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OR

THE MATTER, FORM AND POWER OF A

COMMONWEALTH, ECCLESIASTICAL

AND CIVIL

LY

THOMAS HOBBES

WITII AN INTRODUCTION BY IIENRY MORLEY

LL.D., PROFESSOR OF ENGLISII LITERATURE AT

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

SECOND EDITION

LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS

BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL
NEW YORK: 9 LAFAYETTE PLACE

1886

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VELLI.

1. Sheridan's Plays.

20. Plays and Puens. By BEN 2. Plays from Molière. By

Jonson.
English Dramatists.

21. Leviathan. By THOMAS 3. Marlowe's Faustus and

HOBBES.
Goethe's Faust.

22. Hudibras. By SAMUEL

BUTLER. 4. Chronicle of the Cia. 5. Rabelais' Gargantua and the 23. Ideal Commonwealths. Heroic Deeds of Pantagruel.

24. Cavendish's Life of Wolsey. 6. The Prince. By MACHIA- 25 & 26. Don Quixote. In

Two Volumes. 7. Bacon's Essays.

27. Burlesque Plays and Pvems. 8. Defoe's Journal of the 28. Dante's Divine Comedy. Plague Year.

LONGFELLOW's Translation. 9. Locke on Civil Government 29. Goldsmith's Vicar of Wako and Filmer's "Patriarcha."

field, Plays, and Poems. 10. Butler's Analogy of Religion. 30. Fables and Proverbs from II. Dryden's Virgil.

the Sanskrit. (Hitopadesa.) 12. Scott's Demonology and

31. Charles Lamb's Essays of

Elia. Witchcraft. 13. Herrick's Hesperides.

32. The History of Thomas

Ellwood. 14. Coleridge's Table-7 alk. 15. Boccaccio's Decameron.

33. Emirson's Essays, &c. 16. Sterne's Tristram Shandy.

34. Southey's Life of Nelson.

35. De Quincty's Confessions 17. Chapman's Homer's Iliad.

of an Opium-Eater, &c. 18. Mediæval Tales.

36. Stories of Ireland. By Miss 19. Voltaire's Candide, and

EDGEWORTH.
Johnson's Rasselas.

37. Aristophanes
Marvels of clear type and general neatness.”- - Daily Telegraph.

Replacement for

177780

INTRODUCTION.

1

THOMAS HOBBES, who lived into his ninety-second year, was born in April, 1588, the year of the Spanish Armada, and died on the 4th of December, 1679, within ten years of the English Revolution. The whole series of events that raised the question of the limit of authority within a State, and made it the foremost question of his day in England, lay within the limits of his actual life, after he had passed the age of seventeen. He studied philosophically the Civil Wars of the reign of Charles I., and expressed calmly in his books what seemed to him to be the argument for a royal authority entirely free from popular control. He summed up his argument in the “ Leviathan,” which was first published in 1651, when the experiment of a Commonwealth was being tried; and he returned to the battle with his “Behemoth” after failure of the Commonwealth and Restoration of the Stuarts. If he could have maintained his vigorous life but for another nine years, and become a centenarian, he would have seen the problem practically solved in a way not dreamt of in his philosophy.

Hobbes published his “Leviathan” at that age of sixty-three, mystically composed of seven times nine, which was said to form in a man's life the grand climacteric. He published it for instruction of the people at large in the philosophic rudiments of government, which, as he reasoned them, established as the best safeguard of national prosperity the absolute rule of a King. The political philosopher who followed him, and laid down principles of government that served as interpretation of the spirit of the English Revolution, was John Locke, whose “ Two Treatises on Civil Government,” are in another volume of this Library.

Thomas Hobbes, son of a clergyman at Malmesbury, was from his earliest years an energetic student. He fastened so vigorously upon Greek and Latin, that as a school-boy he translated the whole “ Medea” of Euripides into Latin verse.

In the year of the death of Queen Elizabeth, Hobbes, aged fifteen, went to Oxford and entered to Magdalene Hall. After five years of study there, he became, at the age of twenty, tutor to William Lord Cavendish, whose father, Lord Hardwicke was

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