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let those who send us dreams of nights most free from gross humours rank first in honour, and have a golden beard given them.' Yes, gold has driven out Numa's crockery and the brass of good old Saturn; it supersedes the Vestal urns and the Etruscan pottery. O ye souls that cleave to earth and have nothing heavenly in you! how can it answer to introduce the spirit of the age into the temple-service, and infer what the gods like from this sinful pampered flesh of ours? The flesh it is that has got to spoil wholesome oil by mixing casia with it—to steep Calabrian wool in purple that was made for no such use; that has made us tear the pearl from the oyster, and separate the veins of the ferventis massae crudo de pulvere iussit. peccat et haec, peccat; vitio tamen utitur; at vos dicite, pontifices, in sancto quid facit aurum? nempe hoc quod Veneri donatae a virgine pupae. quin damus id superis, de magna quod dare lance non possit magni Messallae lippa propago: conpositum ius fasque animo sanctosque recessus mentis et incoctum generoso pectus honesto. haec cedo ut admoveam templis et farre litabo.

sense.

Val. Max. 4. 4. Il.

Tuscum fictile. ‘An quia ex Etruriae figulinis Romam afferretur ? .. an eo respicit, quod pleraque ad religionem spectantia habuerunt Romani ab Etruscis ?' (Casaubon.) Why not both ?

61. in terras, for which Jahn restores 'in terris,' is supported by one or two good MSS. and by Lactant. I D. 2. 2, and is recommended by the

[Comp. however.figas in cute solem' 4. 33.] Jahn compares Hor. 2 S. 2. 77 Affigit humo divinae particulam aurae :' but the language rather suggests such passages as Ov. Met. 1. 84 'Pronaque cum spectant,' etc., which the old commentators compare.

inanes, with genitive, ‘inane lymphae Dolium fundo pereuntis imo' Hor. 3 Od. 11. 26, quoted by Jahn. The expression 'caelestium inanes' resembles • Heu steriles veri’ 5. 75. [Οράς που βλέπεις ; ότι εις την γην, ότι εις το βάραθρον, ότι είς τους ταλαιπώρους τούτους νόμους των νεκρών και εις δε τους των θεών ου βλέπεις Epictetus I. 13.)

62. Jahn reads quid iuvat hoc from three good MSS.; but 'hos nostros,' which is found in the great majority of MSS., including the oldest, is supported by . hac scelerata pulpa,'' sapere nostrum hoc' 6. 38.

nostros .. mores, ‘misce Ergo aliquid nostris de moribus ' Juv. 14. 322. Mores,' as used by Roman authors, is a very characteristic, and, almost by consequence, untranslatable word, answering more or less to several distinct though connected notions in English: 'national character.''institutions,” “traditions,' “spirit of the age,' and the like. Here we may perhaps render it views.

templis .. inmittere is the opp. to tollere de templis’ v. 7.

63. bona dis, to be taken together. *Campos militi Romano ad proelium bonos' Tac. Ann. 2. 14. Here it seems to stand for ' ea quae dis bona videntur.'

ducere, ' to deduce, infer;' 'ex quatuor temporum mutationibus omnium.. initia caussaeque ducuntur 'Cic. N. D. 2. 19.

pulpa is a remarkable word, coinciding as it does with the Christian language about the flesh, especially when coupled with the epithet“ scelerata ;' 'caro mollis et enervis,' Jahn, who compares Auson. Epist. 4. 93 Nec fas est mihi regio magistro Plebeiam numeris docere pulpam,' as if they were so much animal matter. [So the Greek cáps in later writers: "Αν ούν ελθών ο Επίκουρος είπη ότι εν σαρκί είναι δει το αγαθόν, Epictetus 1. 20. 17; comp. ib. 2. 23. 20, Td dúotnvá pov capkidia ib. 1. 3. 5; comp. M. Aurelius 10.7. 24. •Sed quidvis potius homo quam caruncula nostra' Varro Sat. Menipp. Rel. p. 102. 5 Riese.]

64. • Alba nec Assyrio fucatur lana veneno, Nec casia liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi' Virg. G. 2. 465.

sibi, to gratify itself—pointing the contrast with bona Dis.'

65. Calabrum. Jahn quotes Columella 7. 2 ‘Generis eximii Milesias, Calabras, Apulasque (lanas) nostri existimabant, earumque optimas Tarentinas.'

vitiato, spoiled,' because changed from its proper use.

The evil done is brought out more forcibly when it is asserted that both the natural products suffer from the violation of their natures. In Hom. II. 4. 141, to which Jahn refers, plaivelv probably only means to stain, though Virgil in his imitation (Aen. 12. 67) has violaverit ostro.'

66. bacam, a common word for a pearl; •diluit insignem bacam' Hor. 2 S.

70

75

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3. 241, here used perhaps to indicate the relation of the pearl to the shell, as that of a berry to a tree. So crudo de pulvere' implies an interference with the processes of nature for the sake of luxury. * Aurum irrepertum et sic melius situm, Cum terra celat' Hor. 3 Od. 3. 49.

66. rasisse implies violence, such as was necessary to separate the pearl. “Crassescunt etiam in senecta conchisque adhaerescunt, nec his avelli queunt nisi lima' Plin. 9. 35. 54, quoted by Lubin.

stringere, 'to strip or tear,' like stringere folia, gladium,' etc., stronger word here than 'solvere' would be. Jahn remarks that this use of

stringere' has nothing to do with the strictura ferri' (otówors) or hardening mentioned by Virg. Aen. 8. 421, Plin. 34. 14. 41. 'Strigilis' occurs Plin. 33. 3. 19, as a Spanish term for a small piece of native gold—whether with reference to either of these uses of stringo' does not appear.

67. massae, 5. 10, Virg. Aen. 8. 453, a lump of ore, containing both the 'vena and the 'pulvis.'

crudus apparently expresses the natural state of the slag or scoria, as opposed to coquere,' the process of fusing the metal. Plin. 33. 6. 31 has .crudaria vena argenti,' which Freund explains a vein lying directly on the surface in a mine.'

68. utitur, ‘gets the benefit of,' nearly synonymous with •fruitur,' with which it

is often coupled. •Utatur suis bonis oportet et fruatur, qui beatus futurus est' Cic. N. D. 1. 37. 103. So “utar ' 6. 22.

69. “Recte pontifices compellat, penes quos omnium sacrorum cura, et a quibus sacerdotum omnium collegia pendebant.' Casaubon. Whether “sacro' or 'sancto should be read is doubtful. The latter, which Jahn adopts, is the reading of most MSS., but the former is found in some of the best, while others of the same class have ‘sco.' Lampridius (A.D. 293) quotes the passage, Alex. Sev. 44 in sanctis 9. f. a.' A few MSS. have ' templo: obviously an interpretation. “Sacrum sacrove commendatum qui clepsit rapsitve parricida esto' Cic. Leg. 2.9. 22, where 'sacro' appears to mean a temple, like iepóv.

quid facit 'what is its business ?' almost =* quid prodest,' like 'plurimum facit ' Quintil. 6. 4. 8. [Comp. a similar thought Sen. Prov. 5. 2 ' Non sunt divitiae bonum : itaque habeat illas et Elius leno, ut homines pecuniam, cum in templis consecraverint, videant et in fornice.']

70. “Solebant enim virgines antequam nuberent quaedam virginitatis suae dona Veneri consecrare, hoc et Varro scribit' Scholiast. Jahn compares 5. 31 'bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit,' König Hor. I S. 5. 66 · Donasset iamne catenam Ex voto Laribus.' So the sailor, Hor, i Od. 5. 16, hangs up the clothes, and the lover, 3 Od. 26. 3 foll., the harp, etc., with which he has now done.

glowing ore from their primitive slag. It sins-yes, it sins; but it takes something by its sinning; but you, reverend pontiffs, tell us what good gold can do in a holy place. Just as much or as little as the dolls which a young girl offers to Venus. Give we rather to the gods such an offering as great Messalla's bleareyed representative has no means of giving even out of his great dish-duty to god and man well blended in the mind, purity in the shrine of the heart, and a racy flavour of nobleness pervading the bosom. Let me have these to carry to the temple, and a handful of meal shall win me acceptance.

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71. 'Quin tu desinis' 4. 14.

Theocr. 29. 3, Jahn. • Ex adyto tande magna, etc. Jahn compares Ov. quam cordis responsa dedere' Lucr. I. Ep. 4. 8. 39 ' Nec quae de parva dis pau- 737 per libat acerra Tura minus grandi quam 74. incoctum='imbutum coxit' v. 65. data lance valent.' Lancibus et pandis

honestum is Cicero's translation of fumantia reddimus exta’ Virg. G. 2. TO kalóv, defined by him, Fin. 2. 14. 45 194, probably the kind of offering glanced honestum id intellegimus, quod tale est at by Persius. With the ironical repetition ut, detracta omni utilitate, sine ullis prae

magna-magni' compare Hor. i S. 6. miis fructibusve per se ipsum possit iure 72 · Magni Quo pueri, magnis e centu- laudari,' here used with an epithet, as in rionibus orti.' ['Porrectum magno mag

Lucan. 2. 389 ‘rigidi servator honesti' num spectare catino Vellem' Hor. 2 S. quoted by Jahn. [With the whole de2. 39.)

scription comp. M. Aurelius 3. 4 'O gáp 72. Messalla e lippa propago. 'Cot- τοι ανήρ ο τοιούτος ... ιερεύς τις και υπtam Messalinum dic qui tam vitiosos γος θεών, χρώμενος και το ένδον oculos in senectute habuit, ut palpebrae ιδρυμένη αυτού, και παρέχεται τον άνθρωeius in exteriorem partem verterentur. πον άχραντον ηδονών ... δικαιοσύνη βεFuit enim et multis deditus vitiis 'Scholiast. βαμμένον εις βάθος κ.τ.λ.] L. Aurelius Cotta Messalinus was son of 75. cedo. Cedo ut bibam' Plaut. M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus (Hor. I S. Most. 2. 1. 26, .cedo ut inspiciam' id. 10. 85, A. P. 371), and was adopted by Curc. 5. 2. 54. his maternal uncle, L. Aurelius Cotta. He admovere, a sacrificial word. Nec is mentioned more than once by Tacitus, nos sacrilegos templis admovimus ignes who calls him (Ann. 6. 7) 'nobilis qui- Tib. 3. 5. 11. Admovitque pecus_fladem, sed egens ob luxum, per flagitia in- grantibus aris' Virg. Aen. 12. 171; Tac. famis,' and is enumerated by Plin. 10. 22. Ann. 2. 69; Suet. Cal. 32 ; Lucan. 1. 608, 27 among famous epicures, so that Persius where seé Cortius' note (Jahn), 7. 165. doubtless gives him the epithetlippus' in • Obmovere' was also used in the same order to note his excesses.

sense : obmoveto pro admoveto dicebatur 73. ‘Fas et iura sinunt' Virg. G. 1. 269, apud antiquos' Fest. p. 202, Müll. divine and human law.

farre litabo, after Hor. 3. Od. 22. compositum seems to mean harmo- • Mollivit aversos Penates Farre pio et nized or adjusted, so that each takes its saliente mica,' i. e. with the 'mola salsa.' proper place in the mind.

• Mola tantum salsa litant qui non habent sanctos, apparently a predicate, the tura’ Plin. praef, 11. (Freund.) [ Boni recesses of the mind unstained.'

etiam farre ac fitilla religiosi sunt' Sen, recessus mentis, φρενών μύχος, Ben. 1. 6. 3.]

19'

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SATURA III.

• NEMPE hoc adsidue? Iam clarum mane fenestras
intrat et angustas extendit lumine rimas:
stertimus indomitum quod despumare Falernum
sufficiat, quinta dum linea tangitur umbra.
en quid agis ? siccas insana canicula messes
iam dudum coquit et patula pecus omne sub ulmo est.'
unus ait comitum. verumne? itane ? ocius adsit
huc aliquis ! nemon?' turgescit vitrea bilis:
findor'-ut Arcadiae pecuaria rudere dicas.

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An appeal to the young and well-to-do, against sloth and for earnestnesssaid by the Scholiast to be imitated from the 4th book of Lucilius.

1-9. ·Eleven o'clock, and still sleeping off last night's debauch, while everything is broiling out of doors !' .Is it so late ? I'll get up-here, somebody!' He gets into a passion because no one comes.

1. A young man of wealth is wakened by one of his companions— comites, a wide term, including tutors, (Virg. Aen. 5. 545 • Custodem . . comitemque,' 9. 649 ; Suet. Tib. 12comitis et rectoris eius), as well as associates of the same age (Virg. Aen. 10. 703 ‘Aequalem comitemque '): they seem, however, in both cases to have been selected by the youth's relatives, and to have been themselves of inferior rank. • Comes' l. 54 is quite different.

Hoc has somewhat better MS.

authority than 'haec,' and is quoted by Prisc. 15. 5. p. 1020.

clarum mane. “Dum mane novum' Virg. G. 3. 325. • Mane,' a substantive, more commonly used adverbially. Ad ipsum mane 'Hor, i S. 3. 17. [ Proprium nobis et peculiare mane fiat,' Sen. Ep. 122. 9. With the whole comp. “Turpis, qui alto sole semisomnus iacet, cuius vigilia medio die incipit .... Sunt qui officia lucis noctisque perverterint, nec ante diducant oculos hesterna graves crapula, quam adpetere nox coepit,' ib. 1, 2.]

2. rimas, the chinks' between the shutters, which are made longer or enlarged to the eye by the light coming through them.

3. stertimus, like 'scribimus' 1. 13, the speaker including himself when he really is only meaning others.

indomitum. Falernian was a very

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'Is this always the order of the day, then? Here is full morning coming through the window-shutters, and making the narrow crevices look larger with the light; yet we go on snoring, enough to carry off the fumes of that unmanageable Falernian, while the shadow is crossing the fifth line on the dial. What do you mean to do? The mad dog's star is already baking the crops dry, and the cattle have all got under cover of the elm. The speaker is one of my lord's companions. Really? you don't mean it? Hallo there, somebody, quick? Nobody there?' The glass of his bile is expanding. "I'm splitting '—till you would think all the herds in Arcadia were setting up a bray.

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strong and heady wine, called 'ardens' . Iam Procyon furit, Et stella vesani Leonis' Hor. 2 Od. 11. 19, 'severum’i Od. 27. Hor. 3 Od. 29. 18 rabiem Canis et mo9, forte' 2 S. 4. 24, ' indomitum 'again menta Leonis, Cum semel accepit solem by Lucan. 10. 163 · Indomitum Meroe furibundus acutum I Ep. 1o. 16. cogens spumare Falernum.'

6. “Iam pastor umbras cum grege landespumare='coquere,'' to digest,' guido Rivumque fessus quaerit 'Hor. 3 Od. note on 1. 125.

1. c. “Nunc etiam pecudes umbras et fri. 4. quinta is made to agree with gora captant ’ Virg. E. 2. 8. ‘umbra,' though it more properly belongs 8. • Nemon oleum feret ocius ? ecquis to'linea,' just as in Aesch. Ag. 504 deráto Audit ? cum magno blateras clamore σε φέγγει τώδ' άφικόμην έτους it is the furisque' Hor. 2 S. 7. 34, König. Jahn tenth year that is really meant.

well remarks, 'qui ipse desidiosus tempus linea, of the sun-dial, • Nec con- suum perdidit, excandescit cum non statim gruebant ad horas eius lineae ' Plin. 7. 60. accurrit servus. 60. The fifth hour was the time of vitrea bilis, a translation of țarbons 'prandium. “Sosia, prandendum est : xorn, the expression in the Greek medical quartam iam totus in horam Sol calet : writers (Casaubon), ‘splendida bilis' Hor. ad quintam flectitur umbra notamAus. 2 S. 3. 141. Casaubon quotes a Stoic Eph. L. O. C. I foll. quoted by Gifford. definition, χόλος εστίν οργή διοιδούσα. 5. 'En quid ago ?' Virg. Aen. 4. 534. 9. 'Finditur' (bilis), the common readsiccas with coquit.'

ing, is found only in a few of the later insana canicula, with an allusion, MSS. of course, to the madness of the animal. findor ut was restored by Casaubon,

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