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than is generally supposed. New York State, The second question is of greater concern, for instance, a State which permits only one- perhaps, to the country as a whole. fifth of its electorate to vote upon the liquor Is the Republican leadership in New York question, put out of business this last fall State blind enough to attempt to elect a over six hundred liquor-selling places. This is party candidate as Mayor of New York two-thirds as many as were closed by Ne- City at the expense of returning to power braska's vote for State-wide prohibition, nearly the old spoils system from which Mayor as many as went out of business in the Mitchel and his administration have so largely entire State of Virginia on November 1, and and so happily freed the metropolis ? about three times as many as will be closed If the Republicans of New York permit by the vote in Souih Dakota at the last elec- this to be done, they will do much to confirm tion.
the opinion of their leadership which prevails The prohibition forces in New York are throughout so large a section of the West. now united upon the passage of the Optional Prohibition Remonstrance Bill, which has PROFESSOR HUGO MÜNSTERBERG already been described and strongly com- The controversy over Professor Münstermended in these pages. The prohibition berg's relations with Harvard University and forces have also decided to support a State- his attitude towards the country in which he wide prohibition referendum bill. Bcth bills has been so long a distinguished guest came will be simultaneously introduced in the to a sudden and tragic conclusion on DecemSenate and the Assembly in New York and ber 16. While lecturing before a class in will be given a joint hearing.
Radcliffe College Professor Münsterberg It seems to us that the Optional Prohibi- was suddenly stricken and fell unconscious to tion Remonstrance Bill, which gives to both the floor. He died twenty minutes afterward. men and women of the State a real voice as
Hugo Münsterberg was born in Danzig, to whether or not the liquor business shall East Prussia, in 1863. He came to America be permitted to continue, is as advanced a in 1892 to take a chair of Psychology at measure as is at present practical. It repre- Harvard. In 1910 and 1911 he was the sents the result of the legislative experience Harvard Exchange Professor at the Univerof the Anti-Saloon League in many States sity of Berlin. In that year he organized the and the practical experience of many of Amerika Institut of the German Government, those upon whom has fallen the responsibility and became its first director. Professor of enforcing the liquor laws of the country. Münsterberg's work as a psychologist was
not only of technical concern, but in recent THE APPROACHING MUNICIPAL
years he did much to awaken a popular inter
est in his science. He wrote many magazine A news article in the New York “ Trib
articles on psychology and its application to une" is authority for the statement that business and the furtherance of justice. Republican leaders in New York City are After the outbreak of the great war his preparing to support Mayor Mitchel, a articles and statements in defense of Germany Democrat elected on a fusion ticket, for re- excited bitter protest from many sources. election in 1917.
There was no little demand that he should be Since the Tribune does not give the asked to resign his chair at Harvard, but free names of these leaders, the report is perhaps speech is one of Harvard's most fundamental to be regarded more a “ feeler" for
traditions, and the authorities of the Univerpublic opinion than as a desinite promise of sity very wisely declined to ask for Professor action. It suggests, however, how impor- Münsterberg's resignation. Professor Müntant the next municipal campaign in New sterberg explained his own position toward York City may be for the whole country. the United States in an article in the New
The first and plainest question involved York “ Times” in September, 1915, in whichi in the renomination and re-election of Mayor he said that his views were not set forth as Mitchel is simply one of good government. those of a German-American, but as those of
Is New York wise enough to return to a German. He said : office a Mayor who is both efficient and
I am a German and have never intended to progressive, and to defeat Tammany in its
be anything else. I did not leave Germany be. inevitable attempt to regain control of that
cause I liked it less. I was professor at a Gercity's government ?
man university when Harvard invited me to
CAMPAIGN IN NEW YORK
develop here the interest for experimental psychology. I accepted the invitation at first for a short time only, and under the condition that I might stay here as a citizen of my Fatherland. Later, when many a European summons called me back, I resisted every temptation and stayed on, not only because the American scholars urged me to continue, but chiefly because I had become fascinated by the hope to help toward international amity.
While he supported German policies, Professor Münsterberg denounced many of the activities of the Teutonic hyphenates in this country. He condemned the forming of an alien party within the United States as “a crime against the spirit of true Americanism," and said that its results would reach far beyond the time of the war.
By the death of the Rt. Hon. Charles Booth, at the age of seventy-six years, England and the world lose a foremost economist, for through his monumental “ Life and Labor of the People of London " Mr. Booth made students of sociology everywhere his debtors.
The Booth Steamship Company of Liverpool is one of the well-known navigation enterprises which distinguish that port; it was formed by Mr. Booth and his brother, Alfred Allen Booth, who is now also the chairman of the Cunard Steamship Company and of the Anchor Line.
Charles Booth's experiences as a practical business man were of benefit to him in keeping him from any doctrinaire or academic view in his study of social problems. He judged those problems directly, personally, intimately, but always practically. When he began to take account of the economic condition of London in so far as the working classes were concerned, his conclusions were not those of the maker of a card catalogue or of the compiler of statistics. The Life and Labor of the People of London,” filling seventeen volumes and requiring for its preparation seventeen years of scientific investigation, is probably the most complete survey of the social condition of a great city ever attempted.
This is Mr. Booth's best-known publication, but there were others also of moment" Pauperism,” “ The Aged Poor," - Old Age Pensions,” and the succeeding series of volumes entitled - The Religious Influences of London.” There was no question about Mr. Booth's belief in the practical as well as in
the ideal virtues of religious conversion as a step toward self-help.
As with social workers in other countries, the unrest caused by inadequate information, leading to sudden strikes and much unnecessary desolation, made due impression on Mr. Booth's mind, as one may note from a recently published pamphlet by him on “ Industrial Unrest and Trade Union Policy.” He was always a supporter of industrial arbitration, and endeavored to show that no efficiency was worth the name which was not equally profitable to employer and employed. An example of Mr. Booth's style may be found in the conclusion to his “Life and Labor of the People of London :"
Seventeen years and an equal number of volumes have been occupied with this inquiry. In as many pages I must now try to sum up the results: seventeen words would doubtless suffice did I know how to choose them aright. ...
We see life cursed by drink, brutality, and vice, and loaded down with ignorance and privilege, while industry is choked by its own blind strug. gles. . . . Improvement certainly there has been at every point, ... but the gulf is still wide. ...
There are two distinct tasks: to raise the general level of existence, but especially the bottom level, is one ; to increase the proportion of those who know how to use aright the means they have is another, and even a greater. But each effort should aid the other. . . . For the treatment of disease it is first necessary to establish the evidence as to its character, extent, and symptoms. Perhaps the qualities of mind which enable a man to make this inquiry are the least of all likely to give him that elevation of soul, sympathetic insight, and sublime confidence which must go to the making of a great regenerating teacher. I have made no attempt to teach ; at the most I have ventured at an appeal to those whose part it is. ... The dry bones that lie scattered over the long valley that we have traversed together lie before my reader. May some great soul, master of a subtler and nobler alchemy than mine, .. make those dry bones live so that the streets of our Jerusalem may sing with joy!
It is not surprising that such a critic of English life was drawn into the service of the state as President of the Royal Statistical Society, as a member of the Tariff Commission, and as Privy Councilor.
BENEDICT XV AND
Perhaps no act of the present Pope will be more gratefully remembered than his contribution to the relief of the children of Belgium. In a letter to Cardinal Gibbons
Officer to Tommy (up for overstaying leave): “But that's quite a different story from the one you told the Sergeant last night!" Tommy: “ Yessir; I thought of a better one this morning!"
A YOUNG STRATEGIST
he says, referring to a letter received from mensely increase the size of the contribuMr. Herbert C: Hoover :
tions : he proposes to the bishops that “the Profound compassion of a father has again
most efficient and prompt way to relieve the moved Our heart, when We read an important afflicted little ones would be obtained by a letter recently sent to Us by the distinguished general collection in your jurisdiction.” Chairman of the praiseworthy Commission for We hope that the other churches of AmerRelief in Belgium, describing in few words, yet ica will also be touched by the Pope's appeal showing proof of most terrible reality, the piti- and will rally in the efficacious way suggested able situation of numerous Belgian children
by Cardinal Gibbons to the further support who, during two sad years, have been suffering
of the children of Belgium. from the lack of that proper nourishment neces
Those readers who wish to aid Belgian sary to sustain the tender existence of budding childhood.
children should send checks to the CommisIn most moving terms the Chairman has de
sion for Relief in Belgium, 120 Broadway, scribed how so many desolate families, after
New York City. having given everything humanly possible to give, now find themselves with nothing left with A RAILWAY'S which to appease the hunger of their little CHRISTMAS GIFT
Partly to meet the increased cost of living, He has made Us see, almost as if they were
which is being felt all over the country, and passing before these very eyes, dimmed with
partly to share with their employees the great tears, the long file, continuously increasing, of Belgian infants waiting for their daily distribu
profits which have accrued to many American tion of bread; unhappy little ones whose bod
business enterprises during the past year, a ies, emaciated by lack of proper nutrition, bear number of large corporations have declared not infrequently the impress of some deadly unusual Christmas bonuses to their employees. sickness brought about by their failure
Of the announcements of such bonuses one receive the food which children of their age of the most interesting is the announcement of require.
the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railway. In view of this condition of affairs Bene- The Christmas gift of this corporation, amountdict XV acted :
ing to about $2,750,000, has attracted particuWe have considered the work indicated so lar attention because the members of the four humanitarian and so holy that, in prompt com- railway brotherhoods, who were affected by pliance with the appeal addressed to Us, .. the Adamson Eight-Hour Law, are not inWe have decided to approve and recommend cluded in the distribution of the bonus. it, as We hereby do indorse it most heartily by
When asked for an explanation of this omisthese words to you, my Lord Cardinal, and
sion of the brotherhood members, Mr. through you to the illustrious members of the
Walker D. Hines, general counsel of the American Episcopate, to the clergy, and to every generous heart; bue particularly to those
railway, made the following statement at our children of America upon whom is based every
request : hope of success for the plan devised by this
*. The recent distribution of ten per cent of beneficent institution. ... We send you in- a year's pay as additional compensation to closed our contribution of ten thousand lire Santa Fé employees two years or more in the [about $2,000)
service and receiving $2,500 or less per year Cardinal Gibbons thereupon wrote to naturally did not extend to employees whose the Roman Catholic bishops. The Pope, compensation is fixed according to the schedhe states, had written at the solicitation of ules contained in the agreements formerly the Chairman of the Commission for Relief in effect with the four brotherhoods. Last in Belgium, “the only regular channel by March the four brotherhoods inaugurated a which relief can enter Belgium, and which Nation-wide movement contemplating a perenjoys the full confidence of his Holiness.” manent increase in wages. The brotherhoods With Cardinal Gibbons, The Outlook also has requested the railroad companies throughout no doubt that, as he says, “ the touching appeal the United States to enter into a collective of his Holiness will be honored by generous movement for the purpose of considering the contributions which will cheer his paternal demand through a joint committee representheart and bring seasonable joy and comfort ing all railroads concerned. The railroad comto the little sufferers of Belgium."
panies complied with this request and apThe Cardinal adds a very practical sugges- pointed a joint committee, which is still in tion ; if thoroughly carried out, it should im- existence. Subsequently, when the railroad