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The photograph shows a review of volunteer nurses in Sydney, Australia, before their departure for France, by Governor Munro-Ferguson and his wife Lady

Munro-Ferguson, who is head of the Australian Red Cross




furnish a ready-to-use farm and give the duty, with the distribution and sale of food. farmer long time for payments out of its

stuffs in the markets of the world. production.

Another resolution condemned the Shields Incidentally, Professor Mead indorsed the and Myers water power bills, which fail to Crosser Bill, now pending in Congress, but protect public interests in giving away water the resolution reported by the Resolutions power rights. The resolution also called for Committee, of which Professor Mead was personal credits legislation to finance farmers. chairman, was radically modified on the floor, These Conferences were made possible so that in fact the Crosser Bill provisions four years ago, not only through the initiative were condemned, although the need of some of Colonel Frank P. Holland, but through the measures to assist bona-fide settlers in acquir- actual aid of Sir Horace Plunkett, the leader ing and developing farms was recognized. of organized agriculture in Ireland, who came

The Crosser Bill was not indorsed because to America for the express purpose of raisit proposes that the Government shall take a ing funds to put farm organization on its feet tract of public land and employ workers, on financially. wages, to develop and work it, but the Sir Horace succeeded in interesting one workers are to be given no opportunity ever of the great foundations, which gave $20,000 to buy any part of it for individual holdings. or $25,000 for the cause. This fund has The resolution, as adopted, recognizes the now been exhausted, and hereafter the moveneed of Government aid in farm develop- ment must stand on its own financing. This ment, but it says:

does not refer alone to the Conferences, but The introduction of the Crosser Bill in Con- to the general movement, which has produced gress shows that this need is being recognized, not only the annual Conferences, but year and we indorse the general purpose of this ago produced the National Agricultural Or

But we are opposed to any system of ganization Society, officered mainly by men perpetual bureaucratic control of Government identified with the Conferences. This Napromotion, which would establish a dependent

tional Agricultural Organization Society unpeasantry.

dertakes to give skilled advice and service The question of the high cost of living in directing the organization of all kinds of centered mainly around the demand for a co-operative farm societies and enterprises, Government investigation of the live-stock auditing and criticising their efficiency of markets.

management. Details of farm co-operation, The Conference resolved :

however, were not discussed in this year's We hereby protest against any legislation by Conference.

PAUL V. Collins. Congress interfering, by embargo or export Chicago, December 9.





HAT'S the matter with Utah ?

Four years ago the rock-ribbed

Republican standpatters carried it and Vermont, and were lucky at that. The Reed Smoot machine, the Mormon machine, the Union Pacific machine, the beet-sugar machine, were popularly supposed to have that Commonwealth in their pockets, beyond all peradventure, for the long future. These cautious groups had so long told the people of Utah what they could not have that everybody supposed that Utah knew her place in the march of National progress-back at the rear. Utah could not have State supervision

of her public utilities, nor a Workman's Compensation Law, nor prohibition, nor much of anything else among those measures of advance which the West has come to associate with moral and political development.

The dam broke during last summer in the Republican primaries. Nephi L. Morris, the Mormon ecclesiastic, a “stake” President, led the young liberal Republican Mormons in an onslaught upon the Reed Smoot machine, and came through with the Republican nomination for Governor. He defeated the regular Republican Governor Spry for renomination, although Spry was

an able

man and had shown commendable poise and sion, too, and that will be just as soon as the determination in insisting, against great and law can be framed and passed. Utah will also dangerous opposition, upon the paying of the

have a workman's compensation act. I am full murder penalty by Hillstrom, the Indus

going to have a businesslike budget system, trial Workers of the World poet and enthusi

and apply the same principles to the office of

Governor that I have found to work in running ast. But Spry would not see the light upon

a mine or a railway. the issues which had at last gripped the public thought of Utah. Morris was the This is a part of the whole process of gubernatorial nominee and leader of the for- Americanization which is transforming Utah. lorn hope of the Progressives in 1912. And It would speedily transform the whole counMorris easily won in the 1916 primaries. try if we had everywhere the spirit and the

Of course Morris was defeated on last elec- brains in National and State leadership which tion day. Utah had its 1912 four years later, this Jew is eager to put into action in this and the Republican party vote was split in Mormon commonwealth. It is one more twain, a considerable percentage of it going lesson to political Bourbons. Nothing can to Wilson and the Democratic nominee for stop the inherent forces of advance in the Governor. The new Governor is a Jew, American population, not even in that State Simon Bamberger, a leading business man in the Union which we have come to regard of Utah, who manages mines and railways. as one of the most difficult to move. Of course Utah is heavily Mormon, and so Always side by side in the Mormon popuis Idaho, next door. And now each one of lation of Utah two influences have been strugthese States has a Jewish Governor. Idaho gling for the mastery. The original Mormon has Moses Alexander, this year re-elected. pioneers were by no means immoral people. And Utah has Simon Bamberger. It would There was among them in an aggravated be an interesting quest to ask why, when form that reversion to primitive traits and a Mormons fall out among themselves, they primitive theology which has been observed seem to prefer Jew in high place rather again and again when pioneers get far bethan a Christian non-Mormon. But let that yond the outposts of civilization. Polygamy pass.

was their besetting social and National failAnd let nobody think that the junction of But in the early days it was no eviJew and Mormon represents any deteriora- dence of deep-seated immorality. Side by tion in the quality of the Commonwealth of side with the practice of polygamy the origiUtah, or any retrogression. Quite the con- nal Mormons exhibited a thrift, a sobriety, a trary. The overshadowing issue in Utah business acumen, a deep reverence for eduthis year was prohibition and efficient human cation and religion, which cannot fail to be the progress in general. Utah is intensely inter- marvel of all those who examine the subject. ested in prohibition, and the people of the And side by side with a bitterness towards State felt that the Republicans had had their the Federal Government as the result of the opportunity to pass such a law for years and early conflict with that power over the form had failed to listen to the rumbling of the of marriage relation there was growing all awakened conscience of the Commonwealth. the time a natural instinct of patriotism. In And they decided to give the Democrats a 1847, just before the Mexican War, the Morchance at it, particularly as Simon Bam- mons of Utah sent five hundred men down berger was most emphatic and clear in his to help hold California against Mexico. Their stand upon the issue. Mormons are natu- early settlement was on Mexican soil, but rally total abstainers. There never was a they claimed it for the flag of the United saloon in Utah until the non-Mormon popu- States. The first telegram that ever reached lation entered the Commonwealth.

Salt Lake City was from President Lincoln That the general cause of progress has to Brigham Young, who promised Lincoln in gone forward by the election of Simon Bam- reply to keep the highways open with Morberger, Jew and Democrat, is evidenced by mon pioneers so that the Government mails the declaration of the new standard-bearer could move without the aid of the army. to the people of his State :

In the early period polygamy was a reUtah is going dry August I next. That is what

ligious tenet, and therefore did not have the Democratic platform says, and you can bet

anything like the full effect of an immoral our pledges will be carried out to the letter. practice. I was talking a short time ago We are going to have a public utilities commis- with one of the finest elderly Mormon citi





zens in Utah. His father had two wives, who lived in separate houses near each other, and both the wives and the children were as friendly as if of one household. And all their lives long the children of both families have enjoyed the closest friendship and intimacy. Each of the groups of children called the other mother “aunt,” but they have regarded each other all their lives long as brothers and sisters. It is because of the concepts and complex responsibilities of that earlier generation that public opinion has been lenient toward some existing instances of polygamy still in the State of Utah. A friend of mine in Salt Lake City told me that he had seen the five wives of Joseph Smith not very long ago ride downtown in the same carriage. They were all elderly women, past sixty or seventy; and the public opinion of Utah and the country, knowing the immense amount of tandem polygamy which prevails in certain more Pharisaical centers of the East as well as the West, has refused to grow wildly excited over the open declaration of President Smith that he intended to fulfill

his financial and household obligations to these elderly women to the last.

But the primitive moral virility of the pioneers did not survive in the polygamy of the second generation. The younger generation was in danger of being utterly debauched by it, and in the midst of a great show of fanaticism the Federal Government, the Supreme Court, and finally the Mormon Church itself, set the seal of disapproval upon a primitive practice which the higher life of the world has happily outgrown, but which still more or less secretly contributes to the survival of the lower life of the world in many parts of America besides Utah.

In the face of the long-continued blight of this earlier anti-social practice, the Americanization of Utah goes resistlessly on. And the forces of idealism and social amelioration in Utah having now broken the political barriers down, the American people may look forward, in my opinion, to a Mormon advance, National, patriotic, moral, efficient, that will be an honor to the country and to mankind.


For the past three weeks The Outlook has been printing a series of articles by Mrs. H. H. Gallison, an American woman of German birth, who has told with simplicity and directness, not only of her experiences in Germany, but of her sympathy and affection for the German people that were renewed by her visit to the Fatherland. After the last of these articles went to press a letter came from Mrs. Gallison to the secretary of The Outlook Company. We here print it, with the reply to it, and Mrs. Gallison's rejoinder, because the correspondence (together with the edi. torial on another page entitled “What Germany Teaches ") may make clearer to our readers The Outlook's view, as well as the prevailing opinion among Americans with regard to Germany.THE EDITORS.

December 5, 1916.

rials. As I never had read your magazine, I Mr. Ernest H. Abbott,

had to take their word for it. However, I Secretary, The Outlook Company, did not expect to have my article accepted, New York City :

and made arrangements to send it somewhere Dear Mr. Abbott—I have just received else. To my surprise, you did accept itihe letter which you wrote to me yesterday,

and the astonishment and delight of my and I should like to tell you why I was

friends was great.

But, as you accepted and pleased at your editorial. My article was had the reputation of being “bitterly,” yes, first sent to the

I had several pleas- “ venomously” anti-German, I expected bitant and complimentary letters about it from terness in your editorial. Instead of that you Mr.

He rejected it in the end be- state your opinion in such a way as to make cause it was too long, and he thought it unfair the reader feel your kindness and help to me to shorten it. Then I consulted with towards the writer and her undertaking all my pro-Ally and pro-German friends to the way through. I think you will do a great whom to send it next. Every one doubted deal of good with your editorial because you your acceptance because you have the repu- refrained from bitterness. You and I are of tation of being “ bitterly " anti-German-yes, different opinions, but I can't help thinking “ venomously ”so, some said—in your edito- that we both wish to help bring about good

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