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there is little grumbling, as, even so, the The New York “Times” reports, as I men have been tried for selling protection traffic is enormously profitable.

write, that the Police Department is not to bandits and convicted. Mr. Rutledge, However, when officers demand ex- idle. I read: "The police arrested ten Superintendent of Police in Detroit, cessive lump sums, all in a hurry, with persons at Broadway and Forty-sixth traces the evolution of the bandit thụs: no regard whatsoever for established Street yesterday in an effort to rid the First a patron of a "blind pig," next a business methods, great is the resent

bootlegger, then a hijacker, after that the ment. For a year or more the Lemon

finished product. If the New York poniers had run a wet cabaret without

lice are not protecting bandits, they are serious molestation. Then, of a sudden,

certainly protecting “blind pigs.” They five policemen swooped down upon them

are protecting bootleggers, they are proand wanted a thousand dollars. As this

tecting the whole illicit business which, was a marked breach of custom and as

to a large extent, is the cause of banone of the five policemen had been sup

ditry. plying the cabaret with liquor, the Lem

The other day a policeman said to monniers refused to pay. So off went

me: "Lawlessness is affecting even the Madame with her husband in a patrol

youngsters. Kids don't respect the cop wagon. She feels much injured, though

like they used to. They see dad getting the case fared well in court. Dis

away with murder, and this is the recharged!

sult." I thought it might be a result of I was not investigating police condi

hearing constantly, "It's all graft," and tions when I picked up these representa

of seeing constantly what makes the tive bits of scandal. I was investigating

charges appear true. prohibition. Nor was I investigating

Banks and corporations meanwhile police conditions when I went among

ignore the police. They are buying plain-clothes men at a police station the

armored trucks in which to move funds, other day. I was investigating banditry.

putting bullet-proof vests on their most I was following up one instance-the

exposed men, ordering machine guns and daylight theft of a hundred thousand

tear gas, and listening with interest to Al dollars' worth of furs. The plain-clothes

Dunlap's account of the way in which men laughed when I spoke of it. "Xo

the citizens of Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana such theft ever happened,” I was told.

have taken the law into their own hands. “Half the hold-ups you read about in the

Vigilantism is wonderfully successful out papers never happen."

there. It may yet be introduced here. I do not accuse those particular plain

We want no such thing. A decent, clothes men of protecting bandits. But

honest, effective police administration in I did not think that pooh-poohing ban

New York City is not impossible. Offiditry was the surest way to stop it, and

cial complicity with crime will cease as I write the latest edition of the

when it is made sufficiently dangerous "Evening World," a Democratic paper,

for the police, and there is nothing that contains an interesting editorial. I

No lunch hour for this traffic cop. Bandits

the police of New York City fear so read: have kept the New York policemen so

much as they fear investigation. Let "Four armed men invaded a jeweler's busy that some of them have had to adopt

them have it. shop on Third Avenue Monday and this time-saving method of eating on duty

No thoroughgoing study of presentstripped it of $55,000 in cash and gems.

day police conditions in New York has Five other bandits the same day held up sidewalks of the theatrical district of been made. At the Republican Camthree cashiers of a taxicab company and loafers, actors, vaudeville performers,' paign Headquarters I was unable to learn took $8,000 in cash. One bandit the musicians, and others who block traffic. of any one who could tell me more than same day held up the treasurer of the The activities of the police also included is told daily in the newspapers. A canEastern District Relief Association in a campaign to clear the sidewalks of didate for office on the Republican ticket, Brooklyn and made off with $11,000. children who cause crowds to collect by the very man who should know most All escaped. No recovery of any loot. dancing the Charleston, boxing, and fur- about police conditions in order to make No arrests. Yesterday four men entered nishing other diversions which net them campaign material out of such knowla bank at 104th Street and Fifth Avenue, a substantial profit."

edge, said, "The Police Department has held up the manager and four clerks and General Butler has put a stop to ban- broken down completely-we might as got away with $5,000. Three men en- ditry in Philadelphia. Why is it not well not have one,” and let it go at that. tered a jewelry store, Columbus Avenue stopped in New York? In newspaper cir

The underworld believes that the money and 102d Street, bound and gagged cles one is told that the bandits are the it pays goes to “men higher up." Which everybody inside, and got away with bootleggers, and that by arresting bandits men? Through what channels? In what $45,000 in gems and escaped. The rage the police would be cutting off their own amounts? The underworld does not preof banditry over the town goes on un- revenue. In underworld circles one is tend to know. Many police officers abated. This week's flare-up is even told that “it's all graft," and the under- know. They can be made to tell. more than commonly bold and success- world may be regarded as usually some

About thirty years ago a legislative ful. But what can you expect when the what well informed in such matters. A committee, headed by Clarence Lexow Police Department is being run for poli- famous authority on crime and on police and bearing his name, put the New York tics first and for the suppression of ban- systems, Al Dunlap, editor of "The De- Police Department under investigation ditry apparently last of all?”

tective," tells me that in Chicago police- and found it corrupt from top to bottom.

[graphic]

P. & A. Photos

now?

It is high time that we had another lice by corporations, amounted to Boston was a safer place during that Lexow investigation by way of discover- $7,000,000 a year. How much does it strike than New York is with its present ing if there is not a rather pronounced amount to now?

police on the job. But "the Finest” resemblance between the present state of The Luxow investigation found the po- ought to welcome such an investigation. things and that disclosed in 1894. lice protecting policy-shops and pool- At present every honest policeman is

Policemen were then paying $300 each rooms. It found them protecting dis- subject to the same suspicion that is for their jobs. What are they paying honest pawnbrokers. It found them directed to the dishonest. It is to now, and why does a school for men de- acting in collusion with thieves and the interest of honest policemen as siring positions on "the force" make bold green-goods swindlers and protecting much as to the public that graft and to advertise, “Appointments guaran- professional abortionists. How many complicity with lawbreaking should be teed"?

kinds of villainy enjoy police protection exposed. In 1894 one keeper of brothels was

Those who see in the corruption of the paying $30,000 a year for protection. It is said that the way to reform the police in New York City a Tammany What are New York's innumerable hid- police is to defeat Tammany, and Tam- product may find it hard to believe that den saloons and innumerable wet restau- many's defeat would doubtless do much Governor Smith, a Tammany man, will rants now paying? What are bootleg- toward reforming the police. But how favor an investigation that is likely to gers paying? What are gamblers pay- long does Tammany stay defeated? How injure Tammany. But they forget how ing? What are the loose women in the complete would the reformation be even Governor Smith resisted political pressthree hundred "telephone apartments” in under a Republican administration? ure in appointing the commanding officer one police precinct paying? What are What the New York Police Department of the State police. Not even his politirespectable people paying? How much appears to need is a grilling that its cal enemies accuse Governor Smith of do hotels, for example, give the patrol- youngest member will never forget while

youngest member will never forget while being a timid man. He can, if he will, men who, knowing that the management he lives and whose consequence will be and no one doubts that he dares, suris afraid to refuse, drop in and coolly ask the punishment of every offender. Per- pass his record with the State police by for money? In 1894 police blackmail, haps the entire force ought to go. Bos

haps the entire force ought to go. Bos- giving his sanction to the reform of the entirely aside from money paid the po- ton “fired” its police for striking, though police of New York City.

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[graphic]

Photograph from Ford Motor Co.

The new way of making plate glass The Ford process of casting plate glass in a continuous sheet marks an epoch in the history of glass-making. The glass is melted in a huge tank furnace, charged every Afteen minutes. From the furnace it flows continuously over a slowly revolving iron drum and then under a roller, which rolls it into a sheet. Thence it passes slowly through a long annealing furnace, or "lehr,” where it loses most of its heat. The picture shows the sheet leaving the oven and being cut into lengths by hand. The subsequent grinding and polishing is also a continuous

process

Glass-Making Extraordinary

By CHARLES FITZHUGH TALMAN

I

The pot

N the finest story ever told—“Peter ture of bottles and window glass. As the other day it was a commonplace of

Ibbetson"—there is a passage about recently as the year 1923 there were glass technology that in order to make

the hero's remote ancestor having sixty-five factories in this country in plate glass you had to start with a cerbeen a gentilhomme verrier, and the au- which window glass was made by mouth tain kind of pot, the construction of thor adverts to the fact that the craft of and hand, though machines that made it which was a sort of ritual performance glass-making was once practiced exclu- better and ten times as fast had been worthy of ancient Egypt. sively by the nobility and gentry. This perfected two decades earlier. The num- making process is thus described by a bit of history may help to explain a ber of these quaint establishments has very recent authority: paradox. An aristocratic order is tena- since dwindled, but some of them mys- "The different clays after being mined cious of old ways. Are the glass-makers teriously carry on. There are bottle are exposed to the weather for some time of to-day still swayed by a tradition of machines that can, with a minimum of to bring about disintegration. After the conservatism, bequeathed to them by the unskilled attendance, turn out ninety proper stage has been reached, this mapatrician craftsmen of long ago? And bottles a minute. In the self-same land terial is finely sifted and mixed with have we here an explanation of the sur- where these tireless automata perform coarse burned clay and water. This revival in their industry of mediæval man- their tasks highly skilled and highly paid duces the liability of shrinkage and ual methods, side by side with mechani- artisans are even now blowing bottles cracking. The material is then kneaded cal methods that bristle with modernity? with their mouths. The waste of breath in a mill and afterward kept a long time

Human lung power and the hand is deplorable. The economic blunder is (frequently a year) in storage-bins to blow-pipe still compete—Heaven knows unaccountable.

ripen. Next it goes through the laborihow!—with compressed air and electri- The most amazing paradox of all is ous process of “treading.' No machinery cally driven machinery in the manufac- found in the plate-glass industry. Until thus far has been invented to produce a

[graphic]

Photograph from Hires-Turner Glass Co.

Splitting cylinders of machine-blown window glass After splitting, the cylinders are beated in an oven and flattened out. In other machine processes window glass is not blown, but is drawn in flat sheets

Photograph from Minois Glass Co.

Why bottles ought to be cheap This battery of bottle-blowing machines does the work of a small army of human glass-blowers. Lumps of molten glass from the meltingfurnace in the background slide down a system of troughs to the machines, where each enters a mold and the bottles are blown by compressed air. The machines rotate while operating. Boys are seen carrying racks of bottles from the machines to the annealing oven. This detail

mars the perfect modernity of the picture! Mechanical conveyors are cheaper and better

plate glass a year, each tank holds more than 400 tons of molten glass. The glass flows continuously from the tank, passes under a roller, and then travels in one long strip through the annealing oven. As it comes from the oven at the other end it is cut by hand into pieces, each of proper length for making three windshields. Grinding and polishing are done by machines arranged along a conveyor line in the true Ford manner.

Glass-makers have journeyed from far and near to behold the new process in operation, and it can hardly fail to be widely adopted-in time. Meanwhile other great factories are still using the old pot method. One of the largest of these factories, at Glassmere, Pennsylvania, belongs to the Ford Motor Company.

The Ford process of casting plate glass is revolutionary. The various bottlemaking machines introduced about the beginning of the present century were also revolutionary. So were the cylinder process of blowing window glass by compressed air and the Fourcault and Col

burn processes of drawing it in continuPhotograph from Ingersoll-Rand Co.

ous sheets. In all these cases the various The dark ages in the twentieth century

“revolutions” are even now in leisurely Here is a modern workman blowing a glass pitcher in a mold. His grandfather did it the same progress. way, and the mediæval glass-worker not very differently. The same process is performed on a vast Which explains the title of the present scale by compressed air and power-driven machinery. The concurrent existence of manual and mechanical methods of making common glass and glassware is a paradox that surely cannot essay.

survive much longer

[graphic]

plasticity equal to that attained by the primitive treading of the bare feet of men. The clay must be thus treated many times. The final building of the pot is performed by hand, and is a slow and tedious operation. Much time is consumed, but this is absolutely essential. Without extreme care, the life of the pot might be greatly lessened, or some of the elements used in its construction would be fused into glass while undergoing the intense heat of the furnace; or it might even break in the mere handling After completion, the pot must be 'dried out.' This is another feature in which the greatest scientific care is required. No pot may be used until it has been left to season for at least three months, and even a year is desirable. And after all this it has but about twenty-five days of usefulness."

When the engineers of the Ford Motor Company were charged, a few years ago, with the task of fitting up a plate-glass factory, they enjoyed the inestimable advantage of being new to the job. They wasted no time in attempts to modernize this incredibly archaic business of potmaking, but simply eliminated itsent it to pot. The tank furnace was substituted for the pot furnace. In the plant now operating at the River Rouge, with a capacity of 12,000,000 square feet of

Photograph from Gill Clay Pot Co.

Tramping clay for making glass-melting pots
One of the most archaic processes prevailing in modern industry

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