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Sr. EPHREM OF EDESSA,(O) G. C.
“ His body, by a new method, is mixed with our bodies; and his most pure blood is transfused into our veins. He is wholly incorporated with us." And because he loved his church, he was made the bread of life that he might give himself to be eaten." Hymn. xxxvii. de Virginitate, Bibl. Orient. Assemani, T. 1. p. 97.—“ Consider, my be loved, with what fear those stand before the throne, who wait on a mortal king. How much more does it behove us to appear before the heavenly king with fear and trembling, with gravity and awe! Hence it becomes us not to look boldly on the mysteries that lie before us, of the body and blood of our Lord."" Paræn. xx. T. ii.
(9) St. Ephrem was a disciple of the above mentioned father, and a deacon of Edessa in Syria. He wrote many works in the language of his country, which were translated into Greek during his life; and were held in such estimation, that in many churches, as St. Jerome testifies in his Catalogue, they were publicly read after the canonical books of scripture. They were published in Latin by Gerard Vossius, at Rome; and in Greek by Twaites, at Oxford. In 1732 and seqq., Cardinal Quirini, with the aid of J. S. Assemani, gave a new and splendid edition of his works, in six volumes, folio. The three first contain the works which had before been published in Greek and Latin; the three latter, those which he found in the Vatican Library, which are in Syriac, with a Latin translation. St. Ephrem died about the year 379.
(h) Corpus ejus nova ratione nostris corporibus immistum est; ipsius quoque sanguis purissimus in venas nostras diffusus, totus ipse nos totos pervasit.
(i) Proposita mysteria corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri.
p. 126. Edit Vossii.—“Sedulously consider all these things, and believe that they are true as they are related; for if you view them not with the eyes of faith, you cannot rise from earth to heaven, nor in spirit behold what Christ suffered. When the eye of faith is clearly open, it contemplates in a pure light the Lamb of God who was immolated for us, and who gave us his body for our food, to the remission of our sins. This same eye of faith manifestly beholds the Lord, when eating his body and drinking his blood, and indulges no curious enquiry.(k)—You believe that Christ, the son of God, for you was born in the flesh. Then why do you search into what is inscrutable? Doing this, you prove your curiosity, not your faith. Believe then, and with a firm faith receive the body and blood of our Lord.()—Abraham placed earthly food before celestial spirits, (Gen. xviii.) of which they ate. This was wonderful; but what Christ has done for us greatly exceeds this, and transcends all speech and all conception. To us that are in the flesh, he has given to eat his body and blood. Incapable as I am of comprehending the mysteries of God, I dare not proceed; and should I attempt it, I should shew only my own rashness.” De Nat. Dei. T. iii. p. 182. Ibid.
(b) Corpus manducat ac sanguinem bibit; haudquaquam curiosè divinam sanctam fidem perscrutans.
(1) Si ista curiosè rimaris, non jam fidelis nuncupaberis, sed curiosus. Esto itaque fidelis. Participa immaculatum corpus et sanguinem Domini tui fide plenissimâ.
St. CYRIL OF JERUSALEM,(m) G. C.
In his instructions, addressed to those who had been newly baptised, he says: “ The bread and wine, which before the invocation of the adorable Trinity were nothing but bread and wine, become after this invocation, the body and blood of Christ.”() Catag. Mystag. 1. n. 4. p. 281.“ The eucharistic bread, after the invocation of the Holy Spirit, is no longer common bread, but the body of Christ.”(6) Ibid. Catech. iii. n. 3. p. 289.—“The doctrine of the blessed Paul alone is sufficient to give certain proofs of the truth of the divine mysteries; and you being deemed worthy of them, are become one body and one blood with Christ. For this great apostle says: That our Lord in the same night wherein he was delivered, having taken bread and giving thanks, broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying to them; Take and eat, this is my body. Afterwards he took the cup, and said : Take and drink, this is my blood. As then Christ, speaking of the bread, declared and said: This is my body; who shall dare to doubt it? And as speaking of the wine, he positively assured us, and said: This is my blood; who shall doubt
(m) St Cyril was patriarch of Jerusalem, and died about the year 355. The works which he has left, in twenty-three Catechetical Discourses, form a full and very accurate abridgement of Christian Doctrine. (1) ο μεν άρτος γινεται σωμα Κριστου, ο δε δινος αιμα Κριστου.
(ο) ο άρτος της ευχαριστιας, μετα την επικλησιν το άγιο πνευματος, ουκ έστι άρτος λιτος, άλλα σωμα Κριστου.
it, and say that it is not his blood?") Catech. iv. n. 1.
“ Jesus Christ, in Cana of Galilee, once changed water into wine, by his will alone; and shall we think it less worthy of credit, that he changed wine into his blood ? Invited to an earthly marriage, he wrought this miracle; and shall we hesitate to confess that he has given to his children his body to eat, and his blood to drink ?(r) Wherefore, with all confidence, let us take the body and blood of Christ. For in the type or figure of bread, his body is given to thee; and in the type or figure of wine, his blood is given ;(6) that so being made partakers of the body and blood of Christ, you may become one body and one blood with him; thus, the body and blood of Christ being distributed in our members, we become Christofori,(") that is, we carry Christ with us; and thus, as St. Peter says, “we are made partakers of the divine nature.” Ibid. -At another time, speaking to the Jews, Jesus Christ says: Unless you eat my flesh and drink my blood, ye shall have no life in you. (John vi.) But they not understanding the words spiritually, were offended with them and withdrew from him, because they fancied that he would make them eat human flesh.(e) In the old dispensation there were loaves
(P) αυτου ουν απoφηναμενου, και ειποντος περι τον άρτου, τουτο μου εστι το σωμα, τις τολμησει αμφιβαλλειν λοιπον; και αυτου βεβαιωσαμενου και ειρηκοτος, τουτο μου έστι το αιμα, τις ενδοιασει ποτε, λεγων μη ειναι αυτου το αιμα ;
(0 και ουκ αξιοπιστος εστιν οινον μεταβαλων εις αιμα ;(*) την απολανσιν του σωματος αυτού και του αιματος.
(6) εν τυπο άρτου, διδοται σοι το σωμα, και εν τυπο οινου, διδοται σοι το αιμα.
of bread which were offered before God, and because they pertained to that old dispensation, they have ceased with it: but now in the new dispensation, there is bread from heaven, and a cup of salvation, which sanctify soul and body. For as the bread is the nourishment which is proper to the body, so the word is the nourishment which is proper to the soul. Wherefore I conjure you, my brethren, not to consider them any more as common bread and wine, since they are the body and blood of Jesus Christ according to his words; and although your sense might suggest that to you, let faith confirm you. Judge not of the thing by your taste, but by faith assure yourself, without the least doubt, that you are honoured with the body and blood of Christ; this knowing, and of this being assured, that what appears to you bread is not bread, but the body of Christ, although the taste judges it to be bread; and that the wine which you see, and which has the taste of wine, is not wine, but the blood of Christ.”' (1) Ibid. n. 2, 3. p. 293, 294.-“ Taste and see how good the Lord is. Think you, now, that you are required to discern this by the sense of taste (5) No, by no means;
but by the testimony of faith which is certain, and leaves no doubt. For when you take them, you are not commanded to take bread and wine ; but under the appearance of these, to take the body and blood of Christ.” Ibid. Cat. v. 17. p.
(ε) μη απο της γευσεως κρινης το πραγμα, άλλ' απο τησ πιστεως πληροφορου ανενδοιαστως σωματος και αιματος Κριστον καταξιωθεις ταυτα μαθων και πληροφορηθεις, ώς ο φαινομενος άρτος, ούκ άρτος έστι, ει και τη γευσει, αισθητος, άλλα σωμα Κριστου, και ο φαινομενος οινος, ουκ δινος έστιν, ει και ήγε νσις τουτο βουλεται, άλλα αιμα Κριστου.
(0) Μη τη λαρυγγι τη σωματική επιτρεπητε το κριτικον και