtlety could utterly invert and change the appearances of things, making virtue appear as vice, and vice as virtue falsehood as truth, and truth as falsehood. --Such were Arturius and Catulus.
31. To hire a building. The word adem, here, being joined with other things of public concern, such as rivers, ports, &c. seems to imply their hiring some public buildings, of which shey made money; and it should sçem, from these lines, that
Siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver,
35 Munera nunc edunt, & verso pollice vulgi the several branches of the public revenue and expenditure, were farmed out to certain contractors, who were answerable to the ædiles, and to the other magistrates, for the due execution of their contracts. Juvenal here seems to point at the temples, theatres, and other public buildings, which were thus farmed out to these people, who, from the wealth which they had acquired, and, of course, from their responsibility, could eafily procure such contracts, by which they made an immense and exorbitant profit. Ædis-is-signifies any kind of edifice. Ainsw. Omne ædeficium ædis dicitur,
31. Rivers.] Fisheries perhaps, by hiring which, they monopolized them, so as to distress others, and enrich themselves-Or the carriage of goods upon the rivers, for which a toll was paid-Or, by flumina, may here be meant, the beds of the rivers, hired out to be cleaned and cleared at the public expence.
- Ports.) Where goods were exported and imported : these they rented, and thus became farmers of the public revenue, to the great grievance of those who were to pay the duties, and to the great emolument of themselves, who were sure to make the most of their bargain.
32. A fewer to be dried.) Eluvies signifies a fink or common-sewer ; which is usual in great cities, to carry off the wa. ter and filth that would otherwise incommode the houses and Itreets. From eluo, to wash out, wash away.
These contractors undertook the opening and clearing these from the stoppages to which they were liable, and by which, if not cleansed, the city would have been in many parts overflowed. There was nothing so mean and filthy, that these two men would not have undertaken for the sake of gain. Here we find them scavengers.
A corpse, &c.] Busta were places where dead bodies were burned--alsó graves and sepulchres. Ainsw. Buftum from ustum. Sometimes these people hired or farmed funerals, contracting for the expence at such a price. In this too they found their account.
33. And to expose, &c.] These fellows sometimes were mangones, sellers of Naves, which they purchased, and then fold by auction. See Perf. vi. 76, 77.
The mistress-Spear.] Dominâ hastâ. It is difficult to render these two subitantives literally into English, unless we