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THE BOTTOM OF THE GREATEST ACTIVE VOLCANO IN THE WORLD
The picture snows one of the lava fields in the crater of Kilauea, the great volcano of the Hawaiian Islands, which is now active. The area of this vast lava bed
is said to be nearly 2,700 acres. In its center is Holemaaman, the active part of the crater. The lava, it is reported, is honeycombed with galleries, "some of them

COPYRIGHT BY BROWN & DAWSON

miles in length

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IN THE UNITED STATES ASSAY OFFICE AT NEW YORK CITY Vast quantities of foreign gold have come to the Assay Office since the beginning of the war. This gold is assayed, melted down, and recast into gold bars. The picture shows a detail of the process of electrolysis.

The bin contains more than $100,000 worth of gold

[blocks in formation]

thousand dollars for a trip from London to coloring and a simplicity full of grandeur." Manchester.

She might have called the attention of her Carlstrom's flight is obviously only a fore- hearers to the masterpiece by that artist, the runner of the many long cross-country flights "Jeanne d'Arc,"in the Metropolitan Museum, which will be made in the near future in the New York City. She did call particular attention United States either under the auspices of to the work of Dagnan-Bouveret, of Bonnat, commercial concerns or the Government. of Gérôme, of Henner, “ who died taking Carlstrom's flight, for instance, is a notable with him the secrets of the luminous treatcontribution towards the development of the ment of Aesh painting," and of Gustave aeroplane as a carrier of the post. It will be Moreau, whose painting seems composed remembered that the Postmaster-General is of precious stones." She concluded: authorized to spend three hundred thousand

I am only the humble interpreter of the dollars a year for the carriage of the mails

great family of artists, but I have the great by aeroplane. As one step that has been pleasure and joy of thanking Miss Sage. She taken in this direction it is to be noted that has been the means of bridging two continents; mail is now carried by almost daily flights she has been the ideal link to bind together from Columbus, New Mexico, to General the two great sister republics. And at this time, Pershing's headquarters, a distance of more so full of grief and sadness all over Europe, than one hundred and forty miles.

America is an oasis to our brains, so tensely watching the great events that are taking place ;

to our hearts, bruised by so many sorrows. MADAMB BERNHARDT

America is the blue sky toward which all our AND FRENCH PAINTING

hopes are turning. Vive l'Amérique ! At the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo there has now been opened a very impressive

We welcome every such opportunity that exhibition. It comes from the Luxembourg

brings the French spirit home to AmerGallery at Paris, and has been lent to Miss

icans. Cornelia Sage, Director of the Albright Art Gallery, by the French Government. On the AMERICAN EMIGRATION occasion of this opening the address was

TO NORWAY made by no less a personage than Madame At the close of a cable despatch from Sarah Bernhardt. The opportunity of hear- Copenhagen printed recently in a New York ing the great actress on such a unique occa- paper was the following: sion attracted an immense crowd. Some " Among the passengers [of the Norwegian twenty-five thousand persons were in or near American Line steamer Christianafjord) were the Albright Gallery on the occasion.

many American laborers who are to be emMadame Bernhardt spoke first of the ployed by large manufacturers in Norway. "touching honor” to her, for, though far Several more are expected later." away from her own country, she found her- Emigration from the United States to self surrounded by the very soul of France Europe! Who could have foreseen this as in the works of art about her. She also called among the results of a European war ? And attention to the fact that the pictures and away from a market crying desperately for sculptures lent by the Luxembourg Museum laborers ! were an expression of not only one but many The statement is not as paradoxical as French schools of art—the school of Rodin, it may at first appear. Norway has prosfor instance, representing “infinite idealism” pered as a result of the war. As of old, in sculpture; the Besnard school in painting, the Norsemen are eager to sail the wide with its immense decorative significance; and

They have seized the opporthen the school of impressionists, represented tunity to share in the immense profits by Monet and others.

to be gained in the carrying trade. They The speaker also called attention to par

now rank third in volume of commerce. ticular painters as worthy of greater attention, Norway has money to invest as a result. for instance, Bastien-Lepage, who died in With the influx of capital it has been turned 1884, " at the very time when his admirable into many useful channels. Manufacturing talent rendered him the peer of Millet.” As has been stimulated. Ship-building has inMadame Bernhardt, said, the painting of

creased. Part of the abundant water power Bastien-Lepage is “of a delicate, luminous has been turned to the task of snatching

seas

over.

nitrogen from the air. Thousands of men are percentage of the product of their labors for engaged in this work.

home consumption, to be sold at half the With the expansion of industry have come export price. Norway does not produce all demands for larger plants, additions to trans- the grain she requires. Grain, of course, is portation facilities, ship-building, and the among those items of food supply which are erection of many buildings, including better high. This progressive little Kingdom, folhomes for workingmen. In the Middle West lowing the example of Israel of old, sent into are many Norwegians. A large percentage another country for grain. This country was of them are naturalized American citizens. the United States. Sugar was also sought Naturalization, however, has not driven from here. A part of the proceeds of the tax on their memories the scenes of their early lives. shipping was applied to the charges for Now and then they have longed for a glimpse transporting the grain and sugar from the of the mountains and fiords and cataracts United States to Norway. Thus were the of their native land. Letters and papers people of that country furnished with food from Norway are filled with news items show- supplies at a moderate price. ing the great demand for labor in the old The law of supply and demand in its relahome. Some are

now succumbing to the tion to immigration has not failed to operate temptation, for the wages offered are twice in this instance. It is serving Norway just what were formerly paid. Carpenters, for as it has served the United States and other instance, are receiving approximately five countries. dollars a day.

THE HANDWRITING ON LABOR AND INDUSTRY IN NORWAY

THE WALL In Norway, despite the war, and the con- Americans who feel that we are not consequent high cost of living, five dollars a day cerned with the fortunes of Mexico and that means more than it does in America. Rent our only duty toward that country is to is lower there than here. The workman can ignore it will find food for thought in Great live near enough to his place of employment to Britain's recent note to the Mexican Govwalk to it. He has no car-fare to pay. The ernment warning Carranza not to be anyGovernment has taken pains to see that the thing but strictly neutral toward German necessities of life are sold to him at a mod- submarines which may wander into the Gulf erate rate. The great profits of the carrying of Mexico. business, Norway's chief industry, have been The note itself is not so significant as the called upon to bear a burden of taxation for manner in which it was delivered. Although the benefit of the laborer. The profits of England maintains a Minister in Mexico City, the shipping companies have been drawn the note to Mexico was sent through the upon to supply funds for cutting down the British Ambassador at Washington and the cost of household supplies. By way of illus- American State Department.

This means tration, it may be stated that the price of that England considers us to a large degree British coal in Norway is prohibitive. Yet the guardian of Mexico. coal is urgently demanded in this northern England is justified in this attitude by the land. So the Government applies the results Monroe Doctrine. We have told the Euroof its taxation of the carrying business to the pean nations that we will tolerate no aggresreduction of the price. The worker is thus sions from them on this hemisphere, and that enabled to obtain his fuel for less than five therefore we will assume responsibility for the dollars a ton. The worker in America living acts of our small brother American nations. within two hundred miles of the great anthra- But for our repeated enunciations of this cite region of Pennsylvania, where no one is Doctrine and our willingness to support it in pressing to buy, pays one-half as much again the past the French might be in Mexico for one precious ton.

to-day, and but for it it is more than likely Fish is one of Norway's contributions to that other European nations would have the commerce of the world. This product intervened to punish Mexico for injuries to is in great demand in Great Britain and Ger- their subjects. many. Norwegian fishermen can obtain high Either we must abandon the Monroe Docprices in either country for their catches. trine entirely or we must abandon the docThe Norwegian Government, however, re- trine that the fate of Mexico is none of our quires the fishermen to set aside a certain business.

1916

THE MEANING OF THE ELECTION

597

THE MEANING OF THE

tional Democratic ticket, and other States, like

California, have curiously divided their vote, ELECTION

electing Republican United States Senators What does the Presidential election mean?

by unmistakable majorities, and so dividing

on the National election that at this writing It is a little over one hundred and thirty it is still questionable whether they have years since the organization of this Union by chosen Republican or Democratic electors. the adoption of the Federal Constitution. To the Far Western States, like Kansas, Then the United States consisted of thirteen Nebraska, Colorado, Montana, and Washingcolonies along the Atlantic seaboard. It now ton, the terrible tragedy of the Lusitania in consists of forty-eight States, extending from the North Atlantic has seemed as remote as Sandy Hook to the Golden Gate, and from to the whole Nation the more recent tragedy the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. of the Arabia in the Mediterranean Sea. And It then contained a population of less than California, which not long ago was feverishly four million. It now contains a population excited over the remote peril of Japanese of about a hundred million. With the excep- immigration, has shown itself singularly apation of the Negro race this was a homogene- thetic respecting the more immediate peril of ous and intelligent population. It has now sub-sea warfare against American commerce. a more heterogeneous population probably To the urban populations, especially in the than inhabits any other land on the globe. Eastern States, the necessity and duty of Here are represented nearly every nation, protecting Americans on the high seas has race, religious faith, written language, and seemed instant and urgent. To them safety historical tradition. Nowhere will one find first and duty first were almost synonymous greater wealth or greater poverty, culture terms, To the rural populations, especially more refined or ignorance more crass; no- in the regions west of the Missouri River, the where classes more sharply separated, though protection of Americans on the sea, and even happily not as yet by hereditary barriers. of American cities on the seaboard, has Here are employers differing from feudal seemed a matter almost of indifference, and lords chiefly in name, and workingmen differ- " he has kept us out of war” a final and ing from feudal servants more in their spirit conclusive reason for supporting and conthan in their condition. Here great and tinuing the imperiling policy of the last four growing cities with compact manufacturing years. In the one section getting $1.75 a populations, and here wide stretches of coun- bushel for wheat has been an argument for try occupied by rural populations in widely Democracy ; in the other section paying $12 separated homes.

a barrel for four has been an equally cogent The recent election emphasizes the fact argument against it. that the most important problem of America A comparatively small number of highto-day is to make out of this heterogeneous priced workingmen on the railways have depopulation, with its apparently conflicting in- manded higher wages under guise of demandterests and its certainly conflicting prejudices ing a shorter labor day, regardless of the and prepossessions, a homogeneous people, almost inevitable effect of that demand on united in their hopes and in their purposes, the economic welfare of the great mass of as they are certainly united in their destiny. their fellow-citizens. But the legislation

The folly of the Republican party in the enacted in their behalf has proved a boomreconstruction period immediately following erang. At least, it is a question whether it the Civil War widened and made enduring has not lost more votes than it has gained for the gap between North and South which the the Democratic party. Civil War had, strange as it may appear, The greatest need of America, though perdone so much to close. That widened gap haps not its most immediate need, is not a still remains, and the Southern States, still protective tariff or a larger navy, or a better afraid of Negro domination, though the peril organized army or a wiser or a more economic of it has long since passed away, vote as a Administration, important as all these are. It unit regardless of National perils that are is a united people, who realize that America near at hand.

is one Nation, who desire that Americans In the North the old party lines have shall be one people, with one allegiance, and broken down. States that were counted surely who see that the interests of the Nation are Republican, like Kansas, have voted the Na

paramount, never to be discarded or forgot

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