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and finally brought on our altars, daily affords celestial food to the faithful.”(®) Serm. lxvii. p. 899.—“ In what manner the body of Christ should be eaten, and his blood drunken,-) they understand, who are instructed in the heavenly sacraments.” Serm. xcv. p. 920.


“ By these prayers (of the liturgy) the descent of the Holy Spirit was expected, that, by his sacred presence, he would make the bread that is presented for the offering, the body of Christ, and the wine, mingled with water, his blood."(z) In Bibl. PP. Max. T. vi. p. 618.—“ The solemn day of the sacred mysteries arrived: the evening came, more bright than any day. For, on this evening, all is full of admiration and awe. The Lord sat down with his disciples, and laid open before them the scene of mysteries. He gave to them for food his pure body; and drink for the remission of sins.(a) Orat. x. in S. Feriam v. T. 1. p. 406. In Novo. Auct. Combesis, Paris, 1648.

(*) Qui satus in virgine—illatus altaribus, cælestem cibum quotidie fidelibus subministrat.

(v) Quemadmodum manducetur caro Christi ; quomodo libatur et sanguis ejus.

(y) St. Proclus was the disciple of St. Chrysostom, and was placed on the patriarchal chair of Constantinople, in 434. He died in 447. Several of his homilies and letters are still extant.

(3) Ut efficeret ipsum illud corpus, et sanguinem Domini.

(α) δεδωκε βρωμα την αναμαρτητον σαρκα αμαρτηματων σπογγον έχαρισατο πομα. .

S. LEO, L. C.

“ To the end that the shadow might give way to the reality, and, in the presence of truth, that representations might cease, the ancient observances are now [at the passion of Christ) annulled by a new sacrament, the victim passes into another victim, blood excludes blood,(e) and the legal festival, by being changed, is fulfilled.—The disciples, being seated with their master to eat the mystic supper, while the Jews held council how they might kill him, Jesus ordained the sacrament of his body and blood, (d) teaching what victim was to be offered to God; nor did he refuse the mysterious banquet to the traitor Judas.” Serm. vii. de Passione Dom. p. 259.-" The participation of the body and blood of Christ(e) causes us to pass into that which we receive; whence being dead, and buried, and rising again in him, we carry him about with us in spirit, and in our flesh.” Serm. xiv. p. 284.—“ Denying in Christ the reality of a human body, these men make void the truth of his passion and resurrection. And so immersed are they in the shades of ignorance, as not to

(6) St. Leo, on account of his exalted virtues and signal government of the church, acquired the appellation of Great; while the works which he has left, comprising numerous sermons and letters, prove the solidity of his judgement, the extent of his acquirements, and the firmness of his courage on many trying occasions. His style is at once elevated and elegant. He died in 461.

(c) Hostia in hostiam transit, sanguine sanguis aufertur.
(d) Corporis et sanguinis sui ordinavit sacramentum.
(c) Participatio corporis et sanguinis Christi.

have learned either by hearing or by reading what, in the church of God, is so universally acknowledged, that even the tongues of infants proclaim, in the sacrament of our common faith, the truth of the body and blood of Christ.) For in the mystic distribution of this spiritual food, we receive the virtue of the celestial aliment, and are transformed into his flesh, who took our flesh upon him.) Ep. xlvi. Al. xxiii. p. 518.


He wrote four books against the Eutychians, who denied the reality of the human nature in Christ, in which he introduces two persons, under the names of Orthodoxus and Eranistes, who discuss the subject. The first, it is plain, is the Catholic believer. In the first dialogue the

In Ecclesia Dei in omnium ore tam consonum est, ut nec ab infantium linguis veritas corporis et sanguinis Christi inter communionis sacramenta taceatur.

(B) Ut in carnem ipsius, qui caro nostra factus est, transeamus.

(1) Theodoret is best known as the author of the “ Ecclesiastical History," which begins in 322, where Eusebius finishes, and comes down to 428. He was bishop of Cyrus, a city of Syria ;, was connected with many of the great men of the age, and was involved with them in various controversies. He found time, how. ever, for study; for few men have written more, and this with so extensive a knowledge of all the subjects which he treats, scriptural, moral and historical : hence, it has been said of him, that he equally deserved praise as an able interpreter of Scripture, a profound divine, an acute controvertist, a learned apologist, and an accurate and eloquent historian. He died at an advanced age, about the year 457, if not later.

reality of Christ's presence in the Eucharist had been established; and, in the second, the subject is resumed, and the change of the bread and wine more distinctly pointed out.—Orth. Now: tell me the mystical symbols, which are offered to God by the priests, of what are they the symbols ?—Eran. Of the body and blood of the Lord. -Orth. Of his true body, or not?-Eran. Of his true body.(6) Orth. Very well; for every image must have its original.-Eran. I am happy you have mentioned the divine mysteries. Tell me, therefore; What do you call the gift that is offered before the priest's invocation Orth. This must not be said openly; for some may be present who are not initiated.—Eran. Answer then in hidden terms.-Orth. We call it an aliment made of certain grains.-Eran. And how do you call the other symbol ?-Orth. We give it a name that denotes a certain beverage.- Eran. And after the consecration what are they called ?-Orth. The body of Christ, and the blood of Christ.(k) — Eran. And you believe that you partake of the body and blood of Christ ?-Orth. So I believe.Eran. As the symbols, then, of the body and blood of Christ were different before the consecration of the priest, and after that consecration are changed;in the same manner we (Eutychians) say, the body of Christ, after his ascension, was changed into the divine essence.- Orth.

(i) το δεσποτικα σωματος τε και αιματος.-

--τε όντος σωματος, η ουκ όντος;-το όντος. (k)

μετα δεγε τον αγιασμος--? σωμα Κριστα, και αιμα Κριστα. (1) τα συμβολα

τα δεσποτικα σωματος τε και αιματος, αλλα μεν εισι προ της ιερατικης επικλησεως, μετα δε γε την επικλησιν μεταβαλλεται και έτερα γινεται. .

Thou art taken in thy own snare; for, after the consecration, the mystical symbols lose not their proper nature: they remain in the former substance, figure, and appearance (or rather, in the shape and form of the former substance),(m) to be seen, and to be felt, as before; but they are understood to be what they have been made; this they are believed to be; and as such they are adored.” Dial. ii. T. iv. Edit. Paris. 1642.

$. PROSPER," L. C.

“ He receives the food of life, and drinks the cup of eternity, who dwells in Christ, and Christ in him. For he that departs from Christ, eats not his flesh, nor drinks his blood, though he daily take to his own condemnation that august sacrament."(0) In Sententiis. p. 596. Edit. Paris. 1711.


“ The Jews ate manna; we Christ: they the flesh of


μενει γαρ επι της προτερας ουσιας, και το σχηματος, και το ειδος. -The word #purepas, (former) seems to imply the second translation.

(m) St. Prosper was a learned layman of Aquitain, and contemporary with St. Augustin, in whose defence he wrote several works, which are extant. He died about the


456. (m) Nec carnem ejus manducat, nec sanguinem bibit; etiamsiquotidie indifferenter accipiat.

(p) Sylvianus was a learned priest of Marseilles, who flourished from about the middle, to the end of the fifth century; and of whom we have eight books " On the Government of God," and four books“ Against Avarice,"

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