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CHAPTER I.

NARRATIVE OF CIVIL AND MILITARY TRANSACTIONS.

A.D. 1688.-INTERREGNUM.

HE work of the Rev- dispatched circular letters, accordingly, to the sevolution was not com- eral counties, universities, cities, and boroughs; and pleted by the flight of in the mean time, the country, the fleet, and all that James; the crown was remained of James's army, submitted quietly to his in a state of abeyance authority. In Ireland it was very different; but in for nearly two months, Scotland men were as prompt in their obedience as or from the 23d of De- in England. Under the dextrous management of cember, 1688, to the the Duke of Hamilton, Sir Patrick Hume, Sir John 13th of February, 1689, Dalrymple, and other Whig leaders, about thirty during which time the Scottish peers, and eighty commoners, intrusted Whigs were brought William to take upon him the administration of to the enunciation or Scotland until the convention of the estates to be admission of principles summoned by him should be assembled. But the

which were equally Earl of Arran, the eldest son of the Duke of Hamnew to the people, bold, and wise. Up to a certain ilton, expressed himself very boldly for the recall point all parties seemed to agree (the papists were of the fugitive king; the Duke of Gordon, a Cathotoo inconsiderable to merit the name of a party); lic, held the castle of Edinburgh for James; and but the Tories and high churchmen soon hung back, apprehensions were entertained of the furious loyand left the danger and the honor of settling the alty of Graham of Claverhouse, who had lately been problem to the Whigs, who proceeded, not by the created, by King James II., Viscount Dundee. stated rules of the English government and laws, A.D. 1689. On the appointed day—the 22d of but by the general rights of mankind, looking not so January—the English convention, or parliament, as much to Magna Charta as to the original compact it was afterward declared to be, assembled in the between the governors and the governed conceived Houses of Parliament, and proceeded vigorously to to be involved in the idea of a political society ;' the their important business. The Marquis of Halifax notion of which had bitherto been considered as a was elected to the presidency in the Lords, and republican chimera, though it had been entertained Mr. Poole, one of the patriots of Charles II's parby the wisest and best of the Commonwealth-men. liaments, who had taken bribes from France, was The Prince of Orange, who had taken up his resi- chosen speaker in the Commons. A letter from dence, not at Whitehall, but at St. James's, seemed William was read in both Houses. His highness to leave the nation to settle the business in their told them that he had endeavored to the utmost of own way, most scrupulously avoiding any assump- his power to perform what had been desired of him, tion of right, and any symptom of eagerness. On in order to the maintenance of the public peace and the 25th of December, the lords spiritual and tem- safety; that it now rested with themselves to lay poral to the number of about ninety, who had taken the foundations of a firm security for their religion, their places in the House of Lords, requested Will their laws, and their liberties; that he did not doubt jam to take upon him the administration of affairs that, by such a full and free representation of the and the disposal of the public revenue, and to issue nation as was now met, all the ends of the declarawrits for a “ Convention,” to meet on the 22d of tion which he had put forth on landing might be January; and on the following day an assembly of peaceably attained ; "and since it had pleased God such persons as had sat in parliament in the reign hitherto to bless his good intentions with so great of Charles II., to the number of about a hundred success, he trusted in him, that he would complete and fifty, together with the aldermen of London his own work, by sending a spirit of peace and union and fifty of the common council, having met at St. to influence their counsels, so that no interruption James's, pursuant to the expressed desire of the might be given to a happy and lasting settlement.” prince, immediately proceeded to the Commons' William next alluded to the dangerous condition of House, and there, after some debate, agreed upon an address similar to that of the Lords. The prince ed because William ordered them to serve in Holland and took the the Protestants in Ireland, and then passed on to most humbly desire your bighness to take upon you the affairs of Holland and the continent, which he the administration of public affairs, and the disposal had still more at heart. He told them that the of the public revenue, for the preservation of our present state of things abroad obliged him to warn religion, rights, laws, liberties, and properties, and them that, next to the danger of unseasonable divi- of the peace of the nation; and that your highness sions among themselves, nothing could be so fatal will take into your particular care the present state as too great delays in their consultations; that the of Ireland, and endeavor, by the most speedy and States of Holland, by whom he had been enabled to effectual means, to prevent the dangers threatening rescue this nation, might suddenly want the troops that kingdom." The phlegmatic William delayed which he had brought over, as the old and powerful giving any answer till the next day, and then he enemy of both countries (Louis XIV.) had declared coldly and laconically said, “. My lords and gentlewar agaiost the States. And he further intimated, men, I am glad that what I have done hath pleased that as England was already bound by treaty to help you; and since you desire me to continue the adthe Dutch in such exigencies, so he felt confident ministration of affairs, I am willing to accept it." that the cheerful concurrence of the Dutch in pre- He added, however, and with more warmth, “I serving this kingdom, with so much hazard to them- must recommend to you the consideration of affairs selves, would meet with all the returns of friendship abroad, which makes it fit for you to expedite your from Protestants and Englishmen whenever their business, not only for making a settlement at home own condition should require assistance.'

i Subsequently, however, two Scottish regiments in England revolti Hallam, Const. Hist.

command of them from Lord Dumbarton, who was their old commander, 2 " All the world,” says Evelyn, “ go to see the prince at St. James's, but a determined Jacobite. General Ginckel overtook these Scots as where there is a great court. There I saw him, and several of my ac- they were marching from the coast of Suffolk toward the borders with quaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious, and drums beating and colors flying, and very easily put down the muliny. reserved."Diary.

William pardoned all the mutineers, officers as well as men.

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on a good foundation, but for the safety of Europe." In the Commons, Poole, the speaker, embraced The two Houses then adjourned to the 28th, on all the prince's views with a most ardent zeal, and which day the Commons, having reassembled, recarried some of them much farther than William solved themselves into a committee of the whole had done, artfully striking a key-note to which he House to take into consideration the state of the knew the old national feeling, and pride, and preju- nation. Mr. Hampden was in the chair. Dolben, dice would respond. He reminded his hearers of son of the late archbishop of York, “ was the bold the dangerous state England was still in, and of the man who first broke the ice, and made a long speech fatal consequences that must follow any disagree- tending to prove that the king's deserting his kingment; he spoke vehemently of the papists in Ire- dom without appointing any person to administer land, and of the loss England might sustain by the the government amounted, in reason and judgment disseverment of that kingdom; and lastly, he dwelt of law, to a demise." This opinion was taken up upon the growth of the exorbitant power of the King and defended by several other members; and Sir of France, and the vast designs of that turbulent and Robert Howard went a step farther, and not only aspiring monarch, the persecutor of the Protestant asserted that the throne was vacant, but also underreligion everywhere, and the sworn enemy of Eng- took to prove, that the whole reign of his late majland, exciting the House to put the nation in such esty was one continued breach of the original cona warlike attitude as might not only secure it from tract between the king and people. “I have heard,” any affront, but also enable it to subdue France a said Howard, “ that the king has his crown by divine second time, or at least to recover the provinces of right; but we, the people, have a divine right too." Normandy and Aquitain, which were the indisputable The Tories, including Sir Edward Seymour, who inheritance of the kings of England. This speech had been one of the first to join the Prince of Orange, threw the House into a sort of transport; the old made a vain effort to procure an adjournment; and walls rung with warlike shouts, and every thing was the committee, after a stormy debate of many hours, agreed to that William or his party desired. Nor voted the resolution—That King James II., having was the Upper House either cold or critical. In a endeavored to subvert the constitution by breaking very full meeting, from which scarcely any were the original contract between king and people, and, absent even among the bishops, except Sancroft, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, the primate, they appointed a day of public thanks. having violated the fundamental laws, and withgiving to Almighty God for having made his high- drawn himself out of the kingdom, has abdicuted bess the glorious instrument of the great deliverance the government, and that the throne is thereby of the kingdom from popery and arbitrary power; become vacant.” Mr. Hampden was ordered to and they joined the Commons in an address of carry up this resolution to the Lords, and to request thanks to the prince, to whom, " next under God," their concurrence. On the morrow the Commons, this happy deliverance was owing. The Lords and still in committee, voted, "That it hath been found, Commons in a united body presented the address, by experience, to be inconsistent with the safety and which, besides thanks and enthusiastic expressions welfare of this Protestant kingdom to be governed of gratitude, contained the following important by a popish prince”-a principle which was certainclause, designed to give a constitutional and fully ly held by the vast majority of the people of England legal sanction to the authority the prince had been and Scotland. The Whigs, in their anxiety to settle exercisiog ever since the flight of his uncle and the Protestant William upon the throne, were too father-in-law, the miserable James :- And we do much disposed to overlook the restrictions proper

to be put upon his power; and the Tories, in their Ralph.-Roger Coke.-Narcissus Luttrell, Diary. Louis bad already avowed his intention of reinstating James by in the new light of champions for the liberties of the

eagerness to keep the question open, stood forward forre of arms, and his feet and privateers had already begun to make prizes of all the English shipping that fell in their way.

people. The lawyers engaged seemed to desire nothing, to care for nothing but the instant filling | by a majority of fifty-five to forty-one. This, it is of the vacant throne. When Mr. Hampden carried said, was owing to the party and the exertions the resolution to the Upper House, their lordships, of Danby, who maintained that the crown had also going into committee, subjected it to a long and devolved upon Williain's wife, who would have critical examination, being evidently averse to any been heiress to it but for her infant half-brother. acknowledgment of the divine right of the people A motion was made for an inquiry into the birth of to judge and choose their chief magistrate. Lord the pretended Prince of Wales. It was rejected; Clarendon, uncle to the Princess of Orange, led the but it seems to have been tacitly understood by both opposition, and proposed that the fugitive king should sides that that child was to be presumed spurious ;' be nominally left on the throne, and a Protestant and without that deep-rooted belief in the minds of regent appointed during his life. It was argued on the people, this revolution would certainly not have the other side, by Halifax, Danby, and other lords, been so easy of accomplishment. While these that, having begun the work of revolution, it was ne- debates were in progress, a London populace were cessary to complete it; that while the appointing a shouting for King William or Queen Mary, and regent and expelling the king was almost as extreme expressing a most eager and alarming anxiety for a measure as choosing a new king, a regency would an immediate settlement of the great question. On be insufficient and dangerous; that, by this proposi- the 1st of February the Lords sent down their tion of a regent, there would be two kings at the amendments to the Commons, taking care, howsame time-one with the title and another with ever, on the same day to concur unanimously with the power-one a Protestant at home, another a the Commons' vote, which declared popery to be papist abroad; that the law of England had settled inconsistent with the English constitution, and exthe point of the subject's security in obeying a king cluded forever all Roman Catholics from the throne. in possession or de fucto by the statute of Henry They also ordered that the anniversary of James's VII., so every man knew he would be safe under a accession should no longer be observed. As far as king, and would act with zeal and courage, but all James was concerned this seemed decisive; but such as should act under a prince-regent, created still the suspicion was not removed that a large by a convention, would find themselves without the portion of the Tory peers were intent upon bringnecessary forms of law to support them; that all ing bac that unfit king. The Commons rejected that would be done would be thought null and void the amendments of the Lords; and this led to a in law; that if the oaths to King James were held conference between committees of the two Houses. to be still binding, the subjects were bound by them After long arguments about the propriety of subto maintain, not merely his title to the crown or to the stituting the word deserted for abdicated, and upname of king, but also all his prerogative and power; holding the hereditary character of the succession, that it would be absurd to continue a government in which would allow of no vacancy, the Lords withhis name, and to take oaths to him, when all power drew to debate among themselves, and the Comwas taken out of his hands; that a mixed, confused, mons adjourned to the next day. The capital was and unnatural sort of government inust result from in a ferment; and a declaration which William bad the establishment of any such regency; that if it made to Halifax, Danby, Shrewsbury, and some should be carried on in King James's name, but in others, was industriously made public in all direcother hands, the body of the nation would still con- tions. The prince had told those noblemen that sider James as the person that was truly their sov- he had been hitherto silent, because he would not ereign, and if any should plot or act for him, they say or do any thing that might seem to interfere could not be proceeded against for high treason, as with the freedom of deliberating and voting in matconspiring against the king's person or government, ters of such importance; that he was resolved since it would be visible that they were only design- neither to court nor threaten any one. Some, he ing to preserve his person, and to restore him to his said, were for putting the government into the government. These and other weighty reasons hands of a regent; he would say nothing against prevailed, and the project of a regency was rejected, that, if they thought it the best manner of settling but only by a majority of two-fifty-one to forty-their affairs; only he thought it necessary to tell nine. On the 30th of January the Lords resolved, them that he would not be the regent, and that if by a majority of fifty-five to forty-six, that there was they continued in that design they must look out an original contract between the king and people, by for some other person, as he saw what would be which theoretical position they got rid of the doc- the consequences, and would never accept of that trine of divine right; and after this they voted that office. Others, he said, were for putting the printhe original contract had been broken by James. cess, his wife, singly on the throne, and to have him On the next day, however, they voted an amendment to reign by her courtesy. No man,” he added, in the clause of the resolution in which the Commons "can esteem a woman more than I do the princess; averred that James had abdicated, substituting the but I am so made, that I can not think of holding any word deserted; and they next struck out the im- thing by apron-strings; nor can I think it reasonable portant clause, that the throne was thereby vacant,

1 "This, at least," says Mr. Hallam, "was a necessary supposition 1 “Some," says Burnet, "intended to bring King James back; and for the Tories, who sought in the idle rumors of the time an excuse for went into this as the most probable way for laying the nation asleep, abandoning his right. As to the Whigs, though they were active in and for orercoming the present aversion that all people had to him. discrediting the unfortunate boy's legitimacy, their own broad princiThat being once done, they reckoned it would be no hard thing, with ple of changing the line of succession rendered it, in point of argument, the help of some time, to compass the other.".

a superfluous inquiry.".-Const. Hist.

to have any share in the government unless it be of the Commons, the Lords gave up their amendput in my own person, and that for the term of my ments, and adopted, in full, and without change, life. If you think it fit to settle it otherwise, I will the resolution as it had been sent up to them; and pot oppose you, but will go back to Holland, and then, by a majority of sixty-two to forty-seven, they meddle no more in your affairs." He assured them resolved that the Prince and Princess of Orange that, whatever others might think of a crown, it was should be declared King and Queen of England, no such great thing in his eyes, but that he could and all the dominions thereunto belonging. This live very well, and be well pleased without it. In vote, passed on the 6th of February, was sent down the end, he repeated that he could not accept a to the Commons on the 7th : but, some days before dignity that was only to be held during the life of this, a declaration of the reasons why King James another (his wife); admitting, however, that he had vacated the throne, and asserting the ancient thought the issue of the Princess Anne, James's rights and liberties of the nation, had been agreed second daughter, should be preferred in the succes- to by that House; and they now delayed concursion to any children that he might have by any other ring in the resolution of the Lords till the latter wife than the Princess Mary.

consented to adopt that declaration, which, after William was neither a very faithful nor a very some debate, they did; and it was, accordingly, intender husband; but Mary was a very submissive corporated, in the form of a preamble, with the wife : she was ready to do his will in all things ; | final resolution to which both Houses, after sevand at the present crisis this facility of disposition eral conferences, came, on the 12th of Februarycontributed not only to her own comfort, but also to • That William and Mary, prince and princess of the happiness of her native country. Danby, who Orange, be, and be declared, King and Queen of had judged incorrectly of her disposition from re- England, France, and Ireland, and the dominions flecting upon the general character of princes and thereunto belonging, to hold the crown and dignity princesses, and who had privately warned her that, of the said kingdoms and dominions to them, the if she chose, he would place her alone upon the said prince and princess, during their lives, and the throne, had received from her a very sharp an- life of the survivor of them; and that the sole and swer, in which she stated that she was the prince's full exercise of the regal power be only in and exewife, and would never be any thing except with cuted by the said Prince of Orange, in the names him and under him; that she would take it most of the said prince and princess, during their joint unkindly if any persons, under a pretense of their lives ; and. after their decease, the said crown and care of her, should set up a divided interest between royal dignity of the said kingdoms and dominions to her and her husband; and, not content with this be to the heirs of the body of the said princess ; declaration, she sent over both Danby's tempting for default of such issue, to the Princess Anne, of letter and her answer to it to William. Yielding Denmark, and the heirs of her body; and for deto the force of circumstances, and the steadiness fault of such issue, to the heirs of the body of the

said Prince of Orange."

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1 Burnet.

WILLIAM AND MARY.

Oy the same busy day, Mary, the new queen, ar- | management, necessitate the nation to so extraorrived, from Holland, at Whitehall; and on the mor- dinary a proceeding; which would have shown very row, the prince and she being sented on two arm- handsomely to the world, and according to the charchairs under a canopy in the Banqueting-House, acter given of her piety—consonant also to her husboth Houses of the Convention waited upon them band's first declaration, that there was no intention in a body, when the clerk of the crown read the of deposing the king, but of succoring the nation : declaration and resolution of the two Houses, and but nothing of all this appeared. She came into the Marquis of Halifax, in their name, made a sol- | Whitehall, laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so emo tender of the crown to their highnesses. On as to seem quite transported. She rose early the the same day, being Ash Wednesday, William and next morning, and, in her uudress, as it was reportMary were proclaimed King and Queen of Eng-ed, before her women were up, went about from land, France, and Ireland, at the usual places in room to room, to see the convenience of Whitehall; the cities of London and Westminster, “ with great lay in the same bed and apartment where the late acclamation and general good reception, with bon- queen lay; and, within a night or two, sat down to fires, bells, great gups, &c."! " It was believed," play at basset, as the queen, her predecessor, used says Evelyn, that both, especially the princess, to do. She smiled upon and talked to every body, would have showed some seeming reluctance of as- so that no change seemed to have taken place at suming her father's crown, and made some apology, court since her last going away, save that infinite testifying by her regret that he should, by his mis- crowds of people thronged to see her, and that she

1 "She seems," says Evelyn, " to be of a good nature, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured takes noebing to heart : while her husband has a thoughtful counte- by many."! hance, is wonderful serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons a'zke gravely, and to be very intent on affairs; llolland, Ireland, and 1 Diary.- The Duchess of Marlborough more than confirms uliat France calling for his care."

Evelyn says:-“And here I can uut forbear saying, that, whatever

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The Scottish Convention of Estates met on the from King William which was presented at the 14th of March; and, through the ingenious man- same time. They issued a proclamation, calling agement of Sir James Dalrymple (afterward Lord upon all men from sixteen to sixty to be ready to Stair), hardly any were returned to it except take up arms for their country and their faith : Whigs and Presbyterians. The Duke of Hamilton they arrayed the militia of the south, levied troops, was appointed president: the waverers were fixed and sent arms and ammunition to their brethren by the success of the revolution in England, and settled in the north of Ireland, who were appreevery thing proceeded with rapidity and spirit. A hending a massacre at the hands of the Irish paletter was presented from King James. A similar pists. The sheriffs were ordered to seize all letter had been rejected by the English Convention persons found in arms without the authority of the without reading; but the Scots, after passing a res. Convention; and the Duke of Hamilton was investolution that nothing contained in the letter should ed with a dictatorial power of securing all suspected dissolve their assembly, or stop their proceeding to persons. The fiery Dundee did what he could the settlement of the crown, gave the royal epistle to dissolve the Convention by cannon-balls. He a respectful reading. It was written in the terms urged the Duke of Gordon, who held out in Ed“of a conqueror and a priest; threatening the Con- inburgh Castle, and who had been proclaimed a vention with punishment in this world and damna- traitor under the walls of that fortress, to fire upon tion in the next;" and it was countersigned by the city. Gordon refused, or hesitated, and then James's secretary of state, Lord Melfort, a furi- Dundee attempted to get up a counter-convention ous papist, who was abhorred by the Presbyteri- at Stirling; but he was ill seconded by his friends, ans. The Convention returned them no answer, the Marquis of Athol and the lords Balcarras and but hastened to reply with gratitude to a letter Marr. Dundee was eager to be in the field; but

James had instructed him to remain quiet until asgood qualities Queen Mary had to make her popular, it is ton evident, sistance should be sent over from Ireland, where by many instances, that she wanted bowels. Of this she seemed to me to give an unquestionable proof the first day she came to Whitehall. that wretched outcast had landed on the 12th of I was one of those who had the honor to wait on her in her own apart- March, two days before the opening of the Scottish ment. She ran about it, looking into every closet and conveniency, Convention. Urged on, however, by his natural and turning up the quilts upon the bed, as people do when they come into an inn, and with no other sort of concern in her appearance but impetuosity, or fearing for his life, which he said such as they express-a behavior which, though at that time I was ex. was threatened by some of the Covenanters, upon tremely caressed by her, I thought very strange and unbecoming. For, whom he had practiced infamous severitjes “aforewhatever necessity there was of deposing King James, he was still her father, who had been so lately driven from that chamber and from that time," he mounted his horse, and galloped through bed ; and, if she felt no tenderness, I thought she should at least have looked grave, or even pensively sad, at so melancholy a reverse of his 1 These seasonable supplies were of vast importance to the men of fortune."— An Account of the Conduct of the Dowager-Duchess of Londonderry and Inniskillen, upon whuin the first weight of the war Marlborough from her first coming to Couri, &c. 1 Dalrymple, in Ireland fell.

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