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priest ?" Orat. 1. T. 1. p. 3, 38.—“ Julian, in impure and wicked blood, washes away his baptismal rite, opposing initiation to initiation he defiles his hands in order to purify them from that unbloody sacrifice (7) through which we communicate with Christ, with his divine nature, and his sufferings.” Orat. iii. in Julian. T. 1. p. 70.
S. OPTATUS OF MILEVIS, L. C.
See the quotation from him, p. xxxix, of this Appendix. “ What is so sacrilegious," &c.
S. AMBROSE, L. C.
Commenting on the appearance of the angel to Zacharias, (Luke 1.) he says: “It were to be wished, that while we burned incense on our altars, and offer sacrifice, the angel would assist and become visible to us. That he does assist, cannot be doubted, while Christ is there, while Christ is immolated ;(«) For Christ our pasch is sacrificed.” (1 Cor. v.) L: 1. in Evang. Luc. c. 1. T. iii. p. 12.—“We have beheld the prince of priests coming to us; we have beheld and heard him offering bis blood for us: let us priests then follow him as we can, and offer sacrifice for the people, weak as we are in merit, but rendered honourable by this sacrifice; for although Christ is not now seen to offer, yet is he offered on earth, when his body is the victim.) Indeed, he manifestly offers in us, since it his
της αναιμακτο θυσιας αποκαθαιρων. .
word that sanctifies the sacrifice that is offered." Enarr. in Psal. xxxviii. T. ii. p. 740.
In a letter to his sister Marcellina, giving an account of some disturbances at Milan, when an attempt was made to seize the church, he relates: “The next day, which was Sunday, after the reading and sermon, when I was explaining the creed, word was brought that officers were sent to seize the Portian church, and that part of the people were flocking thither. I continued to discharge my duty, and began Mass ;(c) but as I was offering, I was informed that the people had laid hands on an Arian priest. This made me weep, and I prayed to God in the midst of the offering, (d) that no blood might be shed in this quarrel.” Ep. xiv. T. v. p. 205.—Having heard from the emperor Theodosius, of the victory which he had gained over the tyrant Eugenius, Ambrose writes to him. “I took your letter with me to the church; I laid it on the altar; and whilst I offered sacrifice (e) I held it in my hand, that by my voice you might speak, and your august letter perform with me the sacerdotal office." Ep. lviii. T. v. p. 322.
As the Mass has just been mentioned in a quotation from S. Ambrose, I will here subjoin a passage on the subject, from the learned and pious cardinal Bona, who flourished at Rome in the seventeeth century.-“There is an epistle of Pius I., acknowledged to be genuine, written about the year 166 to the bishop of Vienne, in the opening of which he thus speaks : ‘Our sister Euprepia, as you well recollect, made over her house to the poor, where we dwell and celebrate Mass.'” Conc. Gen. T. 1. p. 576.
(c) Missam facere cæpi. (d) Et orare in ipsâ oblatione. (e) Cum offerrem sacrificium.
A letter also from pope Cornelius to another bishop of the same city, written about the year 254, remarks that on account of the persecutions, the Christians could not publicly “celebrate Mass.” Ibid. p. 681.-In the fourth century, St. Ambrose writing to his sister, mentions the mass, as likewise in his thirty-fourth Discourse : “ I exhort you, you that are near the church, and can do it without great inconvenience, to hear Mass daily.” T. v. p. 48.—In his preparatory prayer before Mass, he says; “ Grant me thy grace on this day, and on every other, with a pure mind and clean heart, to celebrate the solemn service of Mass.”(f) Ibid. p. 335.—“ St. Augustin and other ancient fathers use the same expression, and they use it as if it were common and generally received at the time.” L. 1. Rerum Liturg. c. iii. p. 17. Edit. Paris, 1678.
In this fourth century, various Councils were held, which in plain terms speak of the Christian sacrifice.
COUNCIL OF ANCYRA,M) G. C.
Against such priests who, in the times of persecution, had shown great weakness, it enacts : “That they be not deprived of their stations; but that they be not allowed to offer, (h) nor to address the people, nor to perform any priestly function.” Can. 1. Conc. Gen. T. 1. p.
() The two works quoted by Cardinal Bona, as productions of St. Ambrose, are not allowed, by the learned, to be his, though of some ancient author.
18) This council, held about the year 314, consisted of bishops from all the principal sees of the East, to the number of, at least, 118.— They enacted twenty-five canons for the establishment of discipline.
(h) a poopepelv.
COUNCIL OF NEOCÆSAREA, G.C.
Country-priests, in the presence of the bishop, or the priests of the city, cannot offer,'*) nor give the sanctified bread, nor present the chalice. Ibid. Can. xiii. p. 1483.
COUNCIL OF NICE,* G. C.
“ The holy Synod has been informed that, in some places and cities, the deacons present the Eucharist to the priests. This thing no canon nor custom has taughtthat they, who have themselves no power to offer, in should present the body of Christ to those who possess that power.” Can. xviii. Conc. Gen. T. ii. p. 38.
COUNCIL OF LAODICEA,(m) G. C.
Having established certain rules to be observed in the service of the church, it adds: “ And after the priests have given the kiss of peace to the bishop, the laity must do the same one to the other, and thus the holy offering') be completed: but the ministers alone may approach the altar, and there communicate.” Ibid. Can, xix.
Ibid. Can. xix. p. 1499.
(i) This council was called soon after that of Ancyra, and consisted of nearly the same bishops.
προσφερειν. . * Held in 325, against the errors of Arius.
(m) This council met about the middle of the fourth century, and has left us sixty canons, which have ever been held in the greatest estimation.
(*) την άγιαν προσφοραν.
SECOND COUNCIL OF CARTHAGE,( ) L. C.
It enacts that, if any priest, having been reprimanded by his bishop, withdraw from his communion, and“ offer sacrifice privately, () erecting altar against altar, contrary to established discipline — he be deprived of his office.” Ibid. Can. viii. T. ii. p. 1161.
THEOPHILUS OF ALEXANDRIA.(1) G. C.
“ Let the priests, after certain portions have been consumed in the use of the mysteries, divide the remainder of what was offered in the way of sacrifice ;(") but of them the catechumen may not eat nor drink, but clerks only, and the believing brethren with them.” In Commonit. Can. vii. Apud Bevereg. p. 172. Edit. Oxonii, 1672.
S. John CHRYSOSTOM, G. C.
On the words of the prophet Malachias; And in every place incense shall be offered to God, and a clean offering ;
(o) This council was called by Genethlius, bishop of Carthage, who presided at it, in 390. It enacted thirteen canons, respecting the celibacy of bishops, priests, and deacons, and other points of discipline.
(p) Separatim-sacrificium Dei obtulerit.
(9) He succeeded Timotheus, and sat on the patriarchal chair of Alexandria, from 385 to 412. Some of his letters are to be found among those of St. Jerome, and in Beveredge's "Canons of the Greek church."
η) τα προσφερόμενα εις λογον θυσιας.