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will towards men. I feel your kindness in readers in three installments, seems to me to your editorial toward an intense pro-German, be exceptional, almost unique, in its spirit of and I thank you for it.

tolerance and understanding. Very sincerely yours,

You may be amused to know that anong MARIE GALLISON. the letters of protest that have come to us

for the publication of your article there is December 7, 1916.

in one the suggestion that it was paid for by My dear Mrs. Gallison :

the English! I am inclined to think that the Please accept my very hearty thanks for writer of that letter was trying to make a your letter of December 5. Your friends' joke.

Very sincerely yours, account of The Outlook's attitude does not

ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT, altogether surprise me, for we have not hesitated to express our condemnation of the

December 10, 1916. course of the Imperial German Government. Dear Mr. Abbott : We have had similar experiences in other Thank you for your long and interesting

Even to be unsparing in condemna- letter of December 7. I should like to say tion, however, is not necessarily to be bitter one last word to you, if I may. You think or venomous, and certainly condemnation of my article exceptional, almost unique, in its the government of a nation is quite a differ- spirit of tolerance and understanding. Do ent thing from hate of a nation's people. No you know the reason? It is because I deeply one can feel about music, for example, as I love both Germany and America, and have do, and hate the German people. What does the earnest will to understand. If I read hurt the lover of liberty in this country, I anything a pro-Ally has written, or speak think, more than anything else is that neither with one, I immediately put myself in his in Germany nor even here among the people place and try to look at the situation through of German descent have there arisen leaders his eyes-and so I learn to understand to protest and struggle against the spirit of him. tyranny as there have been in other countries When I was in Germany, I was distressed and as there arose in this country among at the complete lack of understanding of the people of English descent against English American view-point, and here in America I tyranny one hundred and forty years ago. am simply appalled at the same lack of This is the attitude of The Outlook. Person- understanding which I find in many thinking ally, I hope that out of this war there will Americans. I cannot help respecting you re-emerge the spirit of liberty which was one for stating the opinion of The Outlook to of the ancient possessions of the German me so clearly and without any bitterness" people, which was manifested at the time of and “ venom.” Bitterness and venom never the German Reformation, and which broke out convince or make converts or have any upin 1848; but which for the past two genera- lifting influence in life. Now, before ending, tions has been waging a losing battle against I should like to state my position as briefly a very subtle and very effective process of as possible. education.

It seems to me that the very conception of You will pardon, I am sure, this explana- the state as a moral force has given to Gertion ; but as you told me that you had not man life a higher impetus and has stimubeen a reader of The Outlook I wanted to lated the development of personality. The explain to you briefly but as frankly as I Germans are conscious of this, and to them could The Outlook's position. It is not a it is not a spirit of tyranny but a spirit of new position in any respect.

We have seen free service. History has shown that wherthis struggle coming on for many years. The ever a real spirit of tyranny existed it was present situation in Germany, and, in fact, in accompanied by moral and intelectual decay Europe, is the outcome of a development and degradation, while in Germany I see which this journal described twenty-five years exactly the opposite. Therefore you cannot ago.

be surprised that there has come no wideNow, may I say to you in turn with what spread protest from the German people delight we welcomed your manuscript when against a system of government which, on it first came before our eyes? Of all that has the whole, fulfills their just desires. been written from the German point of view,

Very sincerely yours, your article, which we have presented to our

MARIE GALLISON.

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BEHIND THE TURKISH BARRIER

AN INTERVIEW!

BY WILLIAM T. ELLIS

T

THIS was the longest professional natives. What to look for when I went to

interview of my journalistic experi- Petra, and—only the initiated will understand

ence ; my friend from Turkey talked this—what to look for, and where, when I steadily on the one subject from ten o'clock rode a camel, I learned from his book of in the morning until eleven o'clock at night, experience. With him amid the ruins of with one hour's intermission; and then we Phænicia I discovered that the Crusaders resumed the theme for two hours the next were grave-robbers, and by him I was inmorning, when the incomplete discussion structed in the merits of sweet lemons as was adjourned, to be resumed later. Now thirst-quenchers in desert travel. He transto compress into one brief article the high lated for me the Arabic slogans of the party points of the interview.

of liberty and traced their roots clear back This autumn my friend is out of Turkey, to the free soil of America. where he has spent more than a quarter of a So, because he really knows, and because century. To tell how he got out-an inter- ' he is possibly the last man out of Turkey, I esting story in itself-would be to tell whence interviewed for The Outlook this American he came, which would never do, since Tur- who is the better patriot for being a wise key has a genius for bitter reprisals. I owe internationalist. Our talk swept round the too much to this man to be the means of whole circle of Turkish affairs, from the inhurt to him or his. My first clear under- explicable defeat of the British in Mesopostanding of the Turkish question came one tamia to their strange failure to enter Conmemorable night in Constantinople when I stantinople when it was open to them, during was a listener in a group comprising my the Gallipoli campaign ; from the revolt of friend, an official of the United States the Arabs to the anti-Young Turk Movement Government, the Constantinople correspond- in Anatolia ; from the feud between Djemal ent of Reuter's, and a representative of Pasha, Governor of Syria, and the Germans, Great Britain, all of them veteran special- to the manner in which Enver Pasha has ists on the Near Eastern question. Of dug himself in ” with the Germans. Insults these four, the man who knew the theme to America and Americans, death for even best was my American friend. He seemed Moslem leaders, starvation for the people of to think first in Arabic and then translate the Holy Land, plague for soldiers and civilinto English. He has a trick of illustrating ians alike, death in most dreadful forms for his meaning by the familiar Arabic gestures. the Armenians, exact news concerning the He it was who spoke the last word of the progress of the Bagdad Railway, and startling talk on the mysterious Druses and who gave forecasts as to the war's outcome, all were the historical setting to the “ Arabian Nights" crowded into this comprehensive interview. tale of the Salonika Jews and how they have We talked first, and often, of Constanti. become, ostensibly, Moslems, until now they nople: are in control of the Young Turk party.

Enver Pasha and Talaat Bey and Other and more personal debts I owe to Bedry Bey and Khalil Bey are the men now this Yankee in Turkey. When I would have in control there. That secret governing gone into Arabia with only a brace of auto- group of Young Turks is still hidden far out matic pistols for defense, he made plain by of sight, but Khalil Bey is supposed to be of the story of one of his own narrow escapes them. Enver Pasha has dug himself in with why a rifle carried in plain sight on the the Germans. More and more, as the Turks saddle bow is almost indispensable. From are showing their resentment toward his conhim I learned the trick, which did me good duct of things, he is seeking safety by increasservice clear down into the deserts of Meso- ing German support. potamia, of having target practice when “ Constantinople is almost a Teutonic city. making camp, for the benefit of inquisitive Germans are everywhere. Although the use

The man here interviewed is not “The Man from of all languages except Turkish on public signs Constantinople" whose story Dr. Ellis wrote for The Outlook of December 8, 1915.-THE EDITORS.

is officially prohibited, the city is placarded

BEHIND THE TURKISH BARRIER

869

the army.

course.

with German notices. (Did I tell you that, forty per cent, and is still going down. You while the English language is prohibited in can imagine the effect upon an already imTurkey, the American language is permitted ?) poverished country. There are two great wireless stations in the The 1915 crop was in good part lost, city, one of which, though operated by Ger- owing to the deportation of the Armenians mans, is supposedly under the control of the

at planting time. What was left, together Turkish Government. The other is German with the 1916 crop, was commandeered by absolutely, with no pretense of Ottoman in

It, too, is below normal, one terference. There is a strong German gar- reason being, in addition to the loss of men, rison in Constantinople, which is Enver's the requisitioning of all the animals of the measure of self-protection.

farmers. Instead of being a great storehouse Poverty? It is beyond words. People of food for Germany, Turkey itself is going are literally dying of starvation in Constanti- hungry. When I passed through Germany, nople, as in most other cities of the Empire. the commonest question asked me by the Soldiers' widows and orphans fare worst, officials who examined my passport was perhaps ; for while a pittance is given to whether Turkey had plenty of food. I told the family of the living soldier, this ceases them that the price of flour had increased when he is killed. I have seen the people eightfold, and that the poor people had sold grow black in their faces from long-continued even their cooking utensils in order to buy hunger. The poor have gone to a mission food. hospital and actually begged for the dish-water, 6. There is no

commerce whatever, of hoping that they might get a few scraps.

Of sugar there is none; coal is I have seen them working over the garbage almost entirely lacking. Oil is four dollars a for the bits of orange peel. After that the gallon, and hard to get. Medicines are not family saved all

scraps and placed them to be had ; one of the reasons for the spread in clean paper and left them where the poor of the plague in Turkey is the lack of medicould find them, instead of throwing them cines and the high mortality among the native into the garbage-can. Night after night physicians.” people would steal into our yard and beg for Did you see much plague ?" even a crust. Night after night we saw “ It is everywhere, both choleraland typhus. them in a dying condition, but had nothing Plague camps for the soldiers were within a with which to help them. We knew of few feet of us at several halting-places on entire families dying of typhus one after the journey. One hears in Turkey that half another. Some missionaries, in order to the army has perished from disease. We avoid the unpleasant notice of unfriendly took all possible precautions, and were very officials, took women and children into the fortunate, finding on us only one Pediculus hospitals as patients and after feeding them vestimenti—only the word he used to deup for a week or two had to send them scribe the busy little traveling salesman of away again. The Government buried the dead the typhus plague was not Latin. from disease and starvation at the rate of Who are hardest hit ? It is not easy to forty to fifty daily!

say. The Jews in and about Jerusalem who “For sixteen months the people have did not get away on the American war-ships been gathering every possible plant and root are in a pitiable plight, because they look to that could be eaten. My native neighbor the foreign mails for their support, and these planted a few potatoes almost under our have been closed. In all Syria it is estimated windows, but the starving people came by that from eighty to one hundred thousand night and dug up the seed potatoes and ate persons have died either from acute starvathem!

tion or from malnutrition. The situation “ Bread is sold by the Government on

grows worse daily.. There will have to be tickets—a capital device for getting all metal relief from America if the people of the Holy money into the hands of the authorities ; and Land are to be saved.” also for the extortion of bakshish. Practi- I hasten over the Armenian news; it was cally the only money in circulation is this more of the same awful tale of deportation, paper currency, printed in Germany.” My outrage, and death. This summer the atrocifriend then gave me for examination a twenty- ties broke out afresh, especially among the piaster note, which almost any printer could Armenians who had secured work under the duplicate. “ This money has depreciated Germans at road-making and tunnel-digging.

66

our

These, too, had to move on to the fate of liberties with American dignity and rights their deported compatriots. My friend said which, if generally known, would have that it is the opinion of himself and other aroused our people to the highest pitch of Americans in Turkey that certainly less than indignation. The deaths of Rogers and twenty per cent of the deported Armenians, Maurer, American missionaries slain at Adana and probably not more than ten, have survived in 1909, go unavenged. Some of us have to reach their destinations. And over a million not forgotten that at the siege of Van, more were deported! When the native Christians than a year ago, the American flag was ridin one place wanted to carry food to an dled with Turkish bullets and Americans arriving horde of Armenian survivors, they were fired upon by Turkish troops. The were prevented by the Turks. The matter destruction of American property, by order was carried up to the governor, who brutally of the Ottoman officials, has been on a scale answered, " These people were not sent here that makes one wonder whether the fact of to live.

war justifies the United States in acquiescence An American missionary who resides near in these latest outrages. one of the colonies of Armenians, and who Honor is a delicate thing and has curious has been made desperate by the scenes he ramifications. Hear my friend explode : daily witnesses, said to my friend, “ Govern- " The seal of the United States Government ment or no Government, prison or no prison, if is supposed to be inviolable. When the conI can get hold of food or money, I'm going to suls of the Allied nations left Turkey, their feed these people.”

consulates were turned over to the United “ The man who has never experienced the States Government. Protection of them bestench of dead bodies in his nostrils, and who came a duty of honor. So these consulates has never seen the emaciated corpses of the were officially sealed and guarded by the starved lying on the roadway, and who has authority of the United States of America. never witnessed with his own eyes or heard They were a trust that could not be violated from the lips of beholders, in all the plain- without shame greater than that involved in ness of Oriental speech, the foul-minded atroc- an affront to Government directly. ities of the Turk, cannot understand why Nevertheless the Turks broke the seal of the Americans in Turkey are ready to indorse American Government upon the French Conany measures that will stop these horrors. sulate at Beirût and ravaged the archives Nor can we comprehend the indifference of that were under the solemn protection of the America.

United States. Out of those files they se“ Perhaps if you had seen a dying woman cured the names of various persons in Syria, dig with her own hands a shallow grave and especially leaders in the Maronite Church, strive to cover herself in it, so that the dogs and straightway executed them as having -who are full fed these days—might not get been in correspondence with an enemy counher body before death came, you would count try. The American flag was not big enough this matter an urgent one."

to shelter those men, among them the most At this point my friend let light in upon an enlightened and influential citizens of the interesting diplomatic situation. Of course Lebanon." you know that Turkey refuses to allow the There is a kink in the Turk's brain that United States Consuls to send sealed pouches turns him to reprisals and espionage. In the of mail to the Embassy at Constantinople, as days of Abdul Hamid his spy system was is the immemorial usage. Consular mail is like a shadow of death over the land. Now censored, just like everything else. The im- the news is that a horde of informers and mediate reason is that the Turks do not want secret police infest the country, especially at the stories of local conditions and atrocities the centers of population. Al mail entering to get out of the country through these offi- the Empire is opened, and every clue that cial channels."

leads to any critic or enemy of Turkey is Here I delete certain vigorous observations vindictively followed out, both against natives concerning America's duty to uphold her and foreigners. Nobody knows when his National prestige abroad and to protect her hour to become the object of suspicion will nationals. The man ten thousand miles strike. This terrorism, amid a people wasted from American soil may be expected to see by war and want, is a form of “frightfulness” vividly and state strongly this principle. We that is one of the most hideous of the ills have for many years allowed Turkey to take that now stalk through the land.

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