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velle suum cuique est, nec voto vivitur uno.
mercibus hic Italis mutat sub sole recenti
rugosum piper et pallentis grana cumini,
hic satur inriguo mavult turgescere somno,
hic campo indulget, hunc alea decoquit, ille
in Venerem putris; sed cum lapidosa cheragra
fregerit articulos, veteris ramalia fagi,
tunc crassos transisse dies lucemque palustrem
et sibi iam seri vitam ingemuere relictam.

“At te nocturnis iuvat inpallescere chartis; cultor enim iuvenum purgatas inseris aures


57. hi .. indulgent. dequoquit.

58. chiragra.

Horace's exsangue cuminum' (1 Ep. 19. 18), pale, because producing paleness, like * pallidam Pirenen' Prol. 4. Cumin was a favourite condiment, Pliny 19. 8. 47 (Jahn).

56. satur is emphatic, as both the pleasure and the fatness would arise as much from the full meal as from the * siesta.'

inriguo, active, as in Virg. G. 4. 31, with reference to the poetical expressions, ‘somnus per membra quietem Inriget' Lucr. 4. 907, ‘fessos sopor inrigat artus' Virg. Aen. 3. 511, compare also Aen. 5. 854 foll.

57. For the sports of the " campus' see Hor. i Od. 8. 4, I S. 6. 131, A. P. 162,


379 foll.

27. Quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum Milia.'

52. usus rerum, 'the practice of life,' like usum vitae' v. 94.

discolor may either be 'of many complexions, or of a different complexion,' according as we take usus' to refer to the whole of mankind or to each man. If the latter, compare Hor. 1 Ep. 18. 3. Ut matrona meretrici dispar erit atque Discolor. 53. velle suum. I. 9.

voto vivitur. 2.7; 'trahit sua quemque voluptas' Virg. E. 2. 65, Schol.

54. Imitated from Hor. I S. 4. 29 · Hic mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum quo Vespertina tepet regio,' Scholiast.

mercibus.. mutat.. piper, a riety for 'merces mutat pipere,' as in Hor. 2 S. 7. 109 • uvam Furtiva mutat strigili,' and elsewhere.

sole recenti, of the East, like 'sole novo terras inrorat Eous,' of the sunrise, Virg. G. 1. 288.

55. There is a force in rugosum piper, the shrivelling being the effect of the sun, which distinguishes it from the Italian pepper, as Jahn remarks. The Delph. ed. quotes Pliny 12. 7. 14 'Hae, priusquam debiscant decerptae tostaeque sole, faciunt quod vocatur piper longum : paullatim

dehiscentes maturitate, ostendunt candidum piper, quod deinde tostum solibus colore rugisque mutatur.' Pepper, as a specimen of merchandize, is mentioned again v. 136, Juv. 14. 293.

pallentis.. cumini, an imitation of

decoquere was used intransitively, by an obvious ellipse, of men running through their means. “Tenesne memoria, praetextatum te decoxisse' Cic. 2 Phil. 18. Here the man is made the object, and the means of his ruin the subject of the verb. Hor. 1 Ep. 18. 21, joins .damnosa Venus' with 'praeceps alea.' Juvenal dwells on the increase of gaming, 1. 88 foll.

58. cheragra is the spelling of the oldest MSS., and seems to be required by the metre: see Bentley and Orelli on Hor. 2 S. 7. 15. The epithet • lapidosa,' combined with fregerit.. ramalia,' suggests that the metaphor may perhaps be from a hail-storm. Compare .contudit articulos,'Hor. 1. c., with 1 Ep. 8. 4 'quia grando Contuderit vites.'

59. fregerit articulos; 'postquam


most different colours. Each has his own desire, and their daily prayers are not the same. One exchanges Italian wares under an Eastern sky for shrivelled pepper and seeds of cadaverous cumin; another prefers bloating himself with the balmy sleep that follows a full meal; one gives in to outdoor games; another lets gambling run through his means; but when the hailstones of gout have broken their finger-joints, like so many decayed boughs of an old beech, then they complain that their days have been passed in grossness and their sunshine choked by fogs, and heave a sigh too late over the life that is left behind them.

But your passion is to lose your colour in nightly study; you are the moral husbandman of the young, preparing the soil of their

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illi iusta cheragra Contudit articulos' Hor. 2 S. 7. 15 foll. of a man who went on gambling in spite of the gout.

veteris ramalia fagi, is a picturesque paraphrase of Horace's epithet

nodosus.' The expression is strengthened by the omission of the particle of comparison, changing it in Aristotle's language (Rhet. 3. 4) from an eináv to a fletapopá. Veteres, iam fracta cacumina, fagos' Virg. E. 9. 9. Possibly, however, Heinr. may be right in connecting 'fregerit' closely with ‘ramalia,' like the Greek διδάσκειν τινά σοφόν, “has battered therm into dead branches,' a usage which has some affinity to that of the cogn. acc. It may be worth noticing that the oldest MS. reads 'fecerit.'

60. Jahn compares Tibull. I. 4. 33 • Vidi ego iam iuvenem, premeret cum serior aetas, Maerentem stultos praeteriisse dies. König compares Cic. pro Sest. 9 'emersum subito e diuturnis tenebris lustrorum ac stuprorum.. qui non modo tempestatem impendentem intueri temulentus, sed ne lucem quidem insolitam aspicere posset ?' Not unlike is Virg. Aen. 6. 733 . Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque, neque auras Dispiciunt, clausae tenebris et carcere caeco. The image of life in darkness is frequently found in Lucretius. • Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi, quodcunque est!' 2. 15: compare also 3. 77 (* Ipsi se in tenebris volvi caenoque queruntur,' which Persius may have imitated), 5. 11, 170. The conception here is of life passed in a Boeotian atmosphere, of thick fogs and pestilential vapours, which the sun never pierces—probably with especial reference to the plea

sures of sense, of which Persius has just
been speaking. So the vapour, heavy,
hueless, formless, cold,' in Tennyson's
• Vision of Sin.'
61. sibi with ingemuere.

vitam.. relictam means no more than their past life (" vitam anteactam Casaubon). So 'iterare cursus Cogor relictos' Hor. I Od. 34. 4, 5, which has been similarly mistaken by the commentators. The acc. as in Virg. E. 5. 27 ‘ingemuisse leones Interitum.

62–72. “Your end is nobler : you give your nights to philosophy, that you may train youth. That is the true stay when old age comes. Yet men go on putting off the work of studying virtue to a morrow that never arrives. 62. nocturnis. 1. 90.

iuvat, see the passage quoted on V. 24.

inpallescere. 1. 26. 63. cultor introduces the metaphor which is carried on in ' purgatas,'.inseris,' ,and 'fruge.'

purgatas.... aures, • cleared of weeds, a common word in re rustica,' is from Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 5, where however the reference is to ordinary cleansing, as v. 86 aurem lotus. Compare Lucr. 5. 44 'At nisi purgatum est pectus, quae proelia nobis Atque pericula tum'st ingratis insinuandum ?' where the metaphor is from clearing a country of wild beasts, κατά τε δρία πάντα καθαίρων Soph. Trach.

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inserere aures fruge, a variety for inserere auribus fruges.' Jahn compares Cic. de Univ. 12 °Cum autem animis corpora cum necessitate insevisset.' For the general expression the Delph. ed.


fruge Cleanthea. petite hinc puerique senesque finem animo certum miserisque viatica canis !' *Cras hoc fiet.' Idem cras fiet.' 'Quid? quasi magnum nempe diem donas?' Sed cum lux altera venit, iam cras hesternum consumpsimus: ecce aliud cras egerit hos annos et semper paulum erit ultra. nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub uno vertentem sese frustra sectabere cantum, cum rota posterior curras et in axe secundo.

· Libertate opus est: non hac, ut quisque Velina


64. iuvenesque.

66. cras fiat.

70. prope se.

73. quique.

quotes Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 39 foll. “Nemo adeo ferus est ut non mitescere possit, Si modo culturae patientem commodet aurem.'

64. fruge, generally of grain for eating-here of grain for seed.

• Nos fruges serimus, nos arbores' Cic. N. D. 2. 6o. The metaphorical use of the word is not uncommon: Centuriae seniorum agitant expertia frugis' Hor. A. P. 341.

Cleanthes, Dict. Biog., used as a representative of the Stoics, as in Juv. 2. 7, • Aut iubet archetypos pluteum servare Cleanthas,' being the preceptor of Chrysippus.

petite.. finem animo certum is from Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 56 .certum voto pete finem,' ' petere' signifying in both passages not to aim at,’ but 'to procure,' and 'animo' being dat. like 'voto,' with which it is here virtually synonymous, as in the expressions est animus,' .fert animus.'

puerique senesque, probably a recollection of Hor, 1 Ep. 1. 26 'Aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit,' which the Delph. ed. compares. 65. finem ; compare 3. 60.

miseris, for which Heinr. substitutes Markland's conj.' seris,' is sufficiently appropriate, as it is for the miseries of old age that the provision of philosophy is required, just as it is in decay that the evil of a bad life is felt, v. 58 foll.

viatica, alluding to a saying of Bias, εφόδιον από νεότητος εις γηρας αναλάμBave ooplav, Diog. L. I. 5. 88, attributed to Aristotle, id. 5. 11. 21, in another form,

κάλλιστον εφόδιον τω γήρα η παιδεία. . Casaubon and Jahn.

canis, frequently used substantively and coupled with an epithet, especially by Ovid. Freund s. v.

66. A reply from one of those addressed. 'I will do it to-morrow. With hoc fiet' compare hoc age.' Persius answers, 'You will do to-morrow just what you do to-day.' Jahn quotes Ov. Rem. Am. 104 'cras quoque fiet idem,' said of a wound, 'It will be the same to-morrow,' where 'fiet' seems to be used for 'erit,' expressing perhaps that there will be a change which is no change. For the general sentiment the Delph. ed. compares Mart. 5. 58.

quasi magnum. Casaubon compares Hor. I S. 4. 9 foll.. saepe ducentos, Ut magnum, versus dictabat.'

67. “What? do you (' nempe ') that you call a day a great present?' Nempe' implies · Is this what you mean when you say Idem cras fiet ' Do you mean to higgle about a day?' This seems better than with Heinr, to punctuate 'quasi magnum nempe, diem donas ?' or with Jahn to suppose . Quid.. donas' to stand for two sentences. * Quid, quasi magnum sit, mihi donas? nempe diem donas.'

cum.. venit expresses time coincident with, if not subsequent to, that of the principal clause — the sense being, “The very coming of the to-morrow you speak of now, involves the loss of the to-morrow you spoke of yesterday, i.e. of to-day.'


to say

ears and sowing it with Cleanthes' corn. Yes! it is thence that all, young and old alike, should get a definite aim for their desires, and a provision for the sorrows of old age.' 'So I will, to-morrow.' • To-morrow will tell the same tale as to-day.' What? do you mean to call a day a great present to make a man?' 'Aye, but when next day comes, we have spent what was to-morrow yesterday already; and there is always a fresh tomorrow baling out these years of ours and keeping a little in advance of us. Near as the tire may be, revolving, in fact, under the same carriagepole as you, you will never overtake it, for yours is the hind wheel, and your axle not the first but the second.

• The thing wanted is freedom-it is not this freedom which enables

68. hesternum, in reference to the present time of speaking, not to the time denoted by consumpsimus.'

aliud cras,' a fresh to-morrow,' ever succeeding.

69. egerit is explained by Jahn impulerit,' as if from .ago,' an error against which all the commentators, from the Scholiast downward, have taken care to guard, some mentioning it expressly. Egero' is used variously of emptying out earth, carrying out goods, baling out water, etc., from which it is easily transferred to the constant consumption of time, as in Val. Fl. 8. 453 'tota querelis Egeritur luctuque dies,' quoted by König, ib. 5. 299 .Nox Minyis egesta metu.'

hos annos, which you have before you, and reckon on in advance.

paulum erit ultra changes the metaphor.

70. A metaphor instead of a simile, as


freedom, a thing that in these blinded times is conferred on any one, no matter on whom.

Take a miserable debased slave, enfranchise him, and he becomes a Roman at once, enjoys all the privileges, and is honoured with all the compliments. Well, he will reply, and am I not free-free to do as I please? No, you are not. How so? surely my enfranchisement gave every right that the law allows.'

73. non hac qua, ut quisque, is the usual reading, but it appears to be supported by a single MS. only, five others having 'hac quam ut,' which comes to the same thing. Heinr. adopts the reading of several copies, "hac qua' or

quam quisque, understanding quisque'=' quicunque.' The great majority of MSS. however read .non hac ut quisque,' which Casaubon and Jahn follow, the one supposing that the relative can be omitted, and quoting Virg. Aen. I. 530 · Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt;' the latter giving as his explanation ‘ut (qua, quasi dixerit ita ut) scabiosum tesserula far possidet, quisque (quicunque) Publius emeruit Velina,' where surely ‘possideat' would be required. A far simpler way is to make . non hac' the beginning of an independent sentence. • It is not by this freedom that every fire-new citizen who gets his name enrolled in a tribe, is privileged to receive a pauper's allowance for his ticket.'

ut quisque.. emeruit.. possidet, he receives it upon serving—as surely as he has served,' a common construction, for instances of which see Freund s, v. 'ut,' Madvig $ 495. For the two ablatives, • hac' and 'tesserula,' attached to the same predicate, see Madvig § 278 a. The

in v. 59.

quamvis, etc., if you are behind it, it does not signify how near you may be

- like our proverb, “a miss is as good as a mile.'

71. cantum, the tire or rim of a wheel, instead of rotam,' as it would be the outside which a person behind would naturally hope to touch.

72. cum, instead of si,' as giving more rhetorical force, and more completely identifying the person with the thing to which he is compared.

rota posterior curras, you run in the character of the hind wheel- your running is that of the hind wheel.

in axe currere, like 'in cardine verti.'

73-90. “Men want freedom-not civil


Publius emeruit, scabiosum tesserula far
possidet. heu steriles veri, quibus una Quiritem
vertigo facit! hic Dama est non tresis agaso,
vappa lippus et in tenui farragine mendax :
verterit hunc dominus, momento turbinis exit
Marcus Dama. papae! Marco spondente recusas
credere tu nummos ? Marco sub iudice palles ?
Marcus dixit: ita est; adsigna, Marce, tabellas.
haec mera libertas! hoc nobis pillea donant!
• An quisquam est alius liber, nisi ducere vitam
cui licet, ut voluit? licet ut volo vivere: non sum


74. Puplius.

76. damma.

79. damma.

81. asigna.

former is to be compared with 'facere ali- them to an extraordinary bounty (conquid lege,' the latter with 'emere aliquid giarium '), by refusing to admit the new pretio.'

claimants, and giving the rest less per head 73. Velina, probably chosen because than he had promised. instanced by Hor. 1 Ep. 6. 52 ' hic multum 75. heu steriles veri, compare 2. 61, in Fabia valet, ille Velina.'

and the metaphor in v. 63 of this Satire. 74. Publius, 'Quinte, puta, aut Publi sterilis, with gen. like 'virtutum (gaudent praenomine molles Auriculae'), sterile saeculum' Tac. H. 1. 3 (Jahn), also Hor. 2 S. 5. 32, of a similar case. The found in Pliny and Vell. Paterc. object of emeruit' is apparently involved Quiritem, 3. 106, rare in the sing. in the sentence which follows: scabiosum as the Scholiast remarks, 'found in poets tesserula far possidere,' after the analogy and in some legal formulae;' Mayor on of 'mereri stipendia,' so that we may Juv. 8. 47. render it has served. •Velina' defining 76. vertigo, explained by "verterit,' the service, as if it were the legion in v. 78. The reference is to the manuwhich the soldier had served. He has missio per vindictam,' which made a slave only to enter the service of the tribe in full citizen, the lictor touching him with order to entitle himself to the allowance.' the vindicta,' the master turning him

scabiosum, like “vilis tessera fru- round and dismissing him from his hand,' menti' Juv. 7. 174.

with the words . Hunc hominem liberum tesserula, a contemptuous dimi

esse volo.' nutive of tessera,' the ticket which enti- facit. In prose we should have extled the holder to a share in the 'frumen- pected faciat,' as the sentence, though tatio,' or monthly distribution of corn expressed in an independent form, is really among the poorer citizens. See Dict. meant to give the reason of the address Ant., and Mayor's note on Juv. 7. 174. • Heu steriles veri.' Compare Virg. G. 2. Julius Caesar limited the number of reci- 458 foll. O fortunatos nimium. . quibus pients (Suet. Iul. 41): Augustus com- ipsa. . Fundit humo facilem victum iustisplained of the demoralizing effect of the sima tellus.” [Όταν ουν στρέψη τις επί custom, which at one time he wished to στρατηγού τον αυτού δούλον, ουδέν abolish altogether (Aug. 42), and at- εποίησεν; Έποίησεν. Τί; Έστρεψε τον tempted to restrict the distribution to αυτού δούλον έπι στρατηγού. . "Αλλο three times a year : but was deterred by ουδέν; Ναι» και είκοστήν αυτού δούναι the unpopularity of the step (ib. 40). On οφείλει.

και ταύτα παθών ου one occasion he resented this very practice γέγονεν ελεύθερος; Ου μάλλον η ατάραχος. of manumitting slaves, in order to entitle Epictetus 2. 1. 26.]

Τί ούν;

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