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Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, with social problems; and the sixth, with That was a great event. The end of Peru, or Santo Domingo. The delegates political affairs.
war seemed in sight. A wave of generfrom Haiti and Santo Domingo came But before all this occurred it was the ous emotion and enthusiasm swept all the later.
turn of France to open the Assembly. men and women up into the blue until There were some striking changes from Paul Painlevé, French Prime Minister, they seemed made of heads and wings
When Albania's name was appeared in the presidential seat. Aban- only. called, Mgr. Fan Noli's familiar beard, doning the long black coat, customary on Months passed. The requisite number masking his smile, was no longer in evi- such occasions, M. Painlevé wore a gray of governments did not ratify the Prodence; another and younger delegate business suit. It seemed appropriate to tocol. Moreover, the British Labor Cabinimbly mounted the stairs to the tribune the terse text of his address, a text re- net fell, and its Conservative successor and deposited his ballot for President in vealing the savant as well as the states- repudiated its predecessor's delegates' the box. The governmental overthrows man. Every phrase showed sureness and signatures at Geneva. The Dominion in both Albania and Greece had resulted finesse. Gray was also appropriate for Governments were similarly minded. In in new delegations from those countries. the Premier's matter-of-fact, steady his address M. Painlevé pointed out the The far more important Cabinet change tone; his voice was as even and clear at fundamental reason why the French, in England replaced as first delegate the the end of forty minutes as at the be- generally realists, had espoused the Proflamboyant Lord Parmoor by the taller,
tocol and why the British opposed it. lither, austerer, and more determined
There are two ways of securing justice looking Austen Chamberlain, British
and peace. That of last year's Assembly. Foreign Minister, easily the most domi
is the Latin, idealist method. It pronating and most powerful, but certainly
ceeds from a generalization to particular not the most popular figure here. In the
examples. The other, the Anglo-Saxon, Jugoslav delegation the first delegate was
really realist method, proceeds from appropriately the dignified Foreign Min
particular cases to a generalization. It ister Nintchitch, a Serb, but at his side
accommodates an idea to special circumnow sat the Croat Stepan Raditch, just
stances and conditions. The ultimate reout of prison! The delegate making the
sult of either method may well be the most sensation, however, was an East
same. Indian, his Highness of Patiala. He wore
“But ours is the more practical,” deEuropean dress, but his head was en
clared Mr. Chamberlain here. The Britveloped in a huge light-blue turban and
ish Empire's complexity and geographical he had curious diamond rings in his ears.
position does not permit the British GovLast year, when the Abyssinians were
ernment to promise to apply everywhere admitted to membership, they created a
the Protocol's principles. But it can apply sensation by their native costumes-tight
any pact, such as the one the Foreign white trousers, black satin cloaks lined
Ministers of France, Germany, Belgium, with green silk and a magenta velvet col
and England are now drafting. Accordlar atop; but on the opening day this
ing to both M. Painlevé and Mr. Chamyear the Abyssinian, Negradas Zelleka,
berlain, the Protocol may yet be realized now in "store clothes,” stepping lightly
by the natural and beneficent play of up to the ballot-box, passed almost unno
regional pacts. There is thus a new ticed in contrast with the Indian prince.
Anglo-French Entente, and, for the presAs President of the Assembly, Raoul ginning. But his delivery lacked the ent, England seems the predominant Dandurand, the Canadian statesman, magnetism and vibratory quality of partner. was elected. He speaks French as his Edouard Herriot, his predecessor as Pre- The proximate reason why Austen native tongue, but English almost as mier. In contrast, M. Painlevé is colder, Chamberlain defied the League and rewell. His is a harsh, metallic voice, like a but he seemed to me more precise, ex- fused Britain's consent to the Protocol terrier's, very different from the sonorous acter, subtler.
was because of obligatory arbitration. quality of his predecessor as President, Also in this place a year ago spoke No country, he said, had submitted so Giuseppe Motta, the only Italian-Swiss Ramsay MacDonald, then British Labor many disputes as had England to arbitral ever to become President of Switz- Prime Minister and always a pacifist. settlement; the British Governments had erland. Mr. Dandurand has presided Apparently he grasped at armament re- thus shown their sympathy with the genably and seems universally popular. I duction as the sole universal panacea. eral principle of arbitration. As regards was specially interested in his election He rose right into the empyrean by
He rose right into the empyrean by disputes likely to lead to a rupture, the (alike gratifying to the English and the the animation vivifying his sentimental British Government is already bound by French), as I had been having some cor- considerations. But the cleverer fellow- the League Covenant to submit all such respondence with him relative to the Socialist, Herriot, went him two better. disputes either to arbitration or to the friendly and persistent Canadian effort to Also emphasizing the disarmament ideal, League Council. Also under the Covesterilize Article 10 of the Covenant. he proclaimed anew the absolute inter- nant, the British Government has already Then, according to custom, the differ- dependence of arbitration, security, and
dependence of arbitration, security, and recognized that disputes of a legal naent subjects on the agenda were divided armament reduction—that tryptich of ture, not affecting the vital interests, among six commissions. The first com- which the inseparable parts form one independence, or honor of the contractmission had to do with constitutional and whole.
The Assembly ultimately and ing states, are generally suitable for subjuridical matters; the second, with tech- unanimously adopted this receipt for pre- mission to arbitration. But there are, he nical organizations; the third, with arma- venting war and recommended a Proto- claimed, classes and categories of differment reduction; the fourth, with budg- col, or draft treaty, to their espective ences not to be so submitted, and, as the etary and financial questions; the fifth, governments for ratification.
British Empire Constitution is not unitary, it is unwise to proceed as if it were. There are too many Protocol enthusi- that this year's conclusions are intrinsiLord Cecil, in his closing address on asts here for the Chamberlain pronounce- cally more important than last year's. this subject, even tried to take arbitra- ment to be palatable. But every critic Certainly they show statecraft. They tion from its first position in the trilogy, with whom I have talked concedes its define what is actually and not theoretibut was immediately contradicted by transparent sincerity. Indeed, many cally politically possible. M. de Jouvenel, speaking for the over- messianic pacifists here seem swallowing whelming majority of his auditors. their disappointment. A few even agree
26 September, 1923.
Up-State New York Modernizes the Metropolis
By GREGORY MASON
HE Legislature of New York
State in 1921 passed a law re
quiring the use of voting machines in cities of the first class. New York was the only city of this class which had not already installed them, and the enactment was obviously aimed at the city at the mouth of the Hudson. The law provided that if within thirty days of its passage the Board of Elections had not agreed upon the type of machine to be installed that duty should devolve upon the Secretary of State. In short, here was the old, old situation, the up-State Republicans taking a fling at Tammany Hall.
The Board of Elections went into a deadlock, the two Republican members favoring a certain machine and the two Democratic members opposing it. Whereupon the Secretary of State decided that the United States Standard Voting Machine should be installed. But labor organizations objected that employees of this company worked more than eight hours a day and were not paid the prevailing rate of wages, and the Acting Corporation Counsel took the view that for this reason these machines should not be installed by the Board of Elections. An attempt to force the Board to install them by mandamus proceedings failed, and the situation remained a deadlock until 1925.
Early in this year Deputy AttorneyGeneral Abraham S. Gilbert began a new legal fight to compel the introduction of the machines, and eventually won it before the Appellate Court, the highest tribunal in the State. That Court held that Section 246 of the Election Law placed upon the Secretary of State the affirmative duty of buying these machines and sending the bill to the city, whose Controller should, if necessary, issue bonds to pay for them.
It was not possible to get a machine for each of the three thousand election districts of the metropolis, and, moreover, it seems to be the part of tact to introduce them gradually. Seventy-five
year-old Commissioner of Elections, John R. Voorhis, said to Gregory Mason :
"The voting machine is in line with the whole unpleasant tendency of the age. With the oldfashioned ballot the voter takes pride in making his choice, in lingering over the thought that he is really expressing himself by his visible crosses on the paper.
When he pulls the levers of a voting machine, he feels he is a mere statistic or part of a statistic, he is just one of a number of men who have pulled those levers. On the old paper ballot a man can write in his own name or a friend's name, and thus make the ballot his own permanently, to be recognized after the count, if necessary. The voter keeps his identity, his political individuality is preserved."
have been purchased, of which number fifty-five are to be used in the forthcoming election—that is, one in each election district of the Fifteenth Assembly District.
First and last, the battle of the voting machines has produced much sound and fury on Manhattan Island. “It is my opinion," says Commissioner Voorhis, who has opposed the introduction of the machines during the past thirty of his ninety-six years, “it is my opinion that the strongest advocacy of these mechanical contrivances comes from persons who are financially interested in them. cannot prove this, but I am convinced that it is so."
When I reported this to a prominent officer of the State who is a Republican, he merely laughed and said: "I might ask if Tammany Hall has any interest in the printing concern which will be out of pocket about three hundred thousand dollars a year if the old printed ballots are abandoned. I cannot prove this, but I am convinced that it is so."
The most serious objection to the machines seems to be that undoubtedly some voters are confused by them at first. This is merely to say that there is a type of human being to whom most mechanical devices are mysteries to some degree. I shall not make caustic remarks about this kind of mind, for I have one myself, the simplest automobile engine being to me a miracle never to be understood.
It does not seem likely that the expense of caring for the machines will equal the expense saved by the reduction in the number of election inspectors, election clerks, and polling places which their use makes possible. Although machines of the type used in New York cost $940 apiece, it seems that in the long run their use will mean a saving of municipal dollars.
Experience in other cities tends to prove that one voting machine will do the work of half a dozen polli
5. And no one denies that mu
tion returns are possible with the ma- retaining the old ballot, and Commis- am convinced that Tammany Hall gets chines than without them.
sioner Voorhis contends that if the mat- an advantage running into a large number Finally, the voting machine makes it ter were submitted to a referendum of votes by the use of the paper ballot. easy for the voter to split his ticket, the people would declare emphatically I am sure that the widespread opposition guards against the sort of mistakes which against the voting machine.
of Tammany politicians to the voting lead paper ballots to be thrown out of It is very likely true, however, that the machine is due to a deep feeling among the count, and quite obviously makes Democratic organization in the city feels them that they have a big advantage fraudulent counting of votes very diffi- that it is more at home with the paper over the Republicans through their facilcult.
ballot than its opponents. Perhaps there ity and familiarity with the handling of To say this is not to imply that the is sorvething in the following statement,
paper ballots.” opposition to the n.achines is largely made to me by a prominent Republican. But alas for these romanticists who from politicians addicted to questionable Said he:
are so facile in old-fashioned methods! election tactics. Undoubtedly there is a "I am not charging any organized The voting machine has probably come large sentimental prejudice in favor of fraud on the part of Tammany. But I to New York to stay.
The Shining Shore
VOMPS SHORT used to rub to- packed in ice and brought back to Wash- where, you are never on the wrong road.
bacco in his eyes—"Because," ington in a Pullman berth, of being If you arrive nowhere, with bedding and
he said, “it feels so good when maneuvered through the station, of all, you can stay there comfortably. it stops hurting." bumping home in a cab.
Somehow, W. K. headed to Annapolis, The particular practice is not, perhaps, But over against that was the joy of rolled on to the ferry, rolled off again at laudable. But the philosophy back of it purring along over perfect roads through Claiborne. Through all of one day we is. I have lived by it, sparingly. I a fruitful country to a rainbow's end, and purred leisurely along over roads that, if should not have gone to the length of —but why go on with these contrasts? we had had a destination, would have making myself ill in order to have the What I started out to do is to recommend been wrong roads. But they ran through fun of getting well. But, since I had to the Eastern Shore as a place for con
the most magnificent farming country undergo the unease of illness, I know valescent vacationing. I do so hereby, that I had ever seen—and I had prethat there is compensation, measure for with reasons for the same to follow in viously seen practically all of the farming measure, in the languor of convalescence due course of composition.
country in the United States except the and the final glow of health returned.
Eastern Shore and some of the valleys of Measure for measure! Tit for tat! A FIRST, let it be said that in order to
the Pacific coast. They ran, also, through quiet joy for every racking pain. A take a convalescent vacation prop quaint old villages. And these villages, sweet forgetfulness for every bitter mem- erly one must have a good boss—two, for despite their age, are up to date and comory.
choice, and they conspirators. A sick fortable. That is the beauty, after all, There were those nights of horror, man has not sense enough to get well un- of the Eastern Shore. Every inch of it when the time of my illness was new, in bossed. I had not, at any rate. When is comfortable. Elsewhere there is a a hotel room in New York. The pain I was barely half able to walk, I slipped streak of prosperity between two streaks would not depart and slumber would not off downtown and sent a telegram to the
of poverty. approach my pillow, though the doctor editor of The Outlook saying that I was At sundown we were four miles from conjured mightily with medicines and the ready to go back to work. Just what Salisbury—and those with whom we had woman whom some providence gave to happened I do not know. I suspect that chance to talk said that Salisbury is a be with me wrought more cunningly still woman of having "got wise” to what I city. Now cities always have irked me with the arts of love. The worst was had done and of having followed my tele- at twilight. I can bear them in the when the dawn peeped, gray and grim, gram with another saying that I was no working hours and in the sleeping hours, through the window and she dozed for a such thing. At any rate, there came but not in that holy time when day little at the bedside.
from the editor an apparently angry let- meets night, when bustle and noise are But over against those nights I set ter commanding me not to mention work soothed to sleep in the infinity of darkcertain other nights in an old farmhouse again until the doctor discharged me and ness, and when, for some brief moment of the Eastern Shore of Maryland—long, until, after that, I had taken a vacation in the dimness, the groping hands of man lazy nights when the first yawn came at of at least two weeks. I was really get- may come near to touching the hand of 7:30 by the clock, in front of an open ting well enough to have a little sense by God. wood fire; nights with ten hours of sleep that time, and replied with the simple To escape a city twilight I proposed it in them, and only enough odd moments sentence, “I am a good enough soldier to as a duty that we visit some of the famiof half wakefulness to emphasize the obey orders.”
lies in the comfortable farmhouses that sweetness of the sleep. The balance is So when the doctor finally did dis- we were passing. At the first we had a on the right side of the ledger. And the charge me only with a string tied to the drink of water and some homely chatbest was when the sun, already tree-top discharge—we loaded W. K., which is an if it cleared and the wind lay, there high, flooded through the room and the automobile, with bedding and food and would probably be frost; and the tomawoman who used to doze for a moment cooking tools and emergency medicine toes were not nearly all picked; and the at dawn slumbered on toward the noon. kit, and started nowhere. It is the only drought was plumb ruining the young
There had been the agony of being way to travel. If you are not going any. clover. I insinuated the sentence that
we were so in love with those farms that them; its sea-food marts with fleets of days Greenhill church house has fallen we wanted to stay at one of them. They oyster boats going out and coming in to pieces more than once, and more than were sorry, but they were not very well, and the armies of “shuckers" at work twice, but it has been as often restored, and, of course, could not make us as ashore.
retaining, however, its original brick comfortable as we ought to be if we But every night we went eagerly home flooring and box pews. The British used stayed. And they did not know of any- -home on the road that we had fool- it as a stable during the Revolution and body in the neighborhood who could take ishly thought led to no definite place. It the Yankees as a hospital in the sixties. us. But wait a minute! What about was a goodly home. There was Mrs. These distinctions it has in common with Mrs. Lowe? Her husband died last Lowe, motherly always.
Lowe, motherly always. There were the many churches, but, since there is no spring, you know, and she is all alone big old comfortable house and the open tradition that George Washington ever except that the Episcopal minister boards wood fire. There were the avenue of worshiped there, it really is a unique old there when he is not out on his rounds great mossy maples winding down to the church. among the parishioners of five country road, and the harvest moon at its full churches, and sometimes her son comes coming up over a field all filled with VER a camp-fire of cedar roots pulled out from the city to stay the night with shocks of ripened corn. There were
from the river-bank we cooked dinShe likes to have people come in. country ham and country eggs and milk
ner in the churchyard. Before the procIt will do no harm to ask. She lives in and butter, and turnip greens at the ess was over I came to doubt the wisdom the first house down the road on the left height of their autumn glory. And a of telling women new things. Some one hand side; but she is deaf, and may not feather bed!
had told this woman of mine that the understand what you say.
There were other abiding joys, not all
way to heat baked beans over a campBut she did understand, at the first of them things of beauty, quite. The fire is to put the can, unopened, in the asking. “Why, yes,” she said. “Come "Come little Collie dog was such a thing, to be
coals. She did-and it developed that right in—I am just about to start a fire." sure. I wondered why they called her
she had not made even a small hole in it. The minister was coming down the old- “Dick" until I found that her real It is not necessary to say that the thing fashioned stairs, bag in hand, off to a name is Dixie. There were three little exploded. Perhaps it is necessary to say guild meeting at an outlying mission. Negro boys, full of chores of the autumn, that the contents smeared themselves all But he thought better of it when we had the main one being to haul corn tops to over the front of the minister, from clerishaken hands. "I guess," he meditated, the barn. Their equipment was a little
cal hat to trouser cuffs. "that I can drive twenty-six miles after old black mule and a home-built sled,
And we learned as we came back supper without mishap.” So he made and they consumed endless time putting through Easton that the country parson the fire, telling us local history at the the bundled corn tops into the barn. One we had thus besmeared is shortly to be same time. “We are country folk,” he twilight, when they were late with their made Dean of the Cathedral! His zeal explained between whiles, “and we like last load, I undertook to organize them for the little country churches has made to have people come to see us who have —and did. Whereas each of them had the town inevitable for him. new things to talk about.”
taken a bundle of tops from the sled and At mid-morning of a gorgeous day we carried it all the way into the barn, now
left the home that had adopted us and HE receiver of the party-line tele- we passed the bundles on through four came at nightfall to the home we made
phone clicked, as it always does hands, and quickly. The work was done for ourselves in Washington. Here, too, when one wants to see if there is some in a fourth of the time. I had my re- was the joy of recovery. Things utterly one else on the line. Evidently there was ward, more than I deserved, when one of wearisome when I was sick were beautinot, for the crank was twisted and a the little Negroes said, confidentially, to ful now that I was strong. And I wired number called. And the voice of our the other two, “Now dat's what I calls the editor that, the woman consenting, I hostess came to us by the fireside, not unloadin' tops."
was ready to go back to work. quite even because of her difficulty of Withal, there was the comfortable and Yes, the fun of getting well outweighs hearing. "Son," she said, "if there is comforting talk of the minister, such the pain of being ill. anything you want to do in town you times as he was home, of his little old Come now the Job's comforters that need not come out to stay with me to- country churches and of their communi- pester the spirit of every man-Eliphaz night. ... Yes, the minister is going cants, few and far-sundered over those the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite away, but I have company.
level farms. There was no bound to his and Zophar the Naamathite--and ask and his wife from Washington. ... Nice zeal for his charges, who before he came what, after all, is the use? From this people. ... Good-night, son.
were long neglected. He knew nothing illness you may recover and be glad of We were strangers, and she took us in of the cities and towns, though city-bred. your strength to work again. Another —and put her trust in us as her protec- The little country churches he had made illness may come, and from that, too, you tors. We had a home on the road that his own.
may recover and be glad. But the end had started without destination. And One day we went with him to the old- is inevitable. There comes an illness there we stayed every night through the est of all his old churches Greenhill, far from which there is no getting well, and whole vacation, running out by day for in the woods on the banks of the Wi- therefore no pleasure to balance against a hundred miles or so and seeing all of comico River. Nearly two hundred
the pain. that marvelous country—its level fields years ago it was the largest and most But what do they know, these pesof tall corn, and young clover coming on prosperous church in all those parts. For simists, of the roads into the unknown or in the wheat stubble; its endless acres of then the people came to church from all of the homes that may be opening their tomatoes, rolling now in great wagons to those low-lying farms in sailing vessels, doors there to the earth-weary? They the canneries; its squash fields with all and the broad bosom of the Wicomico never would have believed that on a the semblance of gold mines above- was dotted all over with boats on Sun- nameless road of the Eastern Shore a ground; its quaint villages and old, old day, as a country churchyard used to be home would open and a haven be made churches; its rivers and bay inlets, broad in my boyhood with buggies and is now where a sick man might grow joyfully and placid, with sailing sloops upon
with automobiles. Since those prosperous well.
By HERVEY ALLEN
He crystal bed of agony,
The cold rivers of the winds
Up, with a celestial stride
That passed the van of light,
Into the sterile frontiers of the sky
And then it seemed
It was a winter's night,
“Richard," his father's voice cried,