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If the plans for Johnson's becoming a

dition which is now in the field in Monmanager had gone through, the argument

golia. for youth only in baseball would have

While few scientists believe that northbeen strengthened. But he continued in

ern Africa was the actual cradle of the active work, and practically demon

human species, many think the chief elestrated the possibilities of the recupera

ments of civilization arose in this neightive power of a great, well-ripened player.

borhood. To-day the Sahara is a vast

emptiness of shifting sand, but it was Unveiling Antiquity

not always so. The best of geological Dis ISCOVERIES that link antiquity with

evidence exists to show that until comhistoric knowledge are constantly

paratively recently this great area was reported from the exploration expeditions

well watered and fertile. Indeed, those now in the Near East. One of special

who know the desert well observe that interest to Biblical students is the uncov

the process of desiccation is still going ering by the American explorers who

on at a rate best noted at the edges, represent the Museum of the University

which continue to creep outward. At the of Pennsylvania of the Temple of Ash

end of the Glacial Period, some 20,000toreth at Beisan, in Palestine. The expe

odd years ago, the Sahara occupied much dition has been working at this site for

the same geographical relation to the four seasons, and it has dug through the

great ice cap that covered northern Euremains of eight periods of old life, be

rope as northern Europe now occupies ginning at the top with what was left in

with regard to the modern ice caps of evidence of the occupation of the Crusa

the Arctic; and this temperate, producders, then layer by layer disclosing evi

tive land was doubtless then inhabited by dences of occupation by Arabs, Greeks,

as dense a hunting population as a fertile

Wide World Photos Romans, and Egyptians.

country can support. It was at a depth of about thirty-five

H ERE is Christy Mathewson, feet that the Temple of Ashtoreth was

To Seek More Evidence

the one-time hero of the New found. This, as all readers of the Old York Giants and a man who car- of Evolving Man Testament will remember, was built by ried into professional baseball the

best traditions of sportsmanship.

IS this mere conjecture? Far from it. the Philistines, and in it was hung the

Christy Mathewson died at Sar

The Beloit College expedition, which battle armor of Saul, the Hebrew king,

anac Lake, on October 7, after a is also being backed by the Royal Geoafter the defeat of the Israelites at the

long and gallant fight against graphical Society, the Carnegie Museum battle of Gilboa. Saul's armor has not tuberculosis. He served in the of Technology, and Michigan University, been discovered, but many things per

World War as a captain in the

is not venturing forth on a pure hazard.

A. E. F. taining to the use of the worship of the

Already science has found hundreds of goddess Ashtoreth (or Astarte), includ

thousands of Old Stone Age artifacts in ing an image of the goddess herself, were

northern Africa, north of and on the dug up. The temple may be three thou- periods. Here, as in other recent discov

edges of the Sahara, in Egypt, and in a eries, were found many intimate relics of sand years old. home life, such as children's toys and

ring encircling the desert, and it is of The explorers who are working under

marked interest to note that these stone workmen's tools, domestic pottery, and the French Institute of Oriental Archæol

implements show absolutely the same art glass work. ogy have recently made a number of no

peculiar characteristics as those found table discoveries in Egypt at points near

in the river terraces and paleolithic caves Cairo, Thebes, and elsewhere. One of the Anthropologists to go

of western Europe. Evidently during most remarkable finds is that of burial- to the Sahara

the Old Stone Age—perhaps 500,000 places in which were interred bodies of

'o cross a part of the Sahara which years in length-primitive man was free Egyptians in almost prehistoric times, has never been crossed by white to range from Africa to Europe. We when the later Egyptian ideas of burial

man before and to carry on extensive know with certainty that not long ago, as in mummy form had not begun. Many investigations of the remains of prehis- such things go, there was a broad land such ancient relics of humanity were toric man, an expedition called the bridge from Italy across the Mediterfound buried without even coffins. Logan-Sahara-Beloit Expedition left Al- ranean. Of equal interest with the iden

Another notable discovery in Egypt is giers on October 10 in motor vehicles tity of the European and African (Capthat of a large and beautiful temple ap- especially designed to traverse Africa's sian) flint implements is the fact that the parently built in the time of the last of

great sea of sand. The leader of this paintings on the walls of paleolithic the Ptolemies and actually finished by new expedition is Count de Prorok, the caves in France and Spain are closely three Roman emperors. Among the in- archæologist who has been engaged dur- similar in technique with those of the scriptions in the temple occurs the name ing the last few seasons in excavating modern Bushmen of South Africa. We of Trajan. Some of these inscriptions ancient Carthage. It is thought that this find these rock paintings all the way beand sculptures date back nearly four expedition has fully as good an opportu- tween the two places, except, of course, thousand years, so that the temple rep- nity to gain valuable knowledge of an- in the Sahara's still unexplored portions. resents the culture of widely distant thropology as the great American expe- Yet many mysteries remain, and it i

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highly likely that the results of the new selves. But now his name and his opin- buried far down in the "story.” But, if expedition will explain some of them, not ions are proclaimed conspicuously in the the item contains little of news fact, it only in the Old Stone Age, but before it daily press and have become a subject of contains much of abiding truth. Here is and after it. Darwin believed man discussion by an immense number of

a part of it: evolved in Africa, and recent discoveries people who would have never otherwise Those who have never heard the encourage this view. We may therefore heard his name or learned of his opin- real cotton-patch harmony can scarcely possibly look in the Sahara for very ions.

appreciate the apprehension of music early types of ape-like man. Similarly, Having been condemned to removal

lovers that this art is about to pass. one school of thought holds that neolithic from his bishopric and from the priest

Fifty Negroes, of varied ages, in one

cotton field are capable of producing man literally invented civilization and hood of his Church, this heretic now is

an impromptu programme of song, that this took place somewhere near free to preach his theology of symbolism, chant, whistling, and chatter that can northern Africa. Science will therefore in which the Trinity is matter-force- be found nowhere else on the globe, in await the results of the anthropological motion, in which Jesus is a fictitious—or, the opinion of music critics who have exploration of the blank spot of the Dark if real, an unknown-character, Beelze

traveled far to hear the music in its

original setting. Continent with keen interest. bub is the economic system that divides

The song is usually one which was the world into the master class and the

never written. It may or may not be Flame or Fame for slave class, the crucifixion is the victimi- one already worked out and familiar to

zation of labor in company with liberty those participating. A Negro does not Heretics? and science, "the robbers of ignorance

have to “know” a song to join with

his fellows in singing it. Every farm URNING was once the accepted and superstition," and the Gospel appar

group has a "leader.” This person is way of dealing with heretics. ently is Communism.

nearly always a mån. He "strikes" Within four hundred

years The fact that this doctor of divinity his key-and'the group is off. (which is not a long time in the history did not feel his intellectual growing pains The same song may be sung for an of man) eleven men and two women until he approached the end of the

hour, or all day. It never becomes

monotonous because of its variations. were burned at the stake in one town in psalmist's span of life is a matter for reEngland in a single day. Within three

The present-day jazz artist boasts of gret. Very few of those who have

his “barber shop.” He knows nothing hundred years the Presbyterians, them- studied the history of religion and philos- of “incidentais" and "chords." selves heretics from one point of view, ophy will, we fancy, take his views very The Negro singer can "ring in" passed an “Ordinance for the Suppres- seriously. If in exercising the liberty of

more notes than have ever been writ

ten in the staff. sion of Blasphemies and Heresies,” pro- interpreting the classic statements of

He sings in minor,

major, and unknown "keys." There's nouncing against those who denied cer- Christianity symbolically he has gone to

no precedent for what he does. Totain doctrines the penalty of death. a length which strikes the ordinary man

day he sings a new song and sings it Inhuman as capital punishment, espe

of common as absurd, he has differently from that of yesterday. Tocially with fire, for heresy was, it was in nevertheless exercised a liberty which all morrow he will have a new song and a sense logical. The heretic thus dis- ecclesiastics exercise to some degree. To

more harmony. posed of could no longer preach 'his sub- make a martyr of him without disposing

No matter what he sings and how

he sings it, there is that indescribable versive views. No punishment could of him as martyrs used to be disposed of

rhythm, swing, and motion which is as wipe out the memory of what he had is doubtless the right of the Episcopal harmonious as the flow of a meadow said; but this form of punishment could House of Bishops; but it will not end his brook. He knows nothing of cresceneffectually keep him from saying any. heresy. There were other ways by which

dos, fortissimos, pianissimos. He does

know harmony. thing more. If he had written books, the bishops could have disavowed Bishop they might in those days of limited cir- Brown's views. At least eleven bishops The question, by suggestion at least, is culation of the written word, be sought of the Church thought so, and, in the whether or not this kind of music can be out and destroyed. It is true that the words of one of them, as quoted, Bishop perpetuated by trained musicians after it blood of the martyrs has been the seed Stearly, “it was felt by some that a more has ceased to come spontaneously from not only of the Church but of many an

merciful action would be the commend- untrained throats. There is truth in the heretical sect. Nevertheless there was ing of him to God as a brother erring as statement that the Negro minstrel at his something rational in the effort to wipe to the ancient faith of the Church, and best sings notes that never were written out the heretic and all his works. to suspend all further sentence."

in the staff. Of course, this is true of Nowadays the method adopted is quite

any singer. Nothing mechanical can different. It is known in other than Art from the Cabin Door

ever take the place of the human perecclesiastical circles as publicity. Its

former, whether his instrument be the effect upon heretics is precisely the same THE Associated Press recently car- voice or some other; but it is particuas its effect upon actors, politicians, and

ried a despatch from Birming- larly true of the Negro singer. The enterprising promoters of business ven

ham, Alabama, which, for Asso- haunting quality of Negro song abides in tures. Who would have heard of the ciated Press despatches, is decidedly something as yet undiscovered. One lately Right Rev. William Montgomery unusual. It runs almost wholly to expo- guess is that the natural Negro scale Brown except for the publicity freely sition and hardly at all to narrative, the differs just slightly from our scale, that provided for him by his trial for heresy bricks and mortar of Associated Press the intervals between notes are not exin the Protestant Episcopal Church? items. The one news fact is that Tuske- actly the same, that a note which seems Perhaps a few thousand here and there, gee is making an effort to preserve the to be one of our recognized notes is, by most of them far from orthodox them- Negro "spirituals,” and this fact is an infinitesimal difference, something

sense

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else. If that guess is correct, the doubt since 1865, and Professor Work, of its spirituals, the Negro ability to make grows as to the possibility of preserving Faculty, has brought most of the old melody and harmony of a peculiar kind, the Negro music after the Negroes them- songs together in a book, and the Fisk is a heritage of which any race might be selves have ceased to sing it sponta- Jubilee Singers have made many of them proud. It ought to be guarded and preneously.

familiar to hundreds of thousands of served. Many concert singers have tried to people. Hampton has done a similar This does not mean at all that Negro give the Negro spirituals from the stage. service. It is hardly too much to say congregations ought to go on singing only Some of them have done so well that a that the Negro spirituals are already pre- the old songs of their fathers and their person not thoroughly familiar with the served in so far as written music can grandfathers. Those songs filled a racial songs as they are sung from the fields preserve them.

need which perhaps no longer exists. and from the cabin doors would render a But Tuskegee, along with Hampton But Negroes ought to be able to continue verdict of complete success. Yet we ven- and Fisk and the other schools, has, pos- producing songs of the same quality, ture to assert that no singer not a Negro sibly, the opportunity of doing something their own songs, for their present needs. has ever perfectly reproduced a Negro more worth while toward preservation. They ought to use, of course, the great spiritual.

The Negro people ought to continue to songs of white composers, but they have All of this, however, should not dis- sing their own songs to their own pecu- no right to permit their own gift of music courage any effort at preservation. liar music. Religious songs composed by to slip away from them. "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," and "Steal

white men have very largely, if not com- If the Negro schools, with Tuskegee Away Home,” and a score of others are pletely, displaced Negro songs in the and Hampton and Fisk in the lead of the worth singing even as white people can Negro churches, not only in the cities but movement, can impart this ideal to their sing them. The Tuskegee effort at pres- everywhere except, perhaps, in some re- students and to those whom they reach ervation is not the first. Fisk has mote and isolated places.

through extension work, the Negro songs worked at the task, more or less, ever This is not as it should be. The Negro will be preserved.

A

Rome and Science

An Open Letter from a Methodist Pastor San admiring reader of The mines whether it is "real" or "false"? life, not theory.” Our theories of God Outlook for many years, I note,

The Roman Church, of course. The and of creation and of revelation are huwith some misgivings, your effort Catholic layman whom you quote is not man and liable to change. When the in the issue of October 7 to place Roman so much out of accord with Cardinal majority of the greatest scientists agree Catholicism in the ranks of Modernism. Hayes in saying in effect that evolution upon a position which requires the abanLike you, I am glad to find Cardinal could not be taught in a Catholic school, donment of some of our theories, we will Hayes paying a tribute to fearless scien- for he well knows that at any point frankly abandon them, knowing well that lists and approving the search for "truth, where scientific evolution interfered with the nearer our theories approach to ultialways, everywhere, at any cost," but I the verbal inspiration theory of the Bible mate truth, the more perfectly will they cannot agree with your inference from it would be pronounced, in the words of promote true religion, which is "the life his words that either he or his Church is the Cardinal, “false science" and not of God in the soul of man.” I would sympathetic with the scientific spirit. “real." With this agrees the Jesuit like to see,

like to see, with you, in Cardinal Hayes's The history of Rome is entirely other- periodical which you quote with ap- words a frank acknowledgment of your wise and her proud boast is that she proval, which clearly states that the theory of religion, with which I agree. never changes. The Paulist Fathers seek Catholic Church has never forbidden the But I cannot. I see in them only a to popularize Romanism, and their radio teaching of evolution in her schools, shrewd attempt to make Romanism apexperiment is their most advanced move- because she always employs Catholic pear sympathetic with the modern scienment in this direction. They are glad, teachers. That explains the situation tific view-point while it remains, by a therefore, to broadcast words from the fully. Every Catholic teacher can be process of subtle casuistry, true to its Cardinal which will lead many to sup

trusted to brand as “false science" every own reactionary mediævalism. I hold no pose that Rome would accept as fact any evolutionary theory that clashes with the malice toward Rome, and have no symestablished conclusion of science which Biblical interpretation of Romanism. It pathy with her rabid detractors. I well interfered with the dogmas of that is like saying that Tammany Hall had know there are many broad-minded RoChurch. This is the real test. Would never forbidden the appointment of good man Catholics, but I do not propose to Romanism so do?

Republicans to its official positions—all be deceived by her Jesuitical subtleties, The major portion of the Protestant it has done has been to see to it that nor believe, without better evidence than Church has changed its view of creation loyal Tammany leaders were in con- we have, that the Roman Church as such and recast its interpretation of Genesis trol.

possesses the modern scientific viewout of sheer honesty when faced by the I have no disposition to discourage any point, or is willing to subject her theolfacts of science. Would Rome do this? liberal tendency which the Roman ogy, her theory, or her practice to scienI trow not. Cardinal Hayes practically Church may show. I will hail the day tific scrutiny. says that he would not. He uses the when the Roman Catholic Church will

W. WOFFORD T. DUNCAN, saving clause which many overlook - take the position of progressive Protes- Pastor Emory Methodist Episcopal "real, not false science.” Who deter- tantism and say with you, “Religion is Church, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

A London Art Letter by C. LEWIS HIND

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N A. Edward Newton's new collec- bility is to put him on a pedestal in his The artist who, centuries ago, in

tion of essays, “The Greatest Book best clothes. But the rarer kind of vented the high column with a figure

in the World, and Other Papers,” a sculptor, like the rarer kind of wayfarer, atop had a spiritual vision of the act of delightful miscellany, he says severe knows that what is wanted is an ex- remembrance denied to most makers of things about some of the statues in Fair- pression in bronze or marble of what a effigies to-day. How seldom have our mount Park, Philadelphia. He adds: notability stands for—his spirit, his soul, modern monuments, in Walter Pater's “Do not laugh, dear reader; you prob- the great unseen part of him—not his phrase, the power of “filling the common ably have something quite as ridiculous plump or scraggy body battered by the ways of life with the reflection of some at home.” years.

far-off brightness!” We have.

Rodin understood this when he When I lean over the parapet of the We have, because average man—and wrought his Balzac, and Bourdelle when National Gallery on a day of storm or public bodies who commission statuary he wrought his "Rodin at Work on 'The shine, Nelson on his column dominates are average men-continue to believe Gates of Hell,'” a huge, uncouth, ageless the imposing scene, and the "puny that the way to commemorate a nota- figure confronted by his unceasing task, figure,” out of sight, but not out of mind,

impossible of completion in one life- seems to be gazing down Whitehall to time.

where the flag flies on the tower of the

Mother of Parliaments. Somehow he 'URN now to a monument that is seems to reflect a far-off brightness.

essential London the Nelson col- Why, being upon a column gives even umn in Trafalgar Square.

to the ineffectual Duke of York a dignity Epstein has been hitting back in print and mystery quite foreign to him in life. at those critics who attacked his Hudson MORAL: Hide an effigy in the clouds, and Memorial in Hyde Park. That is well; it becomes memorable and spiritual. but at the end of his article he flings re

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proaches at London statues in general

, But we bave some recent monuments

in England that seem to be just Trafalgar Square; and he adds, making right. Walk down the Thames Embankme almost angry, “Think of that silly ment and pause before the Memorial to column in the middle carrying a puny the Royal Air Force. There is a shaft, little figure of Nelson, which is out of all above it an eagle preparing for flight, and proportion and cannot be seen!”

on the shaft these words are inscribed I think Epstein is entirely wrong. We from Exodus xix. 4: "I bore you on do not want to see Nelson; we want only eagles' wings, and brought you unto myto be reminded of him. He is in the self.” clouds above and beyond these voices. Here is another-just right: In the Nelson column we have the idea On the Kent Downs, above Shoreham, of Nelson.

there is a great white cross on the slope

Photograph by Ewing Galloway, N. Y.

Lord Nelson in his place of bonor in the heart of Trafalgar Square

of the green hill. You see it from the hard. When I was last in the House of I

BEGAN with a reference to Edward train; you see it from the surrounding Commons, I had to wait for half an hour Newton's "The Greatest Book in the countryside; and, if you descend into in the outer lobby. As there was nothing World”-the Bible. He treats it from little old Shoreham, where a river about else to do, I looked at the statues and the the standpoint of a bibliographical lover. the width of a walking-stick flows wall pictures. How cold, uninspired, and Towards the end of the book is another through the street, you will see a board, uninteresting look Pitt, Chatham, and essay, on “The Greatest Little Book in and upon the board is inscribed: “Re- Walpole in marble! I shrank away from the World.” He means "A Christmas member, as you look at the cross on the them. The notice, “It is requested that Carol,” by Charles Dickens. hill, those who gave their lives for their no one touch the statues," was not neces- Dickens, unwittingly, gave me my first country 1914-1919.”

sary. And the wall pictures? before lesson in true fame. I had been taken And there is the Cenotaph in White- the age of printing such illustrations were to Westminster Abbey by my mother. I hall, by Lutyens, which I call perfect. necessary as instruction in history. But had been shown rows of effigies of statesThe flags and the flowers complete it; to-day who learns anything from, or is men and warriors, and engraved upon they do not seem accessories. The Ceno- impressed by, a representation of “The the pedestals of each was a long account taph was a sudden inspiration. Lutyens, House of Commons on 2nd March, of virtues and services. But when we being asked for a design, scribbled his 1629,” or “The Flight of the Five Mem- came to Poets' Corner, to the gray slab notion of a cenotaph on the back of an bers 1642"? Personally, I would rather that marks the resting-place of Charles envelope. Hardly an alteration was see on the walls a stretch of fine color Dickens, I observed that there was nothmade.

with geometrical fallals, and in the cen- ing upon it but his birth and death

ter a great saying or two of the period. dates--"Charles Dickens. Born 7th B UT the effigy of a notability in his Words live; figures don't. Words are of February, 1812. Died 9th June, 1870.” best clothes or in a Roman toga dies the spirit; figures are of the flesh.

It was unnecessary to explain his fame.

The League and Austen Chamberlain

By ELBERT FRANCIS BALDWIN

The Outlook's Editor in Europe

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10-DAY, at the Reformation Hall, were shorter and more condensed than its social, humanitarian, administrative, the sixth Assembly of the they have been hitherto.

economic, and financial work, compared League of Nations came to an Finally, in no previous Assembly was with that purely political, it appeals more end. I have been present at four Assem- there so little rhetoric, lyrism, and mere to public opinion. The popularity, for blies. This was the best.

"gush” and so resolute a recognition of example, of its successful endeavor in First, because it condensed its work hard fact. For example, the designation, economically saving Austria, Hungary, into three weeks instead of the usual "enfant terribleused to be applied to and Greece is undeniable. A more refour. Yet there was no dearth of sub- Lord Cecil here; this year he has been cent case in point is the passage of a ject matter. Twenty-five items were on prudent beyond belief.

capital resolution yesterday to call an the agenda besides the Secretary-Gener- The usual democratic behavior also international economic conference. The al's annual report. Among the items characterized this Assembly. If any present prevalent ultra-protectionism were the grievances of minority popula- state is inclined to international arro- menaces economic peace now and may tions, the extirpation of slavery where it gance, the League ought to be a good menace political peace later. The ecostill exists, the establishment of Arme- corrective. For instance, this morning, nomic policy of most states contradicts nian refuges, aid to populations victims little Salvador and big Britain appeared the spirit of international solidarity of catastrophes, confirmation of recom- as equals—indeed, the Salvadorean rep- preached by the League. mendations of the Arms Traffic and the resentative had the chairmanship of the

The Assemblies are also appealing Opium Conferences, continuance of con- commission in question, whereas the more to governmental opinion. More trol in Austria and Hungary, and, above Britisher was simply its reporter. This than fifty Cabinet and ex-Cabinet Minall, a new decision on action to be taken afternoon, in an intermission during the isters, especially Foreign Ministers, were concerning arbitration, security, and session, I saw the Maharajah of Patiala, among this year's Assembly delegates; arms reduction. Every morning The reputed to be the richest prince in the hence their pronouncements here had a Outlook's box (flanked on the one side world, conversing cordially and with no kind of official character, more evident by that of the New York "American” trace of condescension with just a com- and impressive than at any previous and on the other by that of the Boston mon garden variety of Finn. Meanwhile meeting. Each of the fifty-five League "Christian Science Monitor") at the there were picturesque contrasts all over member-states is entitled to three delePress Bureau was chock-full of the abun- the hall: an Austrian was talking with a gates to the Assembly. But most states dant literature furnished by the League Paraguayan, a Dutchman was shaking sent alternates also, and not a few exon the subjects under discussion. This hands with a Chinaman, and a Czecho- perts and secretaries as well. service was admirably prompt; before slovak was being patted on the back by Not all of the fifty-five states were an afternoon session began a copy in a Cuban. It was all very democratic represented this year. When, on the English and French of the morning's and humanizing.

opening day, at the election of a Presispeeches was in the boxes.

Every year the Assembly attracts a dent for this year's Assembly, Mr. Parodi In the second place, this Assembly was greater number of visitors. As the called out the names of the states, I the best yet because the speeches here League, a co-ordinating center, enlarges heard no reply from Argentina, Bolivia,

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