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competence go down in history not as rebels but as revolutionists. The soldier or sailor who attempts rebellion must be prepared to accept the full penalty of failure. His act is one which is only justified by its success and the service that he renders.
The code for rebels who would be revolutionists is an inexorable one. It demands, first of all, the elimination of all self-seeking; it demands next the elimination of political chicanery; it demands further the elimination of personal hostility and vindictiveness. Without these things the motives of the rebel will be questioned and doubted and his own opportunity for any further usefulness destroyed.
The military and naval service has the right and duty to protect its morale and its organization from the disruptive egotism of self-seekers. Some of these facts appear to have been forgotten by the men who are calling for the reorganization of the Air Service in the American Army and Navy.
MERICA'S successful defense of
the Davis Cup was not unex
pected by the tennis world. The real surprise lay in the fact that it was the French team, and not the Australians, who were the challengers. Championship matches in hot weather have their effect on form, and undoubtedly, too, the Australian confidence had been somewhat upset by Richards and Williams in the doubles at Boston.
Borotra reached great heights in the round against the Antipodeans, in the course of which René La Coste was of little help. When it came to the challenge round, however, La Coste showed
William T. Tilden 2d, of the American defending team, and Jean Borotra, of the brilliant such tennis as he had not put on display
French team which provided the champions with the hottest of competition since Wimbledon. After some of his play at Boston one had expected some fine this way broke through it. Borotra did play at Boston, and the team was simply tennis from Borotra, but the gallery had the same thing, scoring ace after ace in unbeatable. about despaired of La Coste. Perhaps this way. The result was that Patterson It was the singles, as expected, that the greatest tennis of the season in a way lost his confidence, and so did his part- provided the dramatic features, with the was the utter ruin of Gerald Patterson's
ner, Hawkes, and the French won a result that the challenge round provided famous service, accomplished by Boro- surprising victory in the doubles. It ap- some wonderful tennis, despite the fact tra. The way for that had been prepared parently took too much out of them, that America took every match. William by Richards and Williams, and Borotra however, for when they came to the chal- T. Tilden 2d, the National champion, was quick to profit by the lead of the lenge round at Philadelphia they could found the Frenchmen the hardest pair to Americans. Richards and Williams not match either the stroking or the gen- meet he had encountered in some time, stood on or inside the base-line against eralship of Richards and Williams. Will- and proved, incidentally, that he was not the famous cannon-ball service, and in iams had improved, if anything, over his the great Tilden of even a year ago. In the matter of stamina he was hard put and improved after apparently having Church in the University of Edinburgh. to it to get through both Borotra and played himself out was one of the mar- It would be hard to name a trio from the La Coste, and against La Coste he was vels of the tournament. Tilden's play records of English literature who had signally outplayed and occasionally this year has shown that, while he is still clearer intellects in the realm of abstract almost ludicrously outgeneraled well into a great champion, he is no longer in a thought than these three men. No scienthe third set. The fact that he is un- class by himself. La Coste proved that tist, except possibly the Frenchman Pasdoubtedly the greatest stroke-maker in effectively. Just how near he came to teur, has ever done more for the assuagethe world pulled him through the long winning may be realized from the fact ment of pain than the Scottish physician match against Borotra, and at last that Tilden played one of the match- Sir James Simpson, who introduced, through the three-hour affair with La point returns of the Frenchman out of against the violent opposition of the Coste.
court, and it was not until the play was leading members of his profession, the In this match the twenty-year-old over and many had thought the French- use of anæsthetics in childbirth. He was French winner at Wimbledon flashed man a victor that the judge on the line of very humble origin, but was created a for well over two sets tennis as perfect called La Coste's ball out, thus saving baronet late in life. His social pretenas even Tilden had ever played at any Tilden. There is no question of the cor- sions, to which his birth did not wholly stage of his career. This is superlative rectness of the decision, but it was just entitle him, gave rise to some goodpraise, but it is earned. Tilden has his another of those unfortunately belated humored chaffing. own special style of generalship that is decisions that have been so frequent this To the foregoing roster of Scottish generally a puzzle to the highest ranking year.
names I would add, last but not least, of the other players. This time, how
So the United States is still supreme the name of James Boswell, the greatest ever, the French star turned on a gener- in tennis, and is likely to remain so for of all biographers. It is the fashion in alship of his own so nearly perfect that a long time to come. Good as are the some quarters to look down upon Bosthere were times when the champion was Australians, the French, the Spaniards, well as the meanest of his kind and to utterly bewildered. It was only the and the Japanese, there are only a few regard his achievement as a sort of acciquality of a real champion that has al- of them of the first flight, while this dent. The opinion of Carlyle (another ways marked Tilden's play that pulled country has a small army of youngsters
country has a small army of youngsters great Scotsman) seems to me to be. him through. Four times the French coming along--players who are apt to sounder: challenger was at match point, and four upset the leaders at any time. It is said Boswell was a person whose mean times Tilden brought off daring shots by that tennis runs more truly to form than or bad qualities lay open to the general way of rescue. ' Utterly exhausted, ap- any other game, and in the main this is eye; visible, palpable to the dullest.
... Unfortunately, on the other hand, parently, half-way through the match, true, but the younger element is close on
what great and genuine good lay in the American was compelled to stretch the heels of the leaders and likely to
him was nowise so self-evident. himself flat on the sod for a rest. That come through the best of them at any You may surround the iron and the he regained some of his strength later time.
magnet with what enclosures and encumbrances you please,—with wood, with rubbish, with brass: it matters not, the two feel each other, they will be together. The iron may be a Scot
tish squirelet, full of gulosity and By LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT
"gigmanity;" the magnet an English
plebeian, and moving rag-and-dust Contributing Editor of The Outlook
mountain, coarse, proud, irascible, imF you want to irritate a Scotchman, great British portrait painters. Sir Wal
perious; nevertheless, behold how call him a Scotchman. He insists ter Scott (unfashionable as it is, just at
they embrace, and inseparably cleave
to one another! It is one of the (and quite reasonably, for every the moment, to read him) easily heads
strangest phenomena of the past cenman is entitled to choose his own cogno- the list of historical novelists. Robert tury, that at a time when the old revmen) that he is either Scottish or a Scot Burns, whom Sir James Barrie calls "the erent feeling of Discipleship (such as or a Scotsman. He resents the adjective greatest Scotsman who ever lived,” has
brought men from far countries with
rich gifts, and prostrate soul to the Scotch (abbreviated by Englishmen and probably touched more hearts than any
feet of the prophets) had passed utAmericans from Scottish), which he be- other poet of all time, except, perhaps, terly away from men's practical exlieves has been imposed upon him by the David the Jew. Barrie himself has no perience, and was no longer surmised Sassenach to the south of him.
superior as a playwright of delicate to exist (as it does), perennial, indeAnd yet we must not let this trifling whimsy and imagination. Adam Smith,
structible, in man's inmost heart, orthographical hobby blind us to the fact whose “Wealth of Nations" will be read
James Boswell should have been the
individual of all others, predestined to that Scotland, with an area of 30,000 when more scientific treatises on political recall it, in such singular guise, to the square miles and with a population of economy are forgotten, was born in Fife- wondering, and for a long while, 5,000,000 (three-fifths the area and one- shire; David Hume, who has left a deep laughing and unrecognizing world. half the population of the State of New impress on English history and philoso- These comments on Scottish men of York), has produced some of the great phy, was born in Edinburgh; and John power have been suggested by another est names in the history of literature, Stuart Mill, the celebrated logician, was Scottish writer with whom I have just seience, and art. If I were a picture col- a Scot in character and spirit, for his renewed acquaintance. Some years ago lector, I should like to own a Raeburn, father, born in Forfarshire, the son of a a friend gave me a copy of a story the most engaging, to my mind, of all the Scottish shoemaker, was trained for the Scottish life and character, now !
John Galt and Some Other Scots
hundred years old, called “The Annals of his contributions to the development of sors of book making in general. A the Parish,” by John Galt, a Scottish Canada were unsuccessful, at least finan- mere literary man-an author by pro
fession-stands but low in my opinion. ''novelist of whom up to that time I had cially, unless there is reckoned as one of never heard. It delighted me. Lately I his contributions his son, Sir Alexander So it was with John Hay. Almost by found listed in a publisher's catalogue an Galt, who became one of the important force of circumstances he was a statesedition, published in Edinburgh, of an- and influential Canadian statesmen of man, and a good one too, but at heart he other of John Galt's novels, “The Prov- the middle of the last century.
was always a man of letters. Nevertheost" by name. It was equally delight- Galt's career, like that of William De less he did not want to be remembered ful. In speaking of these two stories to Morgan, is a curious illustration of the (as he will be) for his "Pike County a friend of mine, an American by choice fact that a man's avocation may some- Ballads,” and especially for the most and marriage, a Scot by birth, chief times prove to be the source of his fame, famous ballad of them all, “Little actuary of one of the great insurance and his chosen vocation, in which it was Breeches." I do not suppose it makes companies of New York City (and, by his ambition to shine, may be forgotten much difference to the spirit of George the way, insurance actuaries, who must by all others but himself. De Morgan Canning, Prime Minister of England, be men of mathematical precision and wished to be an artist, but he will always that I remember him, not as one of the wise reasoning powers, are very com- be remembered, if remembered at all, as promulgators of the Monroe Doctrine, monly of Scottish birth and education), a novelist. John Galt wished to be a and therefore one of the fathers of the I found that he also was an admirer of colonizer, a statesman, a leader of men, Panama Canal, but as the author of John Galt. He lent me a copy, in two but he will be remembered as the author “The Needy Knife Grinder." volumes, of Galt's autobiography, pub- of four or five novels which may fairly Forty or more years ago, about the lished in London in 1833.
take rank with Mrs. Gaskell's "Cran- time that the Wagnerian operas were beJohn Galt was born in Ayrshire, a few ford,” Miss Mitford's “Our Village," ing introduced in this country, George miles from the birthplace of Robert Miss Burney's “Evelina,” and some of M. Pullman had a competitor by the Burns and twenty years later than the Jane Austen's stories as delineations of name of Wagner who manufactured plowman-poet. Galt was a voluminous "small-town” life and character. The sleeping-cars and “palace-cars.” They writer from his early youth, but he Rev. Micah Balwhidder and Provost were widely known and used throughout wanted to be a business man. He estab- Pawkie are quite as lifelike as any of the country. One evening, so the story lished himself in London, but went into Sinclair Lewis's portraitures, and far goes, two Western railway executives bankruptcy. When nearly fifty years of more engaging, humorous, and genial. dropped into the Metropolitan Opera age, he was sent to America as secretary The pathetic thing about John Galt is House in New York, and in martyrdom and superintendent of the Canada Com- that his fame for I think that it may suffered one of the more esoteric of Richpany, which was founded for the agri- be said that his reputation among the ard Wagner's great music dramas—"Die cultural and mercantile exploitation of judicious is growing into fame-rests on Walkürie," perhaps, or “GötterdämmerCanada, in imitation of the historic East his past-mastership in a profession which ung.” Coming out, one of them reIndia Company, in which Charles Lamb he publicly disavowed in his autobiog- marked to the other, “Jim, I think that was one time a clerk. Galt's ambition Galt's ambition raphy:
man Wagner would have done better to appears to have been to make himself a
At no time, as I frankly confess she stick to sleeping-cars!” kind of Warren Hastings of Canada. says), have I been a great admirer of
After having read three of John Galt's But, although his ideas were prolific and
mere literary character; to tell the
five best novels and his own account of
truth, I have sometimes felt a little ingenious, and while he made many
his ventures in commerce and industry, I
shamefaced in thinking myself so novel suggestions, such as the cultivation
think he did well not to stick to business,
much an author, in consequence of the of cotton and tobacco on Canadian soil, estimation in which I view the profes
but to devote himself to literary art.
California and Her Diamond Jubilee
O you know where the real Cali- in the pines of the mighty mountains gold glow of the rising harvest moon, and
fornian is, the giant, the world while still searching for the golden fleece, beyond the bay the lights of the bay
builder? He is sitting by the do not forget that his life is an epic, cities, and beyond the lights of the bay trail, high up in the mountains. His noble as any handed down from out the cities the silent repose of the mountains eyes are dim and his head is white. His dusty eld. Some day a fitting poet will and the everlasting hills. sleeves are lowered. His pick and come, and then he will take his place It was these hills and these mountains shovel are by his side. His feet are among the heroes and the gods."
that set me thinking of Joaquin Miller weary and sore. He is still prospecting. This passage of Joaquin Miller came and the days and the people to whom he Pretty soon he will sink his last prospect to my thought with strange vividness the paid tribute. It all seemed so far away hole in the Sierras. Some younger men other evening as I sat at an open window and long ago, and yet, as time goes to will come along and lengthen it out a facing east, and looked down from the the making of history, it was little more little and lay him in his grave. The old- heights of Nob Hill over the city of San than yesterday. The story is indeed but · timer will have passed out to prospect Francisco, ablaze with light to celebrate a span long. Seventy-seven years or so the outcroppings that star the floors of California's Diamond Jubilee. Beyond ago, just before the onset of the gold heaven. And, though he may die there the city was the bay, catching the silver- rush, that spark in the powder-house
vada. Thousands died on those weary marches-died of hardship and toil, starvation and cold. Many of those who rode or walked in the parades through the city or looked on along the route could tell of fathers and mothers who had "crossed the plains.” Native sons and daughters there were by the thousands, adopted sons and daughters by the tens of thousands; pioneers there were, just a few—a few old men and old women, riding in queer little Old World Victorias. The cheer that greeted them was perhaps the loudest of them all.
On the great day, Wednesday, September 9, Admission Day, there rode with these pioneers in the great parade many notable people. General Dawes was
there in the forefront, and representaAdmission Day Parade, a feature of California's celebration of her
tives of Great Britain and France and entrance into the Union
Japan, and of many Powers, even of
Germany, followed after. And bands which produced one of the greatest race to gold as the source of her wealth. Be- played, and vast crowds reckoned well movements in history, San Francisco was neath the giant sky-scrapers of the lower over half a million cheered and cheered, no more than “a sleepy village on an city of San Francisco there lie the ribs and waved and waved, and climbed into almost vacant bay.” It knew the "Bos- and the beams and the iron keels of the doorways, and swarmed up lamp-posts, ton man" who came in his clipper ship abandoned ships, deserted on the mud- and mounted on fruit-boxes, and teetered round the Horn for his cargo of hides flats in the days of the gold rush and on step-ladders, and cheered and cheered and tallow, but, for the rest, it was well destined to form a foundation upon and waved again, and then came more content that the way of to-morrow which a great city was to arise—a city bands and more floats and Red Indians should be even as this day. As it was which drew its wealth, not from the gold and Spanish soldiers and Mexican bullwith San Francisco, so it was with the pan up in the mountains, but from mill- fighters and cowboys and cowgirls and whole of California; from the Mexican ions of acres of the richest land in all the drums and fifes, and every known tune border to the Oregon line it has practi- world made to bear fruit abundantly by from "Tea for Two” to “Waltz Me cally all come into being since then. the enterprise and resource of rancher Around Again, Willie.” And at night the Well, at first Joaquin Miller's looking and engineer, from oil wells and lumber
and engineer, from oil wells and lumber city and all around was a blaze of light, backwards appealed to me. That day I camps, from great machines set in mo- in the heavens above and on the earth had traversed the city in many direc- tion by the harnessing of many waters. beneath, and thousands flocked to see the tions. I had seen a great procession It all found typical expression in San famous Arch of Jewels in the Civic Cenmove up Market Street.beneath a flutter- Francisco and throughout the State in ter flashing in ever-changing colored ing cloud of flags and gay streamers; the Diamond Jubilee week. The San Fran- lights; and thousands more climbed the rich Spanish colors of red and green and ciscan is not so much given to superla- heights of Russian Hill or Nob Hill or gold were everywhere, and overhead the tives as is his brother in Los Angeles, but Telegraph Hill, or motored out to Twin cloudless blue of a Californian sky. I when it comes to California, he sees the Peaks, and, like Balaam from the top of had seen all the great wealth of power greatest and best everywhere, and no one Pisgah, looked out over the city and its and achievement of this great State go who knows him can blame him. And so hosts. And everywhere, even thus far by. From far and near men and women for one glorious week he spent himself in away, the air seemed to be filled with the had come with their wonderful moving telling himself and his neighbors and all sound of music or of distant cheering or tableaux, designed to show how man's the world how great things the idea that
the world how great things the idea that the undertone of many voices. inventive genius, courage, and patience is California, that is America, that is, in It was a strange and vivid experience; had here found their typical American the last test, the ideal of Anglo-Saxon but every now and again, amid it all, one expression. I felt sorry for the old- thought and hope, had done for him and came back to earth-or was it to heaven? timer. To be sure, he was honored in his. For that is, after all, what it —and looked up at the silent sky or over this endless procession which moved amounts to. California has been a boun- the still waters of the great bay or on to slowly up the great thoroughfare which teous mother, but she challenges her chil- the mountains and the everlasting hills, cuts a broad swath through the city from dren at every turn to the attainment of and so to the old-timer and to the bethe Ferry building to the Twin Peaks. I a higher standard. In all this last west- ginning of things. And it all seemed so had seen John Marshall in the act of ern movement of our race, which began near and yet such worlds away; so much finding the first gold at Coloma. Native three centuries ago, no greater barrier to already accomplished, but so much still sons and daughters had indeed labored progress was ever interposed than that to do; so much life everlasting, so much to do these pioneers honor. But still, which lay between the East and the world without end, so much-Amen. seventy-five years ago they were the West in the days of the covered wagon. But it would need Joaquin Miller's whole show; to-day they are no more After all the difficulties and dangers “fitting poet” to tell of it fittingly. It than a romantic memory.
attendant on the passage of the Rockies only remains for a humble journalist to California still produces more gold and the great desert places of what is record the fact that at California's Diathan any other State in the Union, but now Utah and Nevada there came the mond Jubilee "a pleasant time was ha! California has long since ceased to look huge amorphous bulk of the Sierra Ne
Correspondence from the League of Nations
By ELBERT FRANCIS BALDWIN
The Outlook's Editor in Europe THE thirty-fifth session of the Other questions follow. The Council particular, but on all together; it even
Council of the League of Na- refers most of them to the Assembly. depends on some of Austria's more distions has just opened.
This is not “passing the buck.” The tant neighbors. And, of course, no one Ten delegates form the Council. Four more diplomatic Council needs the opin- country feels inclined to lessen its degree are the representatives of the Permanent ion of the larger and more parliamentary of protection until convinced that all the Powers on the League—that is to say, body, with its representatives from fifty- rest will follow suit. This is the problem Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan. five nations, a body to meet here in a few before the Council-how to convince These delegates are, respectively, the tall, days. Then the subjects come back to them? It will be a stiff fight, and when austere, and determined-looking Austen the Council, and from its decisions no you read these lines the fight is likely to Chamberlain, British Foreign Minister; appeal may be taken.
be at its thickest, for it will take weeks the much shorter and dumpier but very The Assembly meets once a year; the
to settle the matter even approximately. shrewd Aristide Briand, French Foreign Council four times, for it regulates the Minister and many times Prime Minis- increasing numerous and complicated
How Big is Irak? ter; the scholarly, intellectual, and de- administrative questions and current tached Senator Scialoja, the eminent affairs. The agenda for its present ses- HE Mosul affair is more dramatic. Italian law authority; the lynx-eyed and sion comprise twenty-three subjects; for When England received a mandate altogether inscrutable Viscount Ishii, example: gas warfare; opium, slavery; to administer Irak, the Mosul territory at shortest of all and well known in Amer- the protection of children, in particular the north of that region and fairly comica because of his activity there at the the protection of women and children in pactly inhabited by Kurds was supposed time of the Lansing-Ishii Agreement. the Near East; the protection of minori- to be a part of Irak, the old Mesopo
Then come the six delegates from the ties in Greece, Turkey, Rumania, Lithu- tamia. But as soon as the new Turkey, Powers elected every year by the Assemania; the U. I. S., etc.
especially after having thrashed Greece, bly to representation on the Council. But there are two items on the agenda began to feel her oats she emphatically These, this year, are Belgium, Brazil, occasioning more talk than all the rest said "No" and carried the question into Czechoslovakia, Spain, Sweden, and put together-Austria and Mosul. the Conference of Lausanne. That ConUruguay. For Belgium appears Paul
ference could not solve it, and was reHymans, an alert, splitting-hairs kind of
The Plight of Austria
lieved when both parties to the discusperson, one of the sprightliest orators in
sion let it be understood that they would the League; he has represented his coun- THE
HE question of Austria is more than agree to arbitration by the League of try from the beginning, it always having ever uppermost, now that the Ger- Nations. The League appointed as membeen on the Council. For Brazil we have mans are making such a determined effort bers of a Commission to proceed to the this year Senhor de Mello-Franco, a. to add that remnant of the old Dual territory in question a delegate reprequieter personage with a sort of hope-I- Empire to their own dominions, and now senting the Entente Allies in the person don't-intrude air. For Czechoslovakia that many faint-hearted Austrians see of Colonel Paulis, a Belgian officer of we see the newest person in the group, economic salvation only in that direction. artillery; a delegate representing neutrals Dr. Veverka, representing Dr. Benes, As is well known, however, success has in the late war in the person of the SwedCzechoslovakian Foreign Minister, tem- attended the League's decision of 1922, ish Minister of State, Wirsen; and a porarily delayed. For Spain there is the largely engineered by Lord Balfour and delegate representing the Central Powers inevitable portly and impressive Señor Sir Arthur Salter, to put Austria on her in the person of Count Teleki, ex-Prime Quiñones de León, Spanish Ambassador economic feet. This effort involved a Minister of Hungary, a man of proat Paris. For Sweden there is the foreign loan and radical internal reforms. Turanian sympathies. younger, slighter, and much
more In the main the Austrian Government, The Commissioners became convinced thoughtful-looking Dr. Unden, taking under the sagacious leadership of Chan- of the insuperable practical difficulties of the place of the lamented Hjalmar cellor Seipel and now of Chancellor a plebiscite taken among essentially Branting
Ramek, has well weathered the storm. nomad populations, but declared that the M. Briand is presiding. Signor Scia- But it has involved a lot of internal fric- populations should not be partitioned. loja is speaking. In clear and precise tion, much of which has come from the The sentiments of the majority of the intones he outlines the mission of the In- mutual jealousy existing between the habitants seemed to favor uniting with ternational Aid Union, now popularly capital, Vienna, and the provinces; some Irak the territory south of the provisional known as the U. I. S. (l'Union Interna- has also come from racial and mere party line laid down by the League Council last tionale de Secours), a noble endeavor, feeling. The League appointed two October, showing the limits of the terrisuggested by the Italian Senator Ciraolo, agents, MM. Layton and Rist, to go to tory which might be occupied by either to supplement the Red Cross in helping Austria to report on the economic situa- side until a definite decision was reached. populations suffering from calamity. tion. To them, as to every one, it is Here, it might be expected, the Commis
Dr. Unden follows Senator Scialoja, clear that Austria cannot exist economi- sioners would sum up in favor of Great and presents a series of interesting sug- cally unless Austria's neighbors and Aus- Britain. Not so. Irak, they say, is in gestions relative to the abolition of tria herself let down the protectionist a very unstable condition as compared slavery in the hidden places where it still bars. Of course, the solution of the with Turkey; hence "the territory must exists.
problem depends on no one country in remain under the effective mandate of