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he says, addressing the Jews: “When did this happen? When was incense thus offered? When this clean sacrifice? You can produce no other time than this, after the coming of Christ.co And if of this time the prophet had not spoken ; had he prophesied, not of our sacrifice but of that of the Jews, his prophecy would have been contrary to the law: for Moses forbids sacrifices to be offered in any other place than that which God had chosen: to this he confines them. But Malachias declares, that in every place incense shall be offered, and a clean sacrifice. In truth, however, there is no discordance between them. They speak of different sacrifices.- In the first place, the prophet foretels that, not in one city, as among the Jews, but from the rising of the sun to the going down of the same, offerings shall be made. Then, by calling the sacrifice clean, he plainly denotes of what victim he spoke. And finally, the offerings will be made, not in Israel, but in all nations. In every place, says he; evidently showing, that wherever the sun sheds its light, there the gospel shall be preached. He speaks of a clean offering, not as if, by its own nature, that of the Jews had been unclean, but only through the will of the offerers. Wherefore God said: their incense is an abomination to me. Nevertheless, if our present sacrifice be compared with the former, so vast will the difference be found, that ours alone can merit the name of clean." Adv. Judæos, Orat. iii. T. 1. p. 437.-" The office of priesthood is, indeed, performed on earth, but it should itself be referred to the class and order of things celestial.Wherefore, it is necessary that the priest be pure, as if,
(ουκ αν έχoις έτερον ειπειν καιρον, αλλ' ή τατον, τον μετα την τα Κριστα παραφιαν. .
placed in heaven, he stood among the celestial spirits.For when you behold the Lord immolated, and the priest at the altar offering sacrifice, and pouring out prayers, and then the surrounding multitude partaking of the sacred blood, (•) can you, at that moment, fancy you are among mortals, and dwelling on the earth? Rather, are you not transported to the heavens ? De Sacerd. L. iii. c. iv. T. iv. p. 27.-“ But when the priest shall have invoked the Holy Spirit, and shall have completed this tremendous and awful sacrifice, the common Lord of all being handled by him ;( I ask you, in what rank shall we place him? And what integrity of life, and what sense of religion shall we not demand from him? Reflect, what those hands should be; what the tongue, that utters those words; how pure and holy the soul that has been so honoured. Meanwhile, the angels stand by the priest, the army of heavenly powers cry out, and the space around the altar is filled by them in honour of him who lies there.” Ibid. L. vi. c. iv. p. 82. -These sentiments he often repeats.—“ He has ordained a sacred rite, changing the victim, and, in the place of animals, commanding himself to be immolated.”(*) Hom. xxiv. in 1 Cor. T. x. p. 256.-" It was not in vain that the apostles ordained that, in the celebration of the tremendous mysteries, mention should be made of the dead. They knew that great advantage would thence be derived to them. For all the people being present, and raising
(ο τον κυριον τεθυμενον και κειμενον, και τον ιερεα εφεστωτα το θυματι-και παντας εκεινη τη τιμιο φοινισσομενες αιματι.
(u) τον φρικωδεστατην επιτελη θυσιαν, και το κοινό παντων συνεχως εφαπτηται δεσποτε. .
την ιεραργιαν μετεσκευασε, και την θυσιαν αυτην αμειψας, και άντι της αλογων σφαγης, εαυτον προσφερειν κελευσας.
their hands to heaven, and the sacred victim lying there, 4) shall not God be rendered propitious to them?" Hom. iii. in c. 1. Ep. ad Philip. T. xi. p. 32.—“ But do we not it may be asked) offer sacrifice daily?" We do; but in remembrance of his death. And the victim is one, not many. But how is this? Because it was once offered and brought into the sanctuary. This sacrifice is a copy of that; the offering is the same. Not one on one day, and on the next another; but always the same. (*) Thus then the sacrifice is one. But are there many Christs, as the offering is made in many places? By no means: it is the same Christ every where; here entire and there entire; one body. As then, though offered in many places, there is one body, and not many bodies: so is there one sacrifice. He is our high priest, who offered the victim of our expiation: that same victim we now offer that was then offered, which cannot be consumed. This is done in remembrance of what was done. Do this, he said, in remembrance of me.” Hom. xvii. in c. x. Ep. ad Hebr. T. xi.
S. INNOCENT I, 0, L. C.
He writes to the bishop of Eugubium : “ You say that the kiss of peace is sometimes given before the sacred mysteries are completed, which should not be done till after those parts which I must not reveal ; for that kiss
προκειται η φρικτη θυσια. . () τον γαρ αυτον αει προσφερομεν" ον νυν μεν έτερον, άυριον δε ετερον, αλλα αει το αυτο" ώστε
έστιν η θυσια. . (a) St. Innocent succeeded Anastasius, in 402, and governed the church of Rome till 417. Thirty-three of his letters are extant.
denotes that the faithful present have assented to all that was performed." He gives other directions, speaking of “the sacred mysteries, and the victim that is offered.” Ep. ad Decentium : Conc. Gen. T. ii. p. 1246.
S. JEROME, L. C.
“ I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord; neither will I accept an offering at your hand. For from the rising of the sun,"&c. Malach. 1.-It is a fixed rule when a prophecy manifestly refers to future events, not to weaken it by uncertain allegories. The present prophecy regards the Jewish priests who brought improper victims to be offered, to signify to them that spiritual victims would succeed to carnal; and that not the blood of bulls and goats, but perfumes, that is, the prayers of the saints, should be offered to God; and that, not in one province, nor in one city; but a clean oblation in every place, such as is offered in the Christian ceremonies: For from the rising of the sun to the going down of the same, great is my name among the Gentiles.” In cap. 1. Malach. T. iii. p. 544.
Having stated what were the opinions of many learned men on the character and offering of Melchisedec, (Gen. xiv.) he says: “ The apostle affirms, that the priesthood of Aaron, that is, the Jewish priesthood, had a beginning and an end (Heb. vii.); but that the priesthood of Melchisedec, that is, of Christ and his church, should be eternal, and had no author; and that the priesthood being translated, it is necessary that a translation also be made of the law.” Ep. cxxvi. ad Evagrium, T. 1. 1060.—I find him, on many occasions, expressing the same sentiment: that the offering of bread and wine by Melchisedec, was a type of the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ in the ele
ments of bread and wine, and thus dedicated the Christian mystery in the blood and body of our Saviour." (0) Ep. ad Marcel. T. iï. p. 151.—“ According to thee, the Roman bishop does wrong, who offers sacrifices to the Lord, over the bodies of Peter and Paul, which bodies we call venerable remains, but you, vile dust. To him their tombs are altars.” Adv. Vigilantium, T. 1. p. 591.-Haring treated, at great length, of the superior virtues of the state of celibacy, he says: “And if the lay-man, or any one of the faithful, is not able to pray, unless he be continent; it is the duty of the priest, who is constantly to offer sacrifices for the people, always to pray ; but if always to pray, then to be continent."(c) L. 1. Adv. Jovinianum, T. 1. p. 487.—He gives the same advice to bishops: “ What must be our opinion concerning the bishop, who daily, for his own and the sins of the people, is to offer to God pure sacrifices ?" In c. 1. Ep. ad Titum, T. iii. p. 1045.
S. AUGUSTIN, L. C.
“ Then Abraham (Gen. xiv.) was blessed by Melchisedec, the priest of the most high God, of whom many and great things are said in the epistle to the Hebrews: (vii.) which epistle most people ascribe to the apostle Paul,
(6) This letter of Paula and Eustochium to Marcella, written to induce her to repair to Bethlem, is generally supposed to have been penned by St. Jerome.
(c) Si semper orandum, ergo semper carendum matrimonio.