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The picture in The Outlook of November 22 of Governor George W. P. Hunt, of Arizona, was wrongly headed “Re-elected." The official review of the returns, we are informed, shows that Thomas E. Campbell, the Republican candidate, was elected by a majority of fifty-five votes, notwithstanding the fact that practically the entire Deinocratic ticket in Arizona led by a large majority. The matter may be taken to the courts.

The subscriber who sends the above correction also says that the maintenance of order during the Clifton strike of some months ago (credit for which was given to Governor Hunt) was due principally to the fact that Arizona has prohibition, and consequently there was no liquor in the Clifton camp to act as a riotbreeder.

Wireless telegraphic communication has been opened with Japan. President Wilson sent the first message, expressing the hope that this wonderful event might "confirm the unbroken friendship of our two nations." The Japanese Emperor responded with a similar expression of good will. The commercial rate for messages by wireless between California and Japan will be eighty cents a word.

Witchcraft still has a hold on the popular mind, even in enlightened America. A news item in the Philadelphia “ North American tells of the acquittal of a man charged with arson at Pottsville, his excuse being that he was obsessed with a black "hex" or "witch cat." He carried with him as a talisman a silver bullet, but its charms did not affect the "hex" on this occasion, for the man set fire to

ow of houses of which he was himself the owner.

A writer in the “Harvard Alumni Bulletin says that the famous college "snake dance originated quite by accident, about twenty years ago, at the celebration of the golden anniversary of Cambridge as a chartered city. Crowding and jostling in the ranks of the student body in the parade caused a swaying move. ment, and instinctively the marchers struck up the "snake dance." That happy accident in '98, the contributor to the “ Bulletin" avers, was the origin of the zigzag march that is now so picturesque a feature of college students' celebrations.

A bulletin issued by the Irish Department of Agriculture, as quoted by an exchange, says that it has been found, as the result of experiments, that pigs thrive better on uncooked than on cooked food. This, in a way, justifies the indifference of the hog-raiser in a well-known story. The professor had said to him, while watching him feed his hogs uncooked food, “If you would cook that stuff, the hogs would digest

it in half the time.” “What's a hog's time worth ?" was the unfeeling reply. And now science justifies empiricism !

Encouragement to the struggling editor may be found in the newspaper announcement that “Arthur Brisbane, editor, to-day purchased seven lots on the southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and One Hundred and Third Street at a price of about $250,000. The purchase is intended solely as an investment."

The two sections of a new tunnel under the East River, connecting New York City and Brooklyn, have just met, completing the drive. The tunnel is notable because in its construction not a single workman was lost from the“ bends," or caisson disease; because the work was completed ten months ahead of the time set; and because the two shafts met in the center of the river within three-quarters of an inch of the calculations. A lunch was served to the 1,200 “sand hogs” who worked in the tubes on the day the two gangs of workmen met, in celebration of the event.

One of the great athletic events of the year 1916, says “Good Health,” was the run of one hundred miles between Chicago and Milwaukee, made in fourteen hours by Sydney Hatch. The best previous time was eighteen hours. Mr. Hatch, it is stated, is an abstainer from alcohol and tobacco, and has never developed " athletic heart,” though he has done much running and is thirty-four years old.

Terra-cottas by Luca della Robbia, candlesticks by Sansovino, an incense-burner by ll Riccio-an auction sale with items like these seems to bring the Renaissance pretty near to Fifth Avenue. The treasures were brought from Florence by Professor Volpi, and were sold in New York City the other day. The incense-burner, made of bronze and twenty. three inches high, brought the record price of $66,000.

The “Bookman" of December calls attention to a slip on the part of a New York " Sun" reviewer who said that the allusion in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera “ Patience " to " Howells and James young men " referred to the American novelists W. D. Ho ells and Henry James ! The “Bookman " says that “Howells and James” was the firm name of " a very fastidious London tailoring establishment." The fact is, as ascertained by reference to the authorized vocal score, that the firm's name was Howell and JamesA Sewell and Cross young man, A Howell and James young man, A pushing young particle-what's the next article

Waterloo House young man," and these young men are described in a foot. note as “clerks connected in large dry-goods establishments.”

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The Outlook

DECEMBER 20, 1916

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

A NEW FEATURE

Beginning with the new year we shall print weekly an Outline Study of Current History. The basis of this study in each issue will be the preceding issue of The Outlook.

The purpose of this outline study will be :
1. To aid teachers of current history and of English in schools and colleges.

2. To provide a list of topics for discussion in current events clubs, reading and study groups, and similar organizations of men and women.

3. To afford a guide for discussion in every family where there is a desire to develop interest in significant events of the times.

4. To suggest to individual readers lines which they can follow in a critical examination of The Outlook's record of current history.

These topics will be selected and accompanying questions will be framed with a view to a critical examination, not only of the current history, but also of The Outlook's own opinions and its interpretation of what it records.

In order that this may be done objectively and without bias, we have asked Mr. J. Madison Gathany, who is in charge of the History Department of the Hope Street High School, Providence, Rhode Island, and for a number of years has been supervising teacher in the High School Training Department of Providence, to prepare this weekly Outline Study of Current History,

In a self-governing country it is essential that all citizens—boys and girls, men and women --should not only know what things are happening in the world about them, but should have the power of forming intelligent opinions about those happenings. They will never, however, learn what are the significant things that are happening by picking up the knowledge here and there or getting information in scrap-book fashion. They can learn what these things are only from a definite, coherent account. And they can form no opinion about them if the information is given to them in a colorless, dry-as-dust way. They can form their opinion only by seeing those happenings put in relation to great principles, and by examining critically some opinion concerning the events they read about.

No one, whether boy or girl at school or adult citizen, is interested in having his mind stuffed with a mass of facts. Nothing will more quickly kill interest in current events than to make them the subject of a mere memorizing exercise. Cæsar's Gallic campaigns have been made dull to many a student by stupid methods. The present European war can be made equally dull by the same methods. So can every significant event. To study current history without forming any opinion about it is to subject one's self to needless boredom.

It is because The Outlook has convictions that Mr. Gathany, like many other teachers, has used it in his classes in current history. This is not because he wants his pupils to accept The Outlook's opinions ; in fact, he repeatedly encourages his pupils to question them and to be free in presenting arguments against such opinions. Indeed, they will often find arguments against The Outlook's opinions in articles by contributors in its own pages.

Harmful as it is to try to stuff facts into the mind of an unresponsive pupil, it is equally harmful to try to force an opinion upon it. What Mr. Gathany will do is to make The Outlook's coherent account of current history the basis of study and lead his pupils to examine and question what The Outlook says about the meaning of the events, and thus to form opinions of their own. And what Mr. Gathany has been doing for his pupils he will do for every reader of The Outlook by his list of topics and questions in the weekly study of current history.

The Outlook for January 3, 1917 (the first number to appear in the new form), will be the first issue to be made the subject of this study. In that number Mr. Gathany will explain his method; and in the succeeding number (the issue for January 10) will appear the outline study for January 3.—THE EDITORS

THE WEEK

THE STORY OF THE WAR

his speech, going into details as to German We discuss the two great war events of claims of military success, and even saying, the week-Germany's proposal to enter into " To these great events on land heroic deeds peace negotiations and the Cabinet recon. of equal importance are added by our substruction in England and France--in two marines "! Compressed into a few words, the editorials in this issue.

note itself and the Chancellor's exposition Apart from unauthorized speculation as to merely say that Germany is ready to fight on, the terms which Germany might propose at but, assuming that German arms are triumsuch a conference, the facts as to Germany's phant, believes that the time has come for new move are these : On Tuesday, Decem- the nations to confer about terms of peace. ber 12, the German Chancellor, Bethmann The terms which have been mentioned Hollweg, announced in the Reichstag that, in in press dispatches from Washington as those union with the Governments of Austria, which are said to be regarded as probable for Turkey, and Bulgaria, Germany, through its Germany to offer, in the opinion of " persons Chancellor, had handed to the diplomatic rep- close to the German Embassy,” are as follows: resentatives in Berlin of Spain, Switzerland, 1 Complete restoration of Belgium. and the United States ntic notes to trans- 2. Evacuation by Germany of all erritory mitted to their Governments, and through captured in northern France. them to the Governments of the nations 3. Establishment of Poland and Lithuania as hostile to Germany. The three nations were independent kingdoms. selected because their representatives are

4. Restoration to Austria of territory cap

tured by Italy in the neighborhood of the looking after the interests of subjects of the

Adriatic Sea. Central Powers in hostile countries. The

5. Restoration to Germany of all her colonial identic note in substance is a proposal for a

possessions. peace conference, and if it is accompanied by 6. Retention of Constantinople by Turkey. specific terms of peace it is not known what 7. Retention of Serbia by Austria-Hungary they are. That the note names specific terms and the restoration to Bulgaria of all territory is inferred from the Chancellor's statement : lost by that country in the second Balkan War. “ The four allied (Central] Powers propose to Intelligent discussion of Germany's terms enter forthwith on peace negotiations. The of peace is of course impossible until they propositions which they bring for such nego- are made known officially. All that can be tiations . . . are, according to their firm discussed is the situation created by Gerbelief, an appropriate basis for the establish- many's offer to negotiate. It is to this that ment of a lasting peace.”

we confine the editorial discussion on another The note is somewhat vague in its word

page. ing, and some of its phrases will strike many readers who are not partisans of Germany as WHAT RUMANIA IS FACING grandiloquent. It declares that Germany's If the despatches from Berlin and Sofia aim is not to annihilate its adversaries, but are anything like accurate, the Rumanian that Germany is ready to continue “the war army in itself is not now in much better conforced upon us.” Reference is made to the dition than the Serbian army after the Austrorecent events in the Balkans, to the expecta- German drive through Serbia. Last week's tion of further successes, and to the power of despatches from Berlin claim that the total Germany “to continue to a victorious end,” losses of the Rumanians in this war up to disclaiming responsibility to humanity and the December 11 have been 250,000 killed or world if the proposal is rejected.

wounded and 150,000 prisoners, while 600 The Chancellor enlarged on the note in large guns are reported captured, and the

1916

THE WEEK

839

amount of ammunition, grain, petroleum, and other supplies is described as enormous.

With all due discount for partisan exaggeration, the Rumanian loss has undoubtedly been great. The news of the week included the statement that the section of the Rumanian army which was cut off in extreme western Rumania (or Little Wallachia) in and about Orsova had in large part surrendered.

What is left of the main Rumanian army has succeeded in getting so far northward in eastern Rumania as to make its connection with the Russian armies moving from the north complete, and it is from the joint effort of Russian and Rumanian armies in Moldavia that resistance or future advance is to be expected. The German forces have crossed the Danube in two or three places, have taken possession of the ground west of the Cernavoda bridge, and have occupied all railways and principal points, such as Ploesci, in southern and western Rumania.

LIBERTY VERSUS COMFORT
IN BELGIUM

Indignation at the German deportation of the Belgian workers will not down ; from every side come protests. Ours, among other governments, has sent what it calls a formal protest.

It consisted of a note cabled to Mr. Grew, our Chargé at Berlin in the absence of our Ambassador, with instructions to Mr. Grew to read the note to the German Chancellor,

This seems to be a cross between the old and somewhat outworn method of the Administration in note-writing and that of a verbal lecture. In this communication our Government protested solemnly in a friendly spirit against the deportation as " in contravention of all precedents and of those humane principles of international practice which have long been accepted and followed by civilized nations in their treatment of noncombatants."

A reply has been made by the German Government, which in substance asserts that there are 1,250,000 people suffering in Belgium because of the lack of work, that idleness was causing demoralization, that those who have gone to Germany are

happy and contented ” (which a large body of evidence shows to be a straight-out falsehood), and that the deportation has been carried out in a humane and kindly way.

That Germany suggests peace while she is deporting Belgians in this wholesale fashion indicates that not even two and a half years of war have taught her to what lengths of sacrifice a liberty-loving people will go to defend their freedom.

DOUBLE DEALING IN GREECE

The Greek situation continues to be critical. Despatches from London predict that King Constantine will be deposed, Venizelos put in charge of the Greek Government, and the Greek army disarmed.

This is pure speculation, but it is true that the subjects of the Allies' Governments have been notified to leave Athens, and most of them have done so. Viscount Grey, until last week British Foreign Secretary, has made for the press an authorized statement of the history of King Constantine's dealings with the Allies, in which he says :

The unconstitutional behavior of King Constantine, his refusal to abide by the terms of the Greek treaty with Serbia, and the fouting of the decisions of M. Venizelos and his Par. liamentary majority hardly admit of denial even by the Germans themselves, who content themselves with saying that he [the King] acted for what he believed to be the best interests of his country.

Greece voluntarily promised " benevolent neutrality" toward the Allies; it promised to give certain war material to the Allies to balance that which it had given Bulgaria by " the prearranged surrender of Fort Rupel and Kavala." These and other promises were broken and the forces of the Allies were treacherously attacked in Athens. If Germany had been in the place of Great Britain or France, the King would long since have been coerced and rendered harmless.

PRINCE OYAMA

With the death of Prince Oyama passes one of the great figures of the RussoJapanese War. He had been a man of influence in Japan for thirty years or more before the war of 1894 between China and Japan. It was for his services in this war, culminating in the capture of Port Arthur and Weihaiwei, that he was made marquis and field marshal by the Emperor. In the war with Russia Oyama was commander-in-chief of the Japanese army in Manchuria, and after that war he was made a prince. He came of a race of warriors, the Satsumas, and was prominent in the political revolution which in 1868 restored to power the father of the present Emperor.

In order to give our readers an impression

men

of the individual traits of Oyama, we take the prove the administrative side of the Republiliberty of quoting from a personal letter can party by continuing as an active comwritten by Mr. George Kennan, who, as our mittee the party's Executive Committee, which readers know, was the representative of The during the campaign consisted of ten regular Outlook in Japan during the war with Russia : Republicans and six Progressives. It was the general understanding in Japan

The third method is to attempt to reapporthat he was a stern, despotic Samurai of the tion the delegates to the National Convention mediæval Japanese type ; a man of strong char- so that States which are not naturally Reacter and an indomitable fighter, but not a publican will no longer have the disproporskillful military leader in the modern sense of

tionate influence that they have had, to the the words. He was greatly respected and

demoralization at times of the whole party. feared by his soldiers, but he did not direct

The fourth method is to attempt to render their movements nor “prearrange " their victories. It would not be quite accurate to call him

the members of the National Committee an imposing, awe-inspiring Samurai figurehead, subject to their respective State committees, because he was more than that ; but he was not

so that the Committee itself will be more the strategist who planned the Manchurian cam- responsive to the will of the Republican paigns. The thinking mind in the battles of voters than it has been heretofore. Liaoyang, the Shaho, and Mukden was that of How far this plan has been accepted we General Kodama; but Field Marshal Oyama do not know ; but it suggests. the sort of got most of the credit, partly because he was

practical politics into which men who really the nominal head of the army, and partly be

wish to improve political conditions in this cause he really was in character an immovable rock of strength. You perhaps know

country ought to enter. whose mere presence gives you a feeling of power and security. They may not be intellec- PREPARATORY SCHOOLS FOR tually brilliant or resourceful, but they cannot

WEST POINT AND ANNAPOLIS be surprised or shaken or terrified. They are The most interesting part of the first the captains of their own souls and of yours. annual report of the Secretary of War, Mr. Oyama, from what I heard of him, was a man Newton D. Baker, is his advocacy of a

change in the educational systems of West Princess Oyama, his wife, was one of the

Point and Annapolis. first young women sent from Japan to the Secretary Baker intimates that the presUnited States for an education.

She was

ent system of choosing students for West graduated from Vassar in 1882.

Point and Annapolis—the system consisting

of “designation by the President, Senators, PROGRESSIVES IN THB

and Representatives, with examination as a REPUBLICAN PARTY

prerequisite to acceptance "--is not adequate One of the most marked aspects of the for the need of “a nation efficiently organrecent election was, as we have already ized from a military point of view." pointed out, the very general success of pro- The Secretary of War suggests that the gressive candidates, irrespective of party Federal Government establish throughout affiliations. Progressive Republicans and the country a number of schools “ in which former Progressives who during the campaign the rudiments of a sound education, the elewere affiliated with the Republican party are ments of mechanical skill, the principles of undertaking a movement to make the Repub- business co-ordination, and the beginnings lican party progressive in organization. One of military science” should be taught. Such plan outlined last week by Mr. Chester H. schools, the Secretary thinks, " would develop Rowell, of California, involves four methods. the natural aptitudes of the students in such

The first is to attempt to put through- a way as to supply those fittest by temperaout the country Progressive Republican can- ment and talent to pursue in the Military didates on Progressive Republican platforms Academy and Naval Academy the study of or programmes before the voters in the Repub- military

military science; and incidentally these lican primaries, and to back such candidates schools would furnish a great body of men up. This effort, if successful, will lay in the returning to civil life fitted by training either popular vote a foundation for a thoroughly to respond in an emergency to a call to the progressive organization of the Republican colors or to take their places as civil soldiers party:

in the service of the Government in those The second method is to attempt to im- industries and undertakings fundamental to

of this type.

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