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LIFE OF HORACE.

The materials for Horace's life are derived almost entire from his own works. A few additional facts are obtained fro a short memoir, attributed to Suetonius.

He was born on the 8th of December, A. U.C. 689 (B. C. 65), or near Venusia * (Venosa), in the Apennines, on the borders Lucania and Apulia. His father was a freedinan,t having, his name proves, been the slave of some person of the Hora gens. As Horace implies that he himself was ingenuus. father must have obtained his freedom before his birth. afterwards followed the calling of a coactor, a collector of mo in some way or other, it is not known in what. He made this capacity, enough to purchase an estate, probably a small near the above town, where the poet was born. We hear ing of his mother, except that Horace speaks of both his pa with affection. His father, probably seeing signs of tale him as a child, was not content to have him educated at vincial school, but took him (at what age he does not sa probably about twelve) to Rome, where he became a p Orbilius Pupillus, I who had a school of much note, atten boys of good family, and whom Horace remembered all as an irritable teacher, given unnecessarily to the use of

* C. 1. 4.9; C. iv. 9. 2; S. ii. 1. 34.

S. 1.6.8. 15. 1.6.96.

† S. i. 6. 6. 46, 47.
$ S. j. 6. 86.

Epp. ii. 1.71; il

LIFE OF HORACE.

materials for Horace's life are derived almost entirely is own works. A few additional facts are obtained from memoir, attributed to Suetonius. vas born on the 8th of December, A. U. C. 689 (B. C. 65), at

Venusia * (Venosa), in the Apennines, on the borders of a and Apulia. His father was a freedman,t having, as ne proves, been the slave of some person of the Horatia As Horace implies that he himself was ingenuus, f his must have obtained his freedom before his birth. He rds followed the calling of a coactor,& a collector of money e way or other, it is not known in what. He made, in acity, enough to purchase an estate, probably a small one, e above town, where the poet was born. We hear nothhis mother, except that Horace speaks of both his parents ffection. His father, probably seeing signs of talent in a child, was not content to have him educated at a proschool, but took him (at what age he does not say, but y about twelve) to Rome, where he became a pupil of s Pupillus, who had a school of much note, attended by f good family, and whom Horace remembered all his life rritable teacher, given unnecessarily to the use of the rod.

Ei. 4. 9; C. iv. 9. 2; S. ii. 1. 34.

6. 8. 6. 96.

† S. i. 6. 6. 46, 47.
§ S. i. 6. 86.
TEpp. ii. 1. 71 ; ibid. 2. 41.

With him he learnt grammar, the earlier Latin authors, and Homer. He attended other masters (of rhetoric, poetry, and music perhaps), as Roman boys were wont, and had the advantage (to which he afterwards looked back with gratitude) of his father's care and moral training during this part of his education. It was usual for young men of birth and ability to be sent to Athens, to finish their education by the study of Greek literature and philosophy under native teachers; and Horace went there too, at what age is not known, but probably when he was about twenty. Whether his father was alive at that time, or dead, is uncertain. If he went to Athens at twenty, it was in B. C. 45, the year before Julius Cæsar was assassinated. After that event, Brutus and Cassius left Rome and went to Greece. Foreseeing the struggle that was before them, they got round them many of the young men at that time studying at Athens, and Horace was appointed tribune * in the army of Brutus, a high command, for which he was not qualified. He went with Brutus into Asia Minor, and finally shared his defeat at Philippi, B. C. 42. He makes humorous allusion to this defeat in his Ode to Pompeius Varus (ii. 7). After the battle he came to Italy, haying obtained permission to do so, like many others who were willing to give up a desperate cause and settle quietly at home. His patrimony,t however, was forfeited, and he seems to have had no means of subsistence, which induced him to employ himself in writing verses, with the view, perhaps, of bringing himself into notice, rather than for the purpose of making money by their sale. By some means he managed to get a place as scriba § in the Quæstor's office, whether by purchase or interest does not appear. In either case, we must suppose he contrived soon to make friends, though he could not do so by the course he pursued,

without also making many enemies. His Satires are full of allusions to the enmity his verses had raised up for him on all hands He became acquainted, among other literary persons, with Virgil and Varius, who, about three years after his return (B. C. 39). introduced him to Mæcenas, who was careful of receiving into hicircle a tribune of Brutus, and one whose writings were of a kind that was new and unpopular. He accordingly saw nothing of Horace for nine months after his introduction to him. He ther sent for him (B. C. 38), and from that time continued to be hi patron and warmest friend.

At his house, probably, Horace became intimate with Pollio and the many persons of consideration whose friendship he ap pears to have enjoyed. Through Mæcenas, also, it is probably Horace was introduced to Augustus; but when that happened i uncertain. In B. C. 37, Mæcenas was deputed by Augustus o meet M. Antonius at Brundisium, and he took Horace with hir on that journey, of which a detailed account is given in the fitt Satire of the first book. Horace appears to have parted from the rest of the company at Brundisium, and perhaps returned i Rome by Tarentum and Venusia. (See S. i. 5, Introduction Between this journey and B. C. 32, Horace received from ! friend the present of a small estate in the valley of the Diger (Licenza), situated about thirty-four miles from Rome, and foteen from Tibur, in the Sabine country. Of this property gives a description in his Epistle to Quintius (i. 16), and appears to have lived there a part of every year, and to lu been fond of the place, which was very quiet and retired, I four miles from the nearest town, Varia (Vico Varo), a n cipium perhaps, but not a place of any importance. During interval he continued to write Satires and Epodes, but also, pears probable, some of the Odes, which some years lat published, and others which he did not publish. These con

* S. i, 6. 48.
† Epp. ii. 2. 50.

Some persons reject this notion, supposing Horace to mean, in the passage on which it is founded (Epp. ii. 2. 51), that poverty made him desperate and careless of consequences, but that when he became comparatively rich he lost that stimulus.

Ś Suet. Vit. S. ii. 6. 36.

tions, no doubt, were seen by his friends, and were prett known before any of them were collected for publication. first book of the Satires was published probably in B. C. Epodes in B. C. 30, and the second book of Satires in the ing year, when Horace was about thirty-five years old.

ulso making many enemies. His Satires are full of alluhe enmity his verses had raised up for him on all hands. me acquainted, among other literary persons, with Virgil us, who, about three years after his return (B. C. 39), d him to Mæcenas, who was careful of receiving into his ribune of Brutus, and one whose writings were of a kind

new and unpopular. He accordingly saw nothing of or nine months after his introduction to him. He then him (B. C. 38), and from that time continued to be his ad warmest friend. s house, probably, Horace became intimate with Pollio, many persons of consideration whose friendship he ap

have enjoyed. Through Mæcenas, also, it is probable was introduced to Augustus; but when that happened is 1. In B. c. 37, Mæcenas was deputed by Augustus to Antonius at Brundisium, and he took Horace with him ourney, of which a detailed account is given in the fifth the first book. Horace appears to have parted from the the company at Brundisium, and perhaps returned to y Tarentum and Venusia. (See S. i. 5, Introduction.)

this journey and B. C. 32, Horace received from his e pr ent of a small estate in the valley of the Digentia 1), situated about thirty-four miles from Rome, and fourm Tibur, in the Sabine country. Of this property he description in his Epistle to Quintius (i. 16), and he to have lived there a part of every year, and to have d of the place, which was very quiet and retired, being es from the nearest town, Varia (Vico Varo), a munierhaps, but not a place of any importance. During this he continued to write Satires and Epodes, but also, it apobable, some of the Odes, which some years later he El, and others which he did not publish. These composi

doubt, were seen by his friends, and were pretty well Before any of them were collected for publication. The k of the Satires was published probably in B. c. 35, the in B. C. 30, and the second book of Satires in the follow- when Horace was about thirty-five years old.

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