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needed the improved and particular ap- Money needed for new airplanes is di- General Mitchell in a letter to the pliances, they were unable to procure verted by the War Department to the Congressional committee last February them without the approval of their mas- cavalry or artillery, and the aviators stated: ters—masters who were absolutely igno- must continue risking their lives in anti

Knowing full well the probable conrant of their value and their necessity. quated and obsolescent aircraft.

sequences of disagreement with the When exceilent ideas for improved air- Vacancies in the Air Service caused by existing agencies of the Government, I plane guns were invented by pilots, their the excessive deaths in this occupation have advised the officers of the Air recommendations went unheeded. Pilots were sought to be filled with non-flying Service to take no part in this discusknew nothing about ordnance; the ord- officers from the cavalry or artillery. Year sion, and let me assume all responsinance experts in Washington knew noth- after year the aviators have pleaded

bility. Our first responsibility lies to ing about airplanes and their arming; and protested, but to no advantage.

the United States, and not to any

agency of the Government alone. between these two stools the whole prob- Their masters are not sympathetically inlem of arming aircraft for their greater clined toward aviation. They are vet- Thus it is that the former Assistant destructiveness fell to the ground.

erans of the cavalry or artillery or infan- Chief of the Air Service finds himself the Since the Armistice the airmen com- try. These are their old loves and their conspicuous champion of the Fourth Arm missioned by our Government to protect first concern. The cavalry of the United of Warfare as against the veteran arms the Nation against attack from the air States to-day exceeds in number the air which control our military and naval have found themselves still hampered by force. And yet no reasonable excuse can establishments. this conservative and injurious attitude be provided for maintaining a cavalry In a later article we shall discuss the of their masters. The aviators are young force whose usefulness has been super- position of the Navy on this question, men. The masters of their destinies are seded by the airplane and the motor and try to ascertain just what the aviasoldiers and sailors of the old school. cycle.

tors want.

Why Not Parachutes for Dirigibles ?


A civilian observer asks for life-preservers for the sailors of the air. Colonel
Paegelow, head of the school for airship navigation at Scott Field, confirms
this opinion by saying that he would court-martial any one who either

went up himself or sent up another in an airship without a parachute V all the master written about the

cells were inspected and repaired, new Starr was asked what happened when a wreck of the shenandoah, there has equipment was added. Everything was parachute failed to open, he replied that probably not be an a single reference tested. Nothing that needed attention a parachute of the type he was using had

was overlooked. This long delay in to parachutes. It is the tragedy of the

never been known to fail to open. The death toll that has so 2 orrified the pub preparation cost the writer his flight; but thing was as nearly fool-proof as anylic, and not the property , 'oss represented it gave him an unusual opportunity for thing human can be. by the two or three million dollars sunk inspection and examination. The only So great is the confidence of Starr and in the Shenandoah. The pu.

Klic believes way in which the Shenandoah seemed Ford in parachutes that they think noththat such a disaster could no

have oc

incomplete was in the matter of para- ing of stepping off the wings of a flyingcurred without carelessness an d negli- chutes. A member of the crew said there machine in midair. Starr has jumped gence, If there are to be more flying- were two parachutes on the ship. There something like sixty times and Ford only ships, the public wants the men whisail were forty-three men on the Shenandoah a few times less. Neither has ever been them to be as safe as it is possible to when she collapsed.

injured. They make a practice of jumpmake them. It is pertinent to inquir

One could not but think of this omis- ing at least once a month. then, whether parachutes might not be a

sion because only a few hundred yards Starr, at least, is married. He has

from the Shenandoah's hangar paravery proper part of a dirigible's equip

two children. When asked why he was ment,

rutes were being tested daily. A kite willing to risk his life, he said, with a The charge that there was negligence bal

'oon was flown at an elevation of a smile: “I am not risking my life. There and carelessness is groundless. Every thousand feet, and Chief Aviation Rig

thous and feet, and Chief Aviation Rig- is practically no risk in using a parathing that could be done to have the gers Si arr and Ford, the Navy's para- chute, provided you are up high enough Shenandoah in perfect condition was chute en verts, were daily dropping from when you jump. It takes a few seconds done. The writer was to have been a this balloo n dummies carrying various for the parachute to work. I make parapassenger on the Shenandoah on the very weights to determine the strength of the

chute jumps because I am supposed to last flight she made before her final, fatal “chutes.” The 'weights varied from 100 teach the Navy how to use parachutes. voyage. For almost three weeks after to 800 pounds.

The heavier burdens I am trying to 'sell' the parachute to the the suggested date for arrival the writer tore the parachute to shreds. But loads Navy. All fliers ought to be interested waited at the Lakehurst naval air station, of less than 400 pou.

nds failed to rip the in parachutes, because the parachute is while one additional thing after another fine silk fabric, and the dummies came to the thing, and the only thing, that at was done to make the ship absolutely earth gently.

times will save the life of the aviator." perfect in her preparation. The engines It was impossible to see

"hese tests and Realizing what a parachute may me were taken down and tuned up, the gas not believe in parachutes. Vhen Chief to a flier, it is quite natural form

[graphic][merged small]

For one

think that parachutes ought to be a part shall never really know whether those ex- pened, and it may happen in some subof the equipment of a dirigible, even as planations are correct or not.

sequent like disaster, that men so sitlife-belts are of a ship. Before the Shen- thing, how is it possible to tell whether uated could not bring the hull to earth andoah collapsed we Americans were some of the injuries were sustained in safely. What then? Ought not they to coming to have considerable confidence air, or when the ship crashed on the have a chance for life? in these lighter-than-air craft. The earth?

So far as the average observer can see, Shenandoah and the Los Angeles had But whether the investigators are able everything that can be done to make flown for many days and logged many really to learn the truth about the dis- these daughters of the stars safe has been thousands of miles. They had bested aster, or whether they fail to discover the done. Nothing is overlooked. Yet the very hard storms. They seemed pretty exact causes of the tragedy, we have stanchest craft that man can make may trustworthy. Yet there are many weak always this question to answer: Ought collapse. The Titanic went down on her points about a dirigible.

not Navy men in the air to have as good maiden voyage—and she was the last Always there is the danger of fire. a chance to save their lives as Navy men word in safety preparations—but her There are wood, fabric, and gasoline in at sea have?

crews and her passengers were not left a dirigible. The outer covering of a Probably parachutes would have been helpless. They had boats and life-belts. dirigible is laced tight and then shrunk of little use to the men in the control car Airships have gone down, and airships to the duralumin frame by painting the of the Shenandoah. Yet if any man in will go down in the future, no matter how cloth with “nitrate dope," as it is called. that cabin had had a parachute on at the much men may strengthen them. And This is highly inflammable. And, moment the cabin broke away from the when they do, what of the men in them? although the volatile materials disappear ship he would have had only to get out- How to save the aviators ought to be as soon, the cover itself remains inflamma- side of that cabin and pull his rip cord, important a question as how to make the ble. It might get afire in many ways. and he would almost surely have been airships safer. A condenser might blaze up there are saved—if he could have got out quick Especially is this the case since these wooden strips between the layers of enough. By good fortune, the men on men are doing something for the rest of metal pipes in the device--and the flames the larger section of the hull got to earth us, are performing service for mankind in would be immediately under the belly of safely. But it might very well have hap- pioneering. Fine, brave men were those the great airship. The gasoline stove on

men on the Shenandoah. Some of them which the crew's food is heated during

were as much interested in the developflights may flare back and start a fire.

ment of lighter-than-air navigation as Such a fire contiguous to the control car

that very fine officer, Lieutenant Houghmight put all the control devices out of

ton, who was in the Shenandoah control commission. Always there is the possi

cabin when it fell. He showed me this bility that the ship might buckle-as the

ship with all the enthusiasm of a youngShenandoah finally did. In fact, there

ster exhibiting his first invention. are various possibilities in the way of

“Do you really like flying?" I asked tragedy, including lightning.

him. And if one of these possibilities be

"I wouldn't trade my job,” he replied, came a reality, what then? Suppose the

"for any job on earth.' ship caught fire in midair and the flames

Commander Lansdowne was another got beyond control, and there was not

fine gentleman and a lover of his job. time left to get the ship to earth before

He had the entire respect and loyalty of the collapse came. What then? What

his crew. Radio Chief George Schnitzer about the forty helpless men on board of

was a most able radio man-one of keen her? When a ship founders at sea, her

mind and resourcefulness. So you could crew have lifeboats, rafts, and life-belts

go through the entire crew. They were as a last resort. Ought not sailors on a

able, picked men. They were among the dirigible to have at least an equal

best of their kinds that the Navy poschance?

sessed. In their loss the Navy has lost We have had an investigation of the

-and a parachute that might have

not merely so many lieutenants, or Shenandoah tragedy, and some explana- saved the lives of some of its gallant mechanics, or radio men; it has lost tions. We shall have more.

picked men of those grades. If the life of even only one of these men could have ways-on land, or sea, or in the air- dirigibles? It would be well for us, in been saved by a parachute, ought not there is danger of fire. It is no secret considering our future aviation service, to that one to have had a chance?

crew who died

But we

that the Shenandoah was twice on fire. remember that Chief Starr thinks nothAnd ought not the flying-man of the In the future fire will start on other ing of stepping from an airship half a future to have a chance? Perhaps it will dirigibles.

mile in air. Why not stow an adequate never be possible to build a dirigible that When a dirigible comes to the end of number of parachutes on our dirigibles, is proof against a tornado. The history her rope, what then? What of the men even if they do weigh something, so that of the Shenandoah shows that it is not who sail her? Are they to die, like rats when our flying-men in the future come always possible to dodge such storms. in a hole, because parachutes have to a point where they simply have to No more can dirigibles forever hope to weight? Is loss of lifting power or safety step off into space, they will have someescape the lightning's thrust. And al- to be the determining factor in equipping thing to bring them down safely?

The Stockholm Conference


Chairman of the American Section and Joint President of the Conference
The story of a great religious conference which searched for reality


OLEMNITY and splendor marked eighteen in the British Empire, forty- and Industrial Problems,” “The Church the opening of the Universal four in Continental Europe, nine in other and Social and Moral Problems," "The

Christian Conference on Life and countries (China, Japan, South America, Church and International Relations, " Work at Stockholm, Sweden, August 19. etc.), and seven branches of the Eastern "The Church and Christian Education," The Cathedral was thronged with rev- Orthodox Church. Some of the strongest “Methods of Co-operative and Federated erent worshipers, and multitudes were men in America were present and bore Efforts by the Christian Communions.” unable to gain admittance. The King their part in the Conference and its va- A typical session illustrated the cosand Queen, the Crown Prince and Crown rious commissions and committees. One mopolitan and ecumenical character of Princess, occupied the royal box. The of the four Joint Presidents and the Gen- the Conference. It began with a devogreat organ and choir and the congrega- eral Secretary were Americans, and the tional half-hour conducted by an Angli. tional singing of the hymns made music appointed speakers selected by the Inter- can clergyman from Oxford. Then the that was worth traveling far to hear. national Committee on Arrangements in- subject of the day was presented by a The stately liturgy of the Lutheran cluded thirty-four Americans. And yet former member of the British Parliament, Church was intoned by robed priests so impressive and varied was the mem- who was followed by a professor in Berwith resonant voices, and the sermon was bership of the Conference that the lin University, a Methodist pastor from preached by the Bishop of Winchester, American delegation of about 150 did

American delegation of about 150 did Detroit, a theological professor from of the Church of England. Then the not appear large or especially prominent. Czechoslovakia, a famous scholar from delegates went in procession to the pal- The distinctive dress of the bishops,

The distinctive dress of the bishops, Holland, the Bishop of Finland, the ace, where the King made an address of archbishops, metropolitans, and pa- Chief Justice of the Court of Appeals of welcome, to which responses were made triarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church Sweden, the Greek Archbishop of Ru- . by the Bishop of Winchester for the Brit- (Greek Catholic) made them the most mania, an Episcopal bishop from Japan, ish delegation, the President of the Fed- picturesque of the delegates. Headed by and others, until one felt that almost eration of German Churches for the the venerable Patriarch of Alexandria, every conceivable phase of the subject Continental, the Patriarch of Alexandria they, for the first time in history, entered was being passed in review. for the Eastern Orthodox, and the Chair- a conference of churches, and their digni- What was the object of the Conferman of the American Section for the ty, courtesy, and Christian spirit added to ence? It was stated by the American American. The vestments of ecclesiasti- the interest and value of the discussions. Joint President as follows: First, to cal and academic dignitaries and the uni- For ten days serious consideration was make more clear the world-wide task of forms and decorations of Court officers, given to the pressing problems of Chris- the Church and to face it as a whole; Cabinet Ministers, diplomatic representa- tianity in the modern world, under the second, to consider in all frankness and tives of many lands, and army and navyjoint presidency of the Archbishop of penitence the defects in ourselves and officers added brilliance to a memorable Upsala of Sweden, the Bishop of Win our methods; third, to promote closer occasion. After the formal addresses the chester, the Metropolitan of Thyateira, fellowship of the scattered churches of King entertained the delegates at lunch- and the Chairman of the American Sec- the world; fourth, to rise above provineon. No other religious conference of tion, who presided in turn. Daily ses- cialism and sectarianism and take wide modern times was opened with such sions were held from 9:30 A.M. to 12 and views of the kingdom of God and of our splendid ceremony.

from 2 to 4 P.M. These were followed relation to it; fifth, to assure the

by public meetings from 5 to 7 and 9 to churches of Continental Europe, divided Creeds were no Barrier

10:30. Subjects of wide range were and crippled by the Great War, of our He nearly 600 delegates came from grouped under the reports of six commis brotherly interest and to counsel with

44 different countries, and repre- sions which had been at work for three them regarding the reconstruction of sented 103 independent churches of 37 years, the topics being "The Church's their shattered activities; sixth, to concommunions. Twenty-five denominations Obligation in View of God's Purpose for sider how the Gospel of Christ may be in the United States were represented, the World," "The Church and Economic more effectively applied to those moral,




social, industrial, and international ques

Better than Votes

Presbyterian, New York; S. Parkes Cadtions which are confronting every nation.

man, Congregational, Brooklyn; Lynn OTES were wisely few in number. It Harold Hough, Methodist Episcopal, The Common Purpose

was distinctly understood at the Detroit; Shailer Mathews, Baptist, ChiEVER have these problems been so outset that the Conference was not to be cago; Samuel H. Chester, Southern Pres

acute. The World War let loose all a legislative body, that it had no author- byterian, Nashville; James Cannon, Jr., the primitive passions of suspicion and ity to commit its constituent churches, Southern Methodist, Richmond; E. P. hatred, of greed and passion. Seven years and that it was not to deal with ques- Pfatteicher, Lutheran, Reading; Frederafter the Armistice conditions are still tions of theology or ecclesiastic organiza- ick Lynch, Congregational, New York; unstable and men are talking of the next tion. It was distinctly a Conference William Y. Bell, Colored Methodist war. The whole structure of civilization which sought to know the mind of Christ Episcopal, New York; Henry A. Atkinis menaced. How shall relief come? Not as revealed in the Gospels toward those son, Secretary, New York. by armaments, which only intensify the vital questions of Christian life and work The following were chosen as alterwar spirit. Not by diplomacy, which which are so acutely urgent in our civili- nates: Frederick Burnham, Floyd W. can only deal with expedients and exter- zation. Believing that only in Christ's Tomkins, Jr., Margaret E. Hodge, Willnals. Not by any merely human devices. way of life can the world find healing iam P. Merrill, Charles S. Macfarland, Christ, and Christ alone, has shown the and rest, the Conference desired to dis- John L. Nuelsen, Mrs. W. H. Montgomway. The Conference sought, therefore, cover how best his message may be ap- ery, C. L. King, L. S. Barton, D.D., to summon the churches in all lands to plied to those problems with which every Clarence E. Miller, John McNaugher, apply themselves with stronger faith, nation is confronted. The need for mak- Bishop Clement, Fred B. Smith. more resolute purpose, and more ferventing some such concerted endeavor to This Continuation Committee assemprayer to the great redemptive work learn afresh the mind of Christ cannot bled in Stockholm immediately after the which Christ has laid upon his Church. be exaggerated. Thoughtful men in all adjournment of the Conference, and orNo mechanical schemes for getting dif- lands are yearning for purer politics, the ganized by electing four Presidents, each ferent churches and races to work to- elimination of the evil causes of indus- to serve one year in rotation; the four gether for the common good will succeed trial unrest, and the rebuke of that gross- being the Archbishop of Upsala, the until a new atmosphere of fellowship and est of all heresies—that men can be Lord Bishop of Winchester, the Metroprayer is created.

In such an atmos- Christians as individuals and pagans as politan of Thyateira, and the Chairman phere many present difficulties would citizens and governments. To set our- of the American Section. Dr. Atkinson evaporate and many things now impos- selves to discover the will of Christ and, was chosen General Secretary, and Dr. sible would become easy. Because the under the guidance of his spirit, to Adolf Keller of Zurich, Professor Eugene delegates believed this splendid purpose find wise ways of applying his teaching Choisy of Geneva, and Miss Lucy Gardto be worth striving for, its members is surely the paramount task of the ner of London were chosen Associate journeyed far over land and sea to Stock- Church.

Secretaries. An Executive Committee of holm for the devout consideration of Two outstanding actions, however, fourteen was constituted, the American these great issues.

were taken on the closing day. One was members being Drs. Atkinson, Cadman, Was this object realized? Opinion the adoption of a "brotherly message to and A. J. Brown. appeared to be unanimous that, so far as all followers of Christ, beseeching them It would be impossible to characterize a Conference could realize it, it was. to join with the members of the Confer- in adequate terms the abounding hospiNever have the practical problems of ence in prayer, confession, thanksgiving, tality of the Swedish people. They made this generation been so broadly and so study, and service.” It is a memorable the Conference a national event. Several frankly faced, nor have they been more document, and it is to be widely circu- months in advance the King had issued a intelligently discussed. The chief value

lated throughout the world. Grant that proclamation regarding the Conference. of the Conference was not in what it did in the judgment of some it might have Everything possible was done for the but in the fellowship that it developed. been strengthened at a few points, yet, convenience and comfort of the deleIt was no small achievement to assemble

taken as a whole and as the composite gates. Homes were freely opened. The delegates from so many countries and expression of the opinion of representa- Crown Prince and Crown Princess perdenominations, men and women of differ- tives of many different communions, it is sonally entertained in their palace the ing temperaments, racial and national a noble deliverance.

British and American Presidents, the traditions, political, social, and religious The other action was the appointment Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of views, and to have them sit together for of a broadly representative “Continua- Germany, and a French army officer. ten days discussing the most difficult and tion Committee” of 67 members to carry Diplomatic representatives of the various delicate questions in a spirit of perfect on the work and spirit of the Conference nations gave dinners or receptions to courtesy and fraternal feeling. Not an in consultation with the constituent their nationals. The formal dinners by acrimonious word was spoken from be- churches and to consider the advisability the city of Stockholm, the luncheon by ginning to end. It sometimes happened of calling another Conference a few years the University of Upsala, and the closing that when a commission or the Business hence. The members of this Committee dinner by the Swedish Committee on Committee began the consideration of a were nominated by the delegates of the Arrangements were notable events. The given question the differences of opinion respective sections, and confirmed by the Crown Prince and Crown Princess atappeared impossible of adjustment, but Conference. The thirteen members who tended every session of the Conference at the end a unanimous conclusion was were assigned to America were chosen by and several of the public meetings. The invariably reached. This is not to say the American Section as follows: Peter Primate of the State Church, the Archthat every one was convinced that the Ainslie, Disciples of Christ, Baltimore; bishop of Upsala, labored unceasingly best possible course was agreed upon, but Charles H. Brent, Protestant Episcopal, for the success of the Conference, devotthe general consensus of opinion was re- Buffalo; Arthur J. Brown, Presbyterian, ing his entire time to it for weeks in admarkably harmonious.

New York; William Adams Brown, vance and throughout the sessions. The Conference closed as it began, with individually or collectively, is exempt repentance, and insist that the Gospel of stately and solemn worship, this time in from the law of righteousness.

Christ is both individualistic and social; the historical Cathedral at t'psala.

Those who are dissatisfied because that greed and robbery and murder are

more decisive actions were not taken not less wicked because committed by The Church's Function

should remember not only the necessary nations; that the moral law of righteousThe space limits of this article do not limitations of such a Conference but that ness is applicable to the whole life and

permit mention of many features of the major evils of our day cannot be relationship of men; and that if men and the Conference which are of interest and remedied by merely mechanical means or nations will be just and act in accordimportance to the Christian world. An the votes of churchmen. It is simply ance with the Golden Rule and the spirit account is to be published in a volume rhetoric to say that the churches could, of Christ the problems of society which which should have wide reading. But I if they wanted to, prevent wars, adjust now appear insoluble will be easily must not close without referring to the the disputes of capital and labor, and put solved. The Conference in Stockholm deeply religious feeling which pervaded an end to intemperance and lawbreaking. was true to this function of the Church. the Conference. It was eminently a The churches have neither the organiza It was eminently sane. Cranks, fanatics, Christian assemblage. Prayer, both pub- tion nor the power to order governments, faddists, and propagandists were not in lic and private, was continually offered. corporations, and labor unions to do this evidence. A distinguished Continental Loyalty to Christ as the divine Lord and or that. The world had such a Church delegate expressed the common mind Saviour was repeatedly stressed. The

The in the Middle Ages, and found the tem- when he said in the closing session: "I conviction was unanimous that in Christ, poral power of an ecclesiastical hierarchy came with mingled fears and anticipaand in him alone, can the solution of the intolerable. Sensible men, within as well tions. My fears have been dispelled and problems of the modern Church and as without the churches, have no mind to my anticipations have been more than world be found. It is not the function of repeat that experience. Statesmen, em- fulfilled." The Conference has undoubtthe Church to dictate methods to govern- ployers, and workingmen, when animated edly made the most notable contribution ments and industry, but it is the function by the teaching and spirit of Christ, are to Christian fellowship and understandof the Church to state principles and to better qualified than clergymen to work ing that has been made for many ceninsist that the Gospel of Christ concerns out practical methods of detail. The turies. Now let us hope that its spirit all life and all relations in life; that noth- true function of the Church is rather to will work out through all its constituent ing that men are or that men do, either expose abuses, rebuke evil-doers, call to churches.

“ The Finest” at Its Worst




ILLY drunk in Alessandro's restau

only with the officer's name, but with his rant, one evening not long ago, a

NCE in four years the title. He is a sergeant, granting plenary plain-clothes man showed us his

metropolis of America

indulgence to violate the Volstead Act. badge, his cartridge belt, his revolver, chooses a new Mayor. Here Somewhere in New York (it is well and his enormous flask, and went out is a dramatic story of the de- known to the police, so why give the among the people of New York to en

moralization of New York's address?) you will find Ted Archer's force the law. That same night three police force after eight years

establishment. Ted sells rum. Also policemen in uniform were drinking at

of Tammany control. Will

drugs and obscene literature. Also carAlessandro's bar. Not long ago another

New York better itself in

tridges. Gunmen congregate at Ted's, member of "the Finest” was a regular

November ?

and so do bootleggers and rum-runners. luncheon guest at Cavello's (all names of

When you visit the place, do not be culprits in this article are fictitious) and

startled if you find a policeman there; he drank freely before resuming his work. through the evening a policeman kept is a trusty pal of the proprietor's. He wore his uniform, with a traffic cop's watch at Pietro's by reading newspapers. The other day a rum-runner stopped yellow wheel on the sleeve.

Waiters went past him, carrying the me on the street to introduce a friend. These bibulous Tammany policemen usual teapots of wine. Patrons drank The friend turned out to be a police capget free meals and free drinks. There wine from the usual cups. But there tain. A few evenings later I saw the are many such officers, visiting many developed an atmosphere of general un- captain merry over his cup in a restausuch restaurants. When this began, it easiness and depression, and business de- rant. hurt business, as thirsty civilians were clined, so Frank Costello, a friend of At least one police captain in New afraid, and a proportion of them, finding Pietro's, had the policeman taken out. York makes a regular ten per cent arpolicemen in a restaurant, would take one Frank tells me that it cost three hundred rangement with restaurants, proprietors glance and depart. Now the thing is dollars.

say, but the usual practice is less meperfectly understood. The more police- At Antonio's one noon an officer in thodical. Officers come around from time men, the safer the restaurant—that is, uniform sat talking earnestly with the to time and demand two or three hunas a rule.

proprietor for a half-hour or so, then dred dollars. One restaurant owns up to When a policeman is detailed by his took out a card, wrote on it, gave it to paying in this way about twelve hundred superiors to sit in a restaurant week Antonio, and went out. Antonio showed dollars a year. A saloon admits paying after week and see that the law is ob- me the card, which said, "Tony is 0. K. as much. "It's all graft,” you hear, and served, patrons fidget. All day and all One of the boys.” It was signed, not while this is said in a tone of deep scorn,

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