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areas eastward to the Atlantic seaboard Pacific or the Canadian National. Old riveters, building millions of dollars’ is ebbing and the flood tide of transpor- distributing centers, upset by the change,

distributing centers, upset by the change, worth of docks, elevators, and waretation setting in strong towards the are beginning to turn to manufacturing houses, advertise the growing port more adolescent ports of the Pacific. The big industries, and in the inevitable readjust- impressively than the printed or the boom in shipping due to the war, the ment several communities are weathering spoken proud words of Boards of Trade realization of new markets in the Orient some comparatively hard—but eventu- and Publicity Bureaus. These and other and Latin America, and, above all, the ally healthy-times.

factors in the hearty commercial and waking up of long-haul shippers to the In 1924 Vancouver shipped 55,873, economic thriving of British Columbiaadvantages of the Panama Canal are 788 bushels of wheat and 936,033 bar- no mention of mines and lumber, fishbringing about something like an eco- rels of Canadian-milled flour, mostly to eries and agriculture provide an adenomic revolution in Alberta and Sas- the United Kingdom and the Orient. quate justification in fact for a grateful katchewan, Manitoba, and the North- Shipments of that size and character state of mind. But it is the conviction west States. The effect of the change is have called into existence during the of one uncommercial traveler that, even felt severely as far east as Winnipeg and same period a gross shipping tonnage of without these material evidences of a Duluth. Practically all of Alberta's 14,473,518, over a million tons in excess beneficent Providence, Vancouver and grain and cattle move west now over the of the figures for 1923! A chorus of Victoria would go right on saying grades of the Rockies by the Canadian pile-drivers, concrete-mixers, and steel

pile-drivers, concrete-mixers, and steel. “K'you!” just the same.

Southeastern Europe in Resurgence

By Louis E. VAN NORMAN

W

create wealth

. They do not even pre. E

E who have been fortunate even the Russian masses themselves have although Bulgaria even now occasionally enough to grow up in the begun to sense it dimly.

has a new spell. United States sometimes We who have watched the working of The leaders who are at the front in seem to have short memories. It took the Bolshevik experiment in Soviet Rus- these countries are more practical men the new American democracy-on the sia from near by have had no illusions as than formerly, more rational. They are whole, a rather homogeneous unit and to its meaning. No amount of horror no longer the emotional leaders of early with a high moral background-some at the old régime, no honest sympathy post-war days, warped by years of broodthirteen years after its Declaration of with the efforts of a real people's repub- ing over ancient wrongs. Independence to adopt a Constitution, lic, have blinded us to the facts. Work

The Peasants' New Leaders and one point of difference over that fa- ers, without skilled direction, do not mous instrument was not settled without

XTRAORDINARILY interesting it is to blood and tears for more than half a serve it. The new extreme radicalism as watch the sure, if slow, peasant century. We are apt to forget this in exemplified in Russia was hailed as a mentality of southeastern Europe as it criticising the Europe of to-day.

paradise in practice, first of all, for the awakes to the necessity for leadership, for It is now a little more than six years

industrial workers. But let us face re- intelligent direction and guidance in matsince the Armistice put an end to alities. If every industrial establishment ters that affect its own welfare. The the official" fighting of the Great War. in the United States from, let us say, the peasant in these countries has now That is not very long. But time has United States Steel Corporation down to learned that the larger land holdings and already begun to show its curative power, the smallest home factory on any side the freedom to roam where he will have and this power has induced the changed street in any American city, should pass not brought the salvation of which he mental attitude necessary for Europe's overnight from the experienced manage- dreamed. A new line of thought and achealing.

ment which had made its successful op- tion is necessary. Not more land, but

eration possible under the control of the better cultivation of the land already in The Hard School of Bolshevism

hired hands themselves, if the employees his hands—that is the pressing need. In EALTH,

chosen for direction were selected not by short, what he must have is not extenthings materially desirable and virtue of their skill or fitness for the task sion, but intensification of his economic the opportunity to pursue intellectual before them but because of their loyalty situation. He must have intelligent leadambitions, has always been the product to the political party in power, if the ership, brains. of brains.

motto “Workers of the World, Unite,” He is still very suspicious of the townsConversely, labor is productive only meant (as it has meant in Russia) man, for he believes that this city dwelie as it is guided by intelligence.

"unite" for anything but work, we should is living at his—the landsman's-exThis is the lesson which the people of begin to have an idea of what Bolshevism pense. But the land worker himself is eastern Europe are learning from the ex- has done industrially for the Russian gradually increasing his wants. He is betraordinary events which have taken people. This the Russian folk them- coming a consumer of many things which place during the past six years in what selves have begun to understand.

in former years he never thought of or, was formerly known as Russia. It has An indirect effort to do the same thing perhaps, even never knew existed. been a hard lesson to learn. The evi- took place in Italy, but the Italian work- Perhaps as yet sufficient stress has not dence, however, is all to the effect that man himself saw the light. There have been laid upon the meaning of the plight it is being learned, from Finland to Tur- been hankerings after this extraordinary of the hundred million human beings and key, all along the frontier of Soviet ter- negation of progress in other European their wants and aims in the new counritory, from the Baltic to the Adriatic countries, but not for long. The fever tries growing out of the war, those lands and the Black Seas. It would seem that in the Balkans has probably quite passed through which the Danube flows.

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Down to the time of the war this ter- ernments of the eastern half of the Con- broad general lines what he has just atritory (with Russia) was the granary tinent to follow out these praiseworthy tempted to set forth. of Europe. In normal times both Poland injunctions realize that up to the present The old Rumania was, generally and Rumania could feed their popula- their failure has not been wholly due to speaking, the alluvial valley of the tions and still have a surplus for export. lack of either earnest desire or honest Danube-a western extension, as it were, Moreover, the non-food-producing and effort. The reason for failure is to be of the famous “Black Lands” of Russia. densely populated industrial areas of found very largely in a combination of The new Rumania is bisected by the Germany and Austria are so close at conditions-economic, political, financial, Carpathians, or Transylvanian Alps, hand thai there never should be any lack social—utterly beyond

social-utterly beyond the power of which form the southern rim of what of a market. Realizing this, even the these governments to overcome without used to be known as the Hungarian most radical advocates of these agrarian outside assistance.

basin, one of nature's most bountiful reforms have always insisted that changes The Finance Ministers of these new granaries. in landownership be effected with a view nations are not stupid. Many of them One eminent Rumanian historian and to increasing, not diminishing, produc- are more than ordinarily intelligent and author (perhaps humorously) has tion.

capable men. They realize only too well claimed that Rumania is an island, Even when these countries "come the magnitude of the task before them, bounded on all sides by water—the rivers back" with agricultural production into and are putting forth Herculean efforts Dniester, Tisza, and Danube, and the the markets the world on the old to accomplish it. More. They are ac- Black Sea. The political boundary on scale-as they most certainly will in the complishing it, slowly, with many mis- the west does not actually coincide with not far distant future—the effect of their takes and (it must be admitted) a good the Tisza, but the comparison is not a competition as food producers on the in- deal of apparently unnecessary interfer- wholly misleading one. uustrial countries will most assuredly be ence with the workings of sound econo- The historians tell us that at the time lessened by their stimulated, increased mic laws, but in the end achieving. It the Romans arrived the land which is consumption of manufactured goods. is being perceived that the time and en- now Rumania was inhabited by a peo

Even the problem of finance, that ergy heretofore spent in fighting the ple exclusively pastoral, and that later black beast of all post-war periods since other fellow might be utilized much more these herdsmen were driven into the history began, is gradually losing its ter- profitably in co-operating with him for mountains by the succeeding wave of rors. Americans are accustomed to mutual advantage.

barbarians from the East. Bucur, the blame the Finance Ministers of Europe

shepherd, who-according to traditionbecause they do not pay their debts, cut

The Islandof Rumania

gave his name to Bucharest, was a typiexpenditures, disband their armies, tax ERE in Rumania the writer, who cal Rumanian of the country's infant more heavily, and "balance their budg- knows this land and its people bet- days. ets." Those of us who at close range ter than he knows the other lands of this As time went on, Rumania hes have watched the struggles of the gov- part of the world, finds exemplified in more and more agricultural, in

HE

chiefly in cereals. When the Great War themselves as Rumanian and going east- American passports (properly viséd) evibroke out, the old Rumania was so pre- ward, instead of westward, to their logi- dently did not suffice to allay suspicions dominantly agricultural that nearly nine- cal seaboard outlets at Galatz, Braila, at that time and place. tenths of its population were engaged in and Constantza.

My letters from Bratianu-"happy growing grain. So generous had nature

thought"! After reading them, the cusA Cap of Fleece in the Moonlight toms man, addressing the semicircle of been that the Rumanians could live on a

forty per cent crop, and send sixty The writer's introduction to the pas motley soldiery, informed them (soa!

in

) The natural economic evolution of the manian peasant's respect for forcible of Rumania, that the great Bratianu in human race is working out in Rumania- leadership was in March, 1919, and this Paris vouched for us, that they must from herdsman to farmer, from farmer age was symbolized by one of the Ru

show us every consideration, and that if to industrialist. With the acquisition of manian caciulas (chapeau de mouton) or they even demanded backsheesh from Transylvania and the Banat of Temes- sheepskin caps which, in the picturesque us woe betide them! var, the negligible industrial capacity of descriptive phraseology of my Irish sec- The effect of this harangue was magithe old Rumania was very considerably retary, resembles nothing so much as a cal. Benignity replaced belligerency on increased. To the oil, lumber, and salt bouquet of cold-slaw.

the faces of the pirate crew. Somehow, riches of the old Kingdom were added We reached Rumanian soil by boat from somewhere, they produced two trathe metallurgical and textile resources journey down the Danube from Belgrade suras (Rumanian carriages), assisted us and equipment of Transylvania and to Turnu-Severin. We carried with us

to get in one and put our luggage in the Bukowina. There are in these new prov- letters from Premier Ioan Bratianu other, and, accepting nothing except a inces coal and iron in fairly close prox- (whom I had met in Paris) to his brother few cigarettes, transported us up the hill imity to each other. There is in the Vintila, then a private citizen, now Min- in a manner that might have befitted old mountains a considerable amount of un- ister of Finance.

Trajan himself. The cabman even dedeveloped water power.

These facts, It was a perfectly gorgeous moonlight clined any fee. It was all but a Roman considered in relation to the large sup- Sunday night at nine o'clock when the triumph. plies of oil and gas, indicate attractive panting, laboring boat drew up at the At the hotel the proprietor gravely infuture possibilities for industry.

wharf of Turnu-Severin. We were the formed us that the Rumanian masses alDown to 1867 the Rumanian peasant only passengers for the stop, and were ways trust leaders "who can think.” The --practically a serf and chained to the whisked off the boat in what seemed a great Bratianu was thinking for them in soil—could not move freely enough to second. Almost before we knew what Paris, and they respected any one he work in a factory. The early days of had happened we were on the dock with recommended. industry in Rumania furnish material for

our luggage--three trunks and a boxed romance. Sixty years ago, for example typewriter-and we could see the boat Linking up the Balkans (as one of the oldest inhabitants tells the gliding away across the river in that ex- D"

IFFICULT as it may be to believe, writer), there were in the country only quisite moonlight.

while the newspapers are still spillthree factories one for making tallow We looked up at the gently rising shore ing oceans of ink in telling us of the candles, one distillery, and one flour where the town began. It was like a wrongs, injustices, prejudices, and paganmill. Then it was the custom for the

scene out of grand opera—the marble- ism of the war-torn old Continent lands, merchants of Bucharest to make semi- columned custom-house, the snow-white it is nevertheless a fact that the convicannual trips to western or central west- residences stretching up the hill, and the tion is slowly forcing itself upon the ern Europe for their goods. It was their boat slipping across the river in that soft European mind that national safety does custom—a party of six or eight of them light. No human being was in sight. It not depend upon the suppression, or op-to start out from Galatz, Braila, or was beautiful but weird.

pression, of others, and that national welBucharest in a carutza (somewhat like Then suddenly, as though out of the fare can be built up with some regard the old time "diligence"), which they earth at my feet, arose a strange form for the welfare of one's neighbors. bought outright, and journey for eight with a high Rumanian cap of fleece. With Political and economic conditions in days to Brasov (then Kronstadt in Hun- a cruelly long and needlelike bayonet Europe are as yet far from what was gary), where there was railroad connec- leveled at my chest, this being jabbered hoped for or justifiably might have been tion. There they usually sold the carut- at me in an unknown tongue. I hastened hoped for six years after the close of the za, and when they returned they bought to assure him politely but firmly that I war. Measured by the point to which another for the journey to Bucharest. It was not the guilty one. Then another they are tending, these countries east of is significant to note the fact that at form, also surmounted by a cold-slaw Vienna have not gone very far. Judged, least a proportion-and a growing pro- cap, came up out of the ground, with a however, by the distance they have covportion of the goods these merchants stiletto it seemed. Then another, and ered since the starting-point, they have journeyed abroad to purchase at that still another, until we were surrounded made—if one is to be quite fair an in time is now being made in the new Ru- by a dozen or more of the most tatterde- scientific—some really remarkable progmania.

malion banditti that ever wrecked a train ress. In the face of enormous difficulties and or scuttled a ship. Bayonets, knives, In most of these new states growing discouragements, the transportation sys- poniards, ancient rifles — they were out of the war, in the new economic as tems of the country, both land and armed, almost literally, to the teeth. well as in the new political units, there water, are adjusting themselves to the Hostility in suspense was their attitude were problems most intricate and irritatneeds of the Rumanian people. The towards us.

ing growing out of different business routes of trade are slowly changing. My secretary flew off to find some one practices, differing codes of laws, differMany of the products of Transylvanian who could speak some language we knew. ent social, political, and economic ideas, mills-notably timber—which formerly He returned in a few moments—it railroad systems built on different plans flowed along the old Hungarian railroad seemed hours to me—with a polite cus- and with different aims, and many other lines to Budapest and reached the sea at toms official, who questioned us in French widely conflicting social, political, and Trieste and Fiume, are now refinding as to

as to our business and credentials. economic conceptions. In all these re

spects there has been considerable improvement. There is not quite so much nationalistic sputtering at the frontier lines as there was six years ago. The passport and customs examination nuisances still continue, but have been somewhat softened. Telephone connection is now in working order between the principal capitals of southeastern Europe and tariff tangles are being smoothed out. Direct through trains are increasing in number, and aviation is linking up the Balkans with the West.

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THERE

Vinland was forgotten when Columbus “discovered

the New World”

A Dawes Plan for Every Nation

"HERE are still millions of Europeans

who firmly believe that no salvation can come for their muddled and prostrate Continent except from America. This belief is just as firmly shared by many Americans. Rightly or wrongly, wisely or unwisely, a very large section of mankind believes that America must and will "save" Europe. Europe, however, is beginning to realize that she must do something for herself, and that it is not by corruptible things, such as silver and gold, that she can be redeemed. As an English writer recently put it: "It is her hatreds, her prejudices, her petty pride, her paganism, and her infantile sense of geography that she must surrender. When she repents, she will be saved, and not until then.”

The Dawes Plan, the first expression of American active, practical participation in the "saving” of Europe, has aided Europe a good deal along this line. Psychologically, the older Continent was in a bad way until this plan was put into operation. Now, not only is there an actual Dawes Plan at work between Germany and her former enemies on the field of battle, but every little new nation of the Continent is working for a Dawes Plan of its own.

The stabilization of the European economic situation will not only result in a revival of world trade (which in itself cannot fail to be of interest to Americans), but it will settle the economic mind of the older Continent—and that is what the older Continent needs. In the long run, political and economic staBity in Europe, reinforced by this more

rational state of mind which has already ! begun to show itself, will bring with it

a rise in thinking and living standards all over the world, and this will make for peace and normal intercourse, and thereby for the restoration of a demand on our national productive capacity upon which millions of our American people depend for material prosperity. The new peace and international intercourse, finally, will be a more intelligent peace and intercourse than formerly. The world has been through the fire.

West-West to Ice. The advance of civililand-West to Greenland zation is dependent on -West to Frisland to the ability of man to put Vinland, with its gentle down his progress for cline, its grapes, its fer- others to use. For more tile soil! Such was the than half a century it has path of the Vikings to been the proud, inspiring America and New Eng- work of RAND MCNALLY land five hundred years & COMPANY to compile before Columbus touched information of all the San Salvador. When these varying activities of man settlements disappeared, and to present it in conVinland became forgot. venient and attractive ten-became a myth like form for home and busiAtlantis.

ness use-official auto Had the Vikings con

trails maps, mileage maps, ceived the idea of map

radio maps, city guides, ping the course of their commercial maps, histravels, the history of the torical maps, biblical world might have been maps, atlases, globes. different. Then others You will find that they could have followed them are always most reasonto the land that lay wait. ably priced. For sale at ing with its promise of all leading bookstores liberty and wealth.

and stationers.

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Edited by EDMUND PEARSON

He was wrong.

The book proved Comedy and Melodrama

popular in England, and this edition con

tains a sober preface to American readNovels Reviewed by H. W. BOYNTON

ers. Here the main theme of the book OODAB”' is a brilliant young current of satire upon Anglo-British rela- is defined as "the influence of emotion

study of pathetic middle age. tions. The young American millionaire on inanimate things and the survival of

Poor dear Henry Doodab is the who seems such an easy mark at Oxford passion after its agonists have passed well-known fellow of brilliant (if vague) is given his full innings before the game away." These stories, in short, deal possibilities and of dull certitudes. Our is over. An agreeable performance,

with an old church which is more or less industrial system has snared him and witty and kind.

tangibly haunted for one person, the inour institution of marriage has bound A lighter and more rollicking bit of cumbent priest, with the presences and him hand and foot. His wife is a busy British comedy is “Mischief,” by Ben

memories of his predecessors. (A simifool. His daughter is beyond his com- Travers, the new English humorist whom lar theme has just been treated in that prehension. They talk, however, like two William McFee discovered for us not

striking first novel “The Rector of books by the same author. When he says long ago. This is much the best of his Maliseet," by Leslie Reid.) to his daughter (apropos of her compla- four novels. The fun is mellower and

Lovers of the fiction of romantic and cently acknowledged unchastity), "One the action more spontaneous, and we are

exotic adventure know what to expect of morally judges an action by the intent, too much amused all round to keep Henry Milner Rideout. He began as a not the result,” Luella responds: "My thinking, "Well, this man is being fun- realist, and a mighty good one, in the dear Dab, such antiquated ethics. Why, ny!" Be it frankly admitted that the days when Howells set the standard for your great-grandfather probably listened humor is of the broad "Charley's Aunt”

American practitioners. You had to at his mother's bustle to the adage about style, with a plenitude or even plethora know how to write then, and Mr. Ridehell's pavements, which, if I am not mis- of improper situations; the fact remains out didn't forget the art in turning defitaken, your favorite William James that there is nothing in it to shock this nitely (I still wonder why) to romance. brought up to date and made fashionable well-cooked generation of novel readers

“Dulcarnon” is one of his best advenunder the name of pragmatism." and theater-goers. The performance

tures in the fairyland of the Orient, Doodab's only satisfying experience is may be vulgar, but you don't snigger which still has plenty of romantic in a fantastic world of dream, a sort of over it; you laugh from the bottom of glamour and more tangible loot for those parti-colored monkey paradise where his your diaphragm--if your constitution who can find. One thing, rather refreshsubconscious or subliminal self (I sup- happens to be robust enough to relish the ing, I note about this action; there isn't pose) has no end of rather maudlin fun. performance at all. Remember, delicate a woman in it, really in it, from first to Well, Doodab loses his job, leaves home, reader, that your grandmother used to last. A man's yarn, sufficient to itself, and tries to "be himself,” and failing, cry with laughter over "Josiah Allen's

with its feats of mind and muscle, its leaps at a freight engine which he imag- Wife.”

disguises and ciphers and ancient palaces ines to be a creature of the monster of “Bindon Parva,"by George A. Bir

and hidden treasure; this last the treashis private jungle; and that is the end of mingham. We open the book with joy, ure of the Great Alexander, no less! Doodab. Pathos, or bathos, of the hu- looking for some new piece of spoofing Ek rupia sub-log ki wasti,as the fellow man misfit.

by the irrepressible Canon. Not this says on page 75. "Peter Vacuum” is a young study of time. The dedicatory letter to the au

"Mellowing Money," by Francis youth which, for an agreeable change, thor's wife at once prepares us for some

Lynde, is a readable story with too good keeps to the plane of romantic comedy. thing different from this well-known

a moral. At least the moral, or idea, is These young people are foolish but not hand. Canon Hannay has attempted

too insistent. The author keeps rubbing loathsome; and this I suspect to be a that most difficult feat for an accepted in his grand truth; to wit, that while fairly normal situation, current literature humorist-a serious book. Jerome sudden wealth is supposed to ruin a man, to the contrary. Anthony Gibbs (son of Jerome never got away from “Three it may sometimes work the other way. Sir Philip) endears himself to us in this Men in a Boat.” Mark Twain's later

The man of this tale is a sad case-a first novel by believing in us--that is, in melancholy was lost upon his twinkling youth of breeding and talent who goes to the inherent decency of the human na- audience. The present dedication has to pieces after the war and becomes a typiture which is our one common and in- be in some sense an apology. "Very

cal hobo. Chance strands him in his alienable possession. Not much can be likely I shall lose my friends by offering native town, where fate picks up the said for the Earl of the piece, but we all them these stories. Those who used to

pieces of him and begins to build them know what an earl is. The rest of these like to laugh with me will be disap together—with the aid of a girl, of amusing companions grow steadily on us pointed; and very solemn people will not

course. The romantic-didactic kind of from the beginning, even Lord Bertie, be able to shake off the contempt they thing, for whomever it may concern. who is unpromising enough to start with, have always felt for me. So it seems

I am disappointed and puzzled by in all conscience. What looks like under- likely that no one will read these stories

“The Kenworthys. The author, Margraduate farce turns into a pleasant except you.”

garet Wilson, wrote “The Able Mcromantic comedy, with a salutary under

5 Dulcarnon. By Henry Milner Rideout. 3 Mischief. By Ben Travers. Doubleday, Duffield & Co., New York. $2. 1 Doodab. By Harold A. Loeb. Boni & Page & Co., New York. $2.

& Mellowing Money. By Francis Lynde. Liveright, New York. $2.

By George A. Birming- Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $2. Peter Vacuum. By Anthony Gibbs. ham. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indian- * The Kenworthys. By Margaret Wilson. Lincoln MacVeagh, New York. $2. apolis. $2.

Harper & Brothers, New York, $2.

Bindon Parva.

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