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40

negleget, iratus quod rem curtaveris; urnae
ossa inodora dabit, seu spirent cinnama surdum,

35 seu ceraso peccent casiae, nescire paratus. tune bona incolumis minuas ? et Bestius urguet doctores Graios Ita fit, postquam sapere urbi cum pipere et palmis venit nostrum hoc maris expers ; fenisecae crasso vitiarunt unguine pultes.' haec cinere ulterior metuas ? At tu, meus heres quisquis eris, paulum a turba seductior audi. o bone, num ignoras? missa est a Caesare laurus insignem ob cladem Germanae pubis, et ari frigidus excutitur cinis, ac iam postibus arma,

45 iam chlamydes regum, iam lutea gausapa captis 45. ac om.

46. clamidens. uictis. The sentiment from Hor. 2 Ep. 2. 191 metuas' in v. 41 to this line.] quoted on v. 22.

Bestius. Hor. I Ep. 15. 37. In34. iratus with quod.

troduced here. more Persii ' (2. 14 note), curtaveris. Quantulum enim and awkwardly enough, as the charge summae curtabit quisque dierum 'Hor. against philosophy has no relation to the

S. 3. 124, •Curtae nescio quid semper context. abest rei Od.

38. Ita fit. Cic. N. D. 3. 37'Ita 35. Spices were thrown into the fit: illi enim nusquam picti sunt qui naufuneral fire. Congesta cremantur Turea fragia fecerunt in marique perierunt.' dona' Virg. Aen. 6. 224. Cur nardo "This is the history of it.' Bestius seems flammae non oluere meae ?' Prop. 5. 7. to censure everybody: the rich man for 32.

spending money and also for wanting an surdum, of smell, like 'exsurdare' expensive funeral, and the heir for Hor. 2 S. 8. 38, of taste.

grumbling at having no more to spend. 36. ceraso. Adulteration with cherry sapere. bark, mentioned nowhere else, though 39. Everything is jumbled in the conPliny (12. 20. 42) speaks of adulteration demnation : foreign pepper (5. 55. 136), with storax and laurel twigs.

foreign palms, and foreign notions. •Dum myrrham et casia m flebilis palmis, ' dates.' Quid vult palma uxor emit' Mart. 10. 97. 2. Jahn. sibi rugosaque carica (dixi) Ov. F. 1. 185,

spirent .. peccent mark that the Freund; or perhaps oil, Cato R. R. 113, clauses are dependent on nescire. He Jahn. knows not which of the two be the cause nostrum, of the age. 1. 9., 2. 62.

- rhetorically equivalent to saying he maris expers, from Hor. 2 S. knows nothing of either.

• Chium maris expers,' not mixed paratus. 1. 132. Here expressing with salt water, which was supposed to deliberation.

make the wine more wholesome (Athen. 37. The heir's reply to the complaint. 1. p. 32 D, repeated by Jahn), and so * Incolumis'=' inpune, perhaps with an Jahn understands it here. The metaphor antithetical reference to 'minuas.' 'Are from wine would agree with 5. 117, and you to impair your property and lose with the classification with pepper and nothing in your own person ?' (Jahn in his palms.

Maris expers

• insulsum text of 1868, following the suggestion of (Heinrich), so that .sapere maris expers Sinner, transposes 'tune bona incolumis would be an oxymoron.

Casaubon takes minuas' to v. 41, and · haec cinere ulterior maris' from 'mas,' in which case Persius

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for your clipping your property : he will put your ashes into the urn in an unfragrant state, resolved to ask no questions, whether it be that the cinnamon has lost its sense of smell, or that the casia has become involved with cherry bark. As if you were going to impair your property and lose nothing in your own person ! And Bestius is severe on the Greek teachers, “That's how it is, ever since this unpickled philosophy of ours came to town with pepper and dates, our haymakers have spoilt their porridge with those nasty thick oils. Do you mean to say that you would be afraid of this on the other side of the grave ? However, my heir, whoever he may be, will perhaps step aside from the crowd and let me say a word to him. My good sir, haven't you heard the news ? bays have arrived from the emperor in honour of a signal victory over the Germans; the cold ashes are being shovelled away from the altars; the empress has begun to contract for arms for the temple-gates, and royal mantles, and yellow woollen for the

crasso

must have intended a pun, as he evidently
took the words from Horace.
40. fenisex is the commoner form.

unguine, an epithet of bad ointment, Hor. A. P. 375, here applied contemptuously to all condiments.

vitiarunt; 2. 65, spoilt their good honest meal by mixing it.

pultes. 4. 31 note. 41. Would you be afraid of this when you are yourself removed beyond those ashes which are to suffer by the supposed neglect ?' 5. 152'cinis et manes et fabula fies,' note.

41-60. 'I would address my heir in this way–Here is an occasion of national rejoicing-I mean to celebrate it by an act of patriotic bounty. Do you mean to question my right? I am not obliged to leave you what I have? If you despise it, I can easily get another heir---some beggar, who is what my own ancestors were, and therefore my kinsman even in law.'

42. quisquis eris indicates Persius' own indifference.

seductior; 2. 4, 'paulum' with • seductior' or with audi ?

43. For Caligula's German expedition, see Suet. Cal. 43 foll. He ordered a triumph which was to be unprecedentedly plendid, and cheap in proportion, as he had a right to the property of his subjects -changed his mind, forbade any proposal on the subject under capital penalties, abused the senate for doing nothing, and

finally entered the city in ovation, on his birthday. This happened, as Gifford observes, when Persius was seven years' old, so that he may have been struck with it. Perhaps he intended a suppressed sneer at Caligula to glance off on Nero.

num ignoras. Surely you have heard the news, and will not wonder at my enthusiasm.

laurus, for the laureatae litterae,' or "laureatae' simply, the letter bound with bay, in which the general announced his victory to the senate.

45. Compare Virg. Aen. 11. 211 'cinerem et confusa ruebant Ossa focis.'

frigidus, perhaps alluding to the rarity of such rejoicings. Lubin.

postibus, for the temple gates ; 'in postibus arma,' Virg. Aen. 7. 183. So Aen. 3. 287, Aesch. Ag. 579.

46. Caligula chose captives who were to appear in procession, Suet. Cal. 47.

gausapa (other forms of which are gausapiae,' gausapes,' 'gausape '), is explained by König, Heinr., and Jahn, of false hair, from the passage 4. 37 (where, however, the word is plainly metaphorical), like the use of vestis' for a beard. From Suet. I. c., it appears that Caligula . captivos .. coegit rutilare et submittere comam,' and the provision of false hair would be quite in keeping with the whole of the sham as Persius represents it. Casaubon however refers to Varro, as showing that the Gauls, who were dressed

sarcasm

essedaque ingentesque locat Caesonia Rhenos.
dis igitur genioque ducis centum paria ob res
egregie gestas induco ; quis vetat ? aude.
vae, nisi conives! oleum artocreasque popello

50 largior; an prohibes? dic clare! Non adeo,' inquis ? exossatus ager iuxta est. Age, si mihi nulla iam reliqua ex amitis, patruelis nulla, proneptis nulla manet patrui, sterilis matertera vixit, deque avia nihilum superest, accedo Bovillas

55 clivumque ad Virbi, praesto est mihi Manius heres. • Progenies terrae ?' Quaere ex me, quis mihi quartus 49. in luco. 50. Ve si coniues.

51. audeo. 54. sterelis.

56. Cliviumque uirbii. like the Germans, and actually selected to gustus, König, Juv. 4. 145., 7. 21, calls figure in this triumph (Suet. I. c.), wore Domitian dux,' with like 'gausapa,' and the dress was not uncom- perhaps referring to a similar exploit of mon at Rome, (Ov. A. A. 2. 300, Plin. 8. his, a sham triumph with manufactured 48.73, Mart. 14. 145,) 'gausa pum' being captives, Tac. Agr. 39. a shaggy woollen material, to which the centum paria, from Hor. 2 S. 3. epithet villosum' is applied, and this 85 Ni sic fecissent, gladiatorum dare seems the simpler explanation.

centum Damnati populi paria atque epu47. 'esseda Britanna,' Prop. 2. 1. 76, lum,' where it is part of the provision of • Belgica' Virg. G. 3. 204, common, or a will. These displays were not confined considered to be so, to the various bar- to the Emperor, but were sometimes given barians of the West of Europe. [* In Bri- by private persons, Suet. Claud. 34 'gladiatannia ne ab essedariis decipiaris, caveto,' torio munere vel suo vel alieno,' Juv. 3. Cicero to Trebatius then in Britain, Div. 34 Mayor's note, though of course on a 7. 6: essedum aliquod suadeo capias' scale like this they required princely means.

paria, alone, as in Sen. Ep. 7. 4 locat may point to the intended ordinariis paribus.' cheapness of the display, as of course it

49. induco.

“A me autem gladiadoes to the fraud, as if the materials were torum par nobilissimum inducitur' Cic, always kept on hand.

Opt. Gen. Orat. 6. 17. Caesonia was first Caligula's mis- aude, as we should say, 'I dare you.' tress, afterwards, on the birth of a daughter, 50. coniveo, nearly = 'concedo,' in his wife, Suet. Cal. 25.

connection with which it is used, Cic. Ph. Rhenos, explained by almost all the 1. 7, opp. to‘ferendum non puto.' Persius commentators as 'Rhenanos :' but pictures threatens to go further, if his heir blames or images of different parts of the conquered him. territory were borne in triumph. Jahn oleum ; Caesar gave the people albs. refers to Ov. A. A. 1. 223 foll. “Quae of oil per man, on the occasion of his loca, qui montes, quaeve ferantur aquae .. triumphs, after all his wars were over, Hic est Euphrates, praecinctus arundine Suet. Caes. 38. Nero gave oil to the frontem : Cui coma dependet caerula, senate and equites when he dedicated Tigris erit.' So the Nile in the triumphal warm baths and gymnasia, Suet. Nero 12, representation, Virg. G. 3. 28. Thus the Tac. Ann. 14. 47, König. pl. is sarcastic.

artocreas, = visceratio,' according 48. Caligula punished those who did to Stephens' glossary, p. 116, and that of not swear by his genius, Suet. Cal. 27. Philoxenus, quoted by Casaubon and Jahn, • Mille Lares Geniumque ducis qui tradidit so that we must suppose bread and meat illos Urbs habet' Ov. F. 5. 145 of Au- to have been distributed separately, though

ib. 7.].

prisoners, and chariots, and Rhines as large as life. Well, I am coming forward with a hundred pair in acknowledgment to the gods and our general's destiny for this brilliant advantage. Who's to say me nay? Just try. Woe to you if you don't wink at it! I am to treat the mob with oil and bread and meat. Do you mean to hinder me? Speak out. You won't accept the inheritance, you say? Here is a field, now, cleared for ploughing. Suppose none of my paternal aunts survive me, none of my female cousins on the father's side; suppose I have no female first cousin twice removed in existence, my maternal aunt dies without issue, and there is no representative of my grandmother living, why, I go to Bovillae, to Virbius' hill, and there is Manius an heir ready to my hands. What, a groundling?' Ask me who is my great-great-grandfather.

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most commentators explain the word as a kind of meat-pie. It occurs in an inscription (Orell. 7. 4937).. ORNETVR DEDICATIONE ARTOCREA | POPVLO CVPRENSI DEDIT, which however throws no light on its exact meaning.

popello, semi-contemptuous, as in 4. 15. 51. Don't mutter but speak out.'

adeo seems to be a verb, adire hereditatem ’ is a common phrase, “to enter on or accept an inheritance,' and 'adire nomen’ is used for 'to assume a name by will,' Freund s. v., and the sense agrees with what follows—whereas no parallel instance of the adverb. adeo' is produced. Perhaps there should be a question at * inquis ;' • Do you say, I won't accept ?'

52. exossatus ager iuxta est. The early commentators explain 'exossatus

cleared of stones,' after the Scholiast, who singularly renders it lapidibus plenus,' referring to Ov. M. I. 393 lapides in corpore terrae Ossa reor dici :' yñ dotwons is used by Menander, the rhetorician, (ap. Casaubon) for stony ground. Casaubon and later editors interpret it exhausted, boneless, and hence without strength. Might it be literally cleared of bones,' like the field in Hor. I S. 7, having been once used as a burying-ground, and now prepared for cultivation ?

In that case Persius will say, 'Here is a good piece of property just by—I can easily find an heir for it. If we take it exhausted, it will be open to us either to make Persius speak, • Suppose all I have is a field, and that nearly worn out, I can still,' etc., or to make the heir say, 'That is as good as (“ iuxta ') spoiling your property for good

and all.' [Jahn in his text of 1868 reads • Non adeo' inquis • Exossatus ager iuxta est,' making adeo' an adverb.]

Age si; Hor. 2 S. 3. 117. 33. amita is the aunt' by the father's side, 'matertera' by the mother's. Observe that all the supposed relatives named here are females. He actually left his property to his mother and sisters, as appears from his life, which also speaks of a paternal aunt.

54. sterilis .. vixit,'has died without issue.'

55. Bovillae, between Rome and Aricia (Hor. I S. 5. I), the first stage on the Appian road, called . suburbanae, Prop. 5. 1. 33, Ov. F. 3. 667.

56. clivum .. Virbi, mentioned more than once by Martial (2. 19. 3, etc.), as • clivus Aricinus ;' Virbius, the Italian Hippolytus, being the hero of Aricia, Virg. Aen. 7. 761 foll. It was a great resort for beggars, Mart. I. c., Juv. 4. 117, Mayor's note, and Persius says that one of these is ready to be his heir. • Multi Mani Ariciae,' was an old proverb, Fest.

• Manius,' (p. 145 Müller) who appears to understand it of the town in the days of its prosperity, when many great

were there - from this it may easily have passed into a sneer in the altered days of the place, so that one of the aristocracy of Aricia' would be synonymous with a beggar. But the name is given to a slave by Cato, R. R. 141.

57. Progenies terrae, is the heir's comment. You step at once from your relatives to the son of nobody knows who.' "Terrae filius occurs in Cic. Att. 1. 13, • terrae filio nescio cui.'

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61. poscas.

sit pater: haud prompte, dicam tamen ; adde etiam unum, unum etiam : terrae est iam filius, et mihi ritu Manius hic generis prope maior avunculus exit.

60 Qui prior es, cur me in decursu lampada poscis ? sum tibi Mercurius ; venio deus huc ego ut ille pingitur; an renuis ? vin tu gaudere relictis ? dest aliquid summae. Minui mihi ; sed tibi totum est, quidquid id est. ubi sit, fuge quaerere, quod mihi quondam legarat Tadius, neu dicta repone paterna.

fenoris accedat merces ; hinc exime sumptus, quid reliquum est?' Reliquum? nunc, nunc inpensius ungue, ungue, puer, caules! mihi festa luce coquetur urtica et fissa fumosum sinciput aure,

70 59. est etiam.

63. uins tu. 64. De est. 66. tatius. pone.

68. iam pensius. 69. unge. 58. patres is used generally of an- Romulus' gang. Compare also Juv. 4: cestry, so Persius calls the great great- 98, where the terrae filii' are ennobled grandfather (*abavus ') quartus pater.' as little brothers of the earth-born giants. [ Pilumnusque illi quartus pater' Virg. 61-74. Persius continues to his heir, Āen. 10. 619.]

• Why wish to succeed before your time? haud prompte, dicam tamen, Inheritance is fortune-take it for what it μόλις μέν, εξερω δ' όμως, or something is worth. All I leave will be yours, but like it, would be the Greek equivalent. mark—it is what I leave, not what I Jahn compares Lucan 1. 378 invita have or have had. Your selfishness only peragam tamen omnia dextra."

makes me resolved on being selfish too. adde etiam unum. 'Demo unum, You would have me save-not only for you, demo etiam (if this and not 'et item' be but for your descendants, who are as likely the true reading) unum,' Hor. 2 Ep. 1.46. as not to be spendthrifts and profligates.' 59. 'At last he is a son of earth.'

61. For the lautadnpopía sec Dict. ritu, with 'generis,' though Jahn sepa- Ant. rates them, 'by regular descent.'

prior, 'you who are before me, and 60. maior avunculus was the great- whose turn is not yet come. Jahn seems grandmother's brother, ‘magnus' being the right in laying a stress on 'in decursu,' grandmother's, and 'maximus' the great- while I am running,' before I have done great-grandmother's. Freund referring to running. [Nunc cursu lampada tibi Paulus and Gaius, Isid. Orig. 9. 6. 17, trado' Varro, R. R. 3. 16.] gives proavunculus.' Persius does not decursus, as he remarks, is the pretend strict accuracy ('prope ') or he word for a Roman custom of running in would not only have had to push the armour at funeral games, Virg. Aen. II. relationship several degrees back, but he 189. Cicero has decursus mei temporis,' would have said 'patruus,' not "avun- Fam. 3. 2, and decursus honorum,' de culus.' Avunculus maior' is sometimes Or. I. I. used for 'avunculus magnus,' and 'avun- poscis, 'without waiting till I give culus' simply for 'avunculus maior;' see it up.' The well-known passage, Lucr. 2. Freund.

79, is not quite parallel, as the succession exit, like 'evadit,' turns out to be,' there is of life, here of inheritance. 1. 45 note, though here there seems no 62. Mercurius. definite metaphor. Persius' argument is 63. pingitur, i.e. 'with a money bag.' like Juv. 8. 272, tracing the noble to [Preller, Römische Mythologie, p. 599,

2. II note.

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