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Prodit. Judæ. T. v. p. 415.—“As many as partake of this body, as many as taste of this blood, think ye it nothing different from that which sits above, and is adored by angels.”(u) Homil. iii. in c. l. ad Ephes. T. x. p. 885. _“ This table supplies the place of the manger, for even here shall lie the body of our Lord;(s) not wrapped in swaddling cloths, as then, but surrounded on all sides by the Holy Spirit. They that are initiated understand these things. The Magi or wise men did nothing but adore; but if thou comest with a pure conscience, thou wilt be permitted to take him to thyself.” Orat. de S.Philogonio, T. 1. p. 357.—“The servants of Job, to shew their love of him, said, Who will give us of his flesh, that we may be filled. (xxxi. 31.) In like manner, Christ gave us his flesh, that with it we may be filled and inflamed with the love of him. This body lying in the manger the wise men reverenced, seeing no such thing as thou seest : thou dost not see him in the manger, but on the altarnor dost thou only see him, but moreover thou touchest him; nay thou eatest him, and returnest home with him in thy breast.(e) Cleanse then thy soul from all defilement, and prepare thyself to receive these mysteries.” Hom. xxiv. in 1 Cor. T. x. p. 261, 262.—“ Wonderful ! The table is spread with Mysteries, the lamb of God is slain for thee, and the spiritual blood flows from the sacred table. The spiritual fire comes down from heaven; the
(ω) εννοειτε ότι τα μηδεν εκεινου διαφεροντες, ουδε διεστωτος μετεχομεν, ότι εκεινο τα άνω καθημενα τετο απογευομεθα. .
(1) ή γαρ τραπεζη αυτη, ταξιν της φατνης πληροι" και γαρ και ένταυθα κεισεται το σωμα το δεσποτικον. .
(ν) ουχ ορας μονον, αλλα και απτη και ουχ απτη μονον, αλλα και εσθιεις, και λαβων δικαδε αναχωρεις.
blood in the chalice is drawn from the spotless side for thy purification.—Thinkest thou that thou seest bread? that thou seest wine? that these things pass off as other foods do? Far be it from thee to think so.(a) But as wax brought near to the fire loses its former substance, which no longer remains: so do thou thus conclude that the mysteries (the bread and wine) are consumed by the substance of the body. Wherefore, approaching to them, think not that you receive the divine body from a man, but fire from the hand of the Seraphim.”—Hom. de Panit. seu de Euchar. in Encæniis. T. v. 489.
There is a letter, written to the monk Cæsarius, and ascribed to this prelate, wherein he says, refuting the monk's opinion, that the divinity and humanity in Christ were so mixed, as to form but one nature:
“ Jesus Christ is God and man; God as impassible, man as having suffered. Yet is there one only Son and one Lord: one and the same, who, by the union of the natures, has one domination and one power; although these natures are not consubstantial; for each one retains, without mixture, the characters which distinguish it. The natures are united without being confounded. For as (in the Eucharist) before it is sanctified, the bread is called bread;
but when the divine grace, by means of the priest, has consecrated it, it is freed from the appellation of bread, and is esteemed worthy to be called the Lord's body, although the nature of bread remains in it, and we do not say, there are two bodies, but one body of the Son: so here, the divine nature being joined to the human, they both together form but one Son, one person; yet it must
μη ότι άρτος έστιν ίδης, μηδ' ότι οινος έστι νομισης-απαγε, μη
be acknowledged, according to an unconfused and indivisible manner, not in one nature, but in two perfect natures.") Ep.ad. Cæsarium. p. 22. Paris, 1689.
S. MARUTHAS, G. C.
“ Do this in remembrance of me. This was necessary and very proper: for if the perpetual participation of the
(c) Sicut enim antequam sanctificetur panis, panem nominamns; divinâ autem illum sanctificante gratiâ, mediante sacerdote, liberatus est quidem appellatione panis, dignus autem habitus est Dominici corporis appellatione, etiamsi natura panis in eo permansit, et non duo corpora, sed unum corpus filii prædicatur: sic et hic, divinâ insidente corporis naturâ, unum filium, unam per: sonam, utraque hæc fecerunt: agnoscendum tamen inconfusam et indivisibilem rationem, non in una solum naturâ, sed in duabus perfectis.
The Greek original of this letter is not extant, and the Latin translation seems imperfect; but what difficulty there may be in the word nature, applied to the bread after consecration, should be explained by the other passages from the same father, which clearly express the real change of substance. From other ancient writers, such as Gelasius of Rome, and Theodoret of Cyrus in Syria, both of the fifth century, passages, similar to that above, are adduced, wherein the word natura, and the Greek equivalents, puoiç and ovora, are used, in comparisons from the Eucharist, to denote the external qualities of bread and wine, which before and after consecration remain the same. See Perpétuité de la Foi: T. iii. and on the authenticity of the Letter to Cæsarius, Dupin Bibliot. T. iii. Cave Hist. Lit. p. 267, and Montfaucon T. iii. Op. S. Chrysostomi, p. 736. To my own apprehension the Letter is manifestly spurious.
(0) St. Maruthas was bishop of Tagrit, in Mesopotamia, and began to flourish about the end of the fourth century. He compiled
sacraments had not been delivered, whence could we have learnt salvation through Christ; or by whose persuasion have been led to the knowledge of so great a mystery? To the bulk of mankind it would have been most difficult to be believed ; and thus they would have been deprived of the communion of the body and blood of Christ. But now, as often as we approach, and receive on our hands the body and blood, we believe, that we embrace his body, and become, as it is written, flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone. For Christ did not call it the figure or the species of his body, but he said: This truly is my body, and this is my blood.”(c) Com. in Matt. apud. Asssemani, Bibl. Orient. T. 1. p. 180. Romæ, 1719.
S. AUGUSTIN, (.) L. C.
“ As you know the sacrifice of the Jews, according to the rite of Aaron, consisted in the offerings of beasts, and
the Acts of the Martyrs who suffered in the persecution of Sapor, from 340 to 380, and wrote some commentaries on St. Matthew, and other works, in Syriac. He was the friend of St. Chrysostom, but survived him many years. He died before the middle of the
(6) Figuram et speciem ejus haud ipsum appellavit, sed dixit, hoc verè est corpus meum, et hic est sanguis meus.
(a) St. Augustin was bishop of Hippo in Africa, and himself an African. His works are very numerous, and his name, on account of the erudition of those works, their vast researches, and their deep insight into all the ways of the divine economy,
this in mystery: as yet the sacrifice of the body and blood of the Lord was not, which the faithful understand, (e) and they who have read the gospel; which sacrifice is now diffused through the whole world.” In Psal. xxxiii. T.viü. p. 92.—“Wherefore the sacrifice of Aaron was taken away; and that, according to the order of Melchisedec, commenced.-Our Lord was willing, that our salvation should be in his body and blood. And this was an effect of his humility. For had he not been humble, he would not have been to us meat and drink.”() Ibid.-" When, committing to us his body, he said: This is my body, Christ was held in his own hands. He bore that body in his hands."(9) Ibid. p. 94.—“ Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, said the psalmist to God. For the ancients, when as yet the true sacrifice was foretold in figures, celebrated the type of what was to come.—Those sacrifices, therefore, signifying promises, were annulled : and what was given to complete those promises? That body, which you know; which all do not know; and which, it were to be wished, some did not know to their condemnation.(4)
has ever borne the greatest weight in the Christian churches. He illustrated the close of the fourth, and the beginning of the fifth century, in the Latin church, while St. Chrysostom shone in the east. He died in the year 430.
(e) Nondum erat sacrificium corporis et sanguinis Domini, quod fideles norunt.
Nec manducaretur, nec biberetur. (6) Ferebatur Christus in manibus suis, quando, commendans ipsum suum corpus, ait: Hoc est corpus meum. Ferebat enim illud corpus in manibus suis.
() Corpus quod nostis ; quod utinam qui nostis omnes, non ad judicium noveritis.