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N the Navy there is less feeling of
Instead of turning over a battleship for antagonism between the flying-men
HIS is the second article
a conclusive test, the old guardians of the and the seamen, partly because of
in which Colonel Driggs
Navy busy themselves in designing new the fewer grievances, and partly because
apparatus for resisting airplane bombs. the Navy organization as a whole is more
reports the troubles and hopes
While it would be a cheap method of closely knit together. Army fliers live
of our fliers. An aviator him.
ascertaining whether or not any floating and work on fields remote from the
self, he speaks with authority structure could withstand the adjacent Army, while naval aviators live on the for his fellow-aviators.
explosion of a 4,000-pound bomb, the ships or are constantly in touch with the
Navy airmen have never been permitted fleet and its operation and problems. On
to make this test. When the Army airshore they are indoctrinated with sea antagonism between the Navy airmen
men, by act of Congress, obtained the wisdom, with sea navigation, with sea and the Naval Board. That is over the
opportunity in 1922 of sinking the Ostwarfare. Naval aviators expect to dequestion of the ability of battleships to
friesland, the Navy protested that the vote their lives to sea flying, and they defend themselves against aircraft at
airmen under General Mitchell were unare very proud to be enrolled under the
tack. And the allotment of money to fair and that they disobeyed orders by glorious traditions of this Service.
provide and maintain battleships is very sinking this dreadnought before the effect Yet they too have their grievances large as compared with the money spent of each separate hit was observed. The against the authority of non-flying suby the Navy on aviation.
Navy wanted this information so that periors. Under the rules of the Navy
it might provide further protection in Department, the aviators must abandon
What Every Aviator Knows
future construction; the fliers wanted to flying and perform duty as ship's officers E VERY aviator in the Government ser- sink the ship before she could be witha certain number of years to obtain pro- vice knows that no battleship has drawn under some subterfuge. motion. This absence from flying duty ever been built which can defend itself or If battleships can be sunk by airfor a period of years destroys much of survive against airplane attack unless it is planes, and if their only defense is airtheir ability as airmen-yet they are defended by superior air power. Yet the planes, then this fact should be definitely anxious for promotion.
United States Navy has never permitted established by our own airmen rather There is another feeling of growing its airmen to demonstrate this claim. than by hostile airmen in time of 1
It is cheaper to sacrifice one battleship sailors, however learned these latter may must exist between all our arms to insure now than to lose the whole fleet in war. be:
the best defense or offense. But the Navy will not test it. It is this The Mitchell party does not want to But, argues the aviator, we know more willful blindness to reason which Colonel rob the Navy of aviation. It believes an about flying than you do. Let us control Mitchell now characterizes as "criminally Air Academy could select and train valu- flying. We will turn out all the fliers for negligent." To deprive the air force of able aviators better than could West National defense. We will provide all the Navy of its own flying officers, to Point or Annapolis. Once graduated, the machines and appliances, for that is limit its operations so that the old tradi- these fliers would be portioned to the within the province of our experience, tions of the battleship may be main- Navy for sea duty, to the Army for ob- and not in yours. We will turn over to tained, Colonel Mitchell asserts is trea- servation, or to the Air Force for fight the Navy certain fliers and machines resonable conduct. Don Quixote tested his ing. The personal inclination of the quired for Navy air service. These men paper helmet once with his sword. Find- pilot doubtless would go far to determine will always belong to the Navy. They ing his headpiece rudely shattered by the this allotment. A very different type of will grow up in that service, specialize in test, he hurriedly repaired the damage flier is required for observation than for it, become indoctrinated with sea science and sallied forth to combat without dar- fighting. Good bombing pilots perhaps and sea traditions; you will have all that ing to risk it to a second test. For he might not make either good fighting you now have, but it will be better than loved that helmet.
pilots or good observation pilots--their you can possibly make it for yourselves,
training and the allotment of funds for because flying is our business, just as seaDivorce or Separate Maintenance? their machines and appliances should be manship is yours.
under the Air Force, and not under an To the Army we will assign certain W1 irh equal vehemence the Navy antagonistic or rival service.
necessary units of flying service which Board testify as a unit that their Hence we find that our naval airmen will live with the Army and will be a part "aviation is an integral part of the very are not boisterous in their dissatisfac- of the Army. The Army will command fabric of the Navy.” To divorce it from tion, but they are quite generally united their various functions, but the fliers will the Navy and place it under a separate under the banner flung aloft by Mitchell. perform those functions in their own management would be fatal to the naval General Mitchell, they know, was re- way, not in your way. Fliers know the defense of the Nation.
duced in rank because of his temerity in flying game better than landsmen know A clear distinction should be drawn criticising his superior officers. They are it. Let us alone to develop our own pebetween the terms "air force" and "air not going to run the risk of openly back- culiar science as we know it should be service” as applied to air warfare. Airing Mitchell in this revolt, because developed. When airplane meets hostile service is the service accomplished by the Mitchell may not win. They have their airplane, only experienced fliers know aviator for the benefit of the other arms, families to support and they desire to be what to do. Give us complete control of such as observing and reporting; such as promoted in due course. The less they our own element and we will leave you mapping enemy territory; correcting ar- offend their superiors, the more sure they in control of your own. tillery fire by wireless; doing patrol are of their promotion. But the Navy scouting. Such contributions to the in- fiers agree with the Army fliers in the Well, the Marine Corps Works formation of naval fleets or to the armies main. On one proposition all fliers are in the field should be designated as air service. Air force is the inherent power of fliers of the airplane itself-its guns and its This is the keystone of the aviators' importance compared with this broad bombs—to effect a victory over an oppo- rebellion. This is the meaning of Colonel problem of bettering our National denent.
Mitchell's charge of "criminal incompe- fense. The Marine Corps serves both Thus in a contest between two hostile tence" against the Army and the Navy. the Army and the Navy. It has its own air forces only fighting machines are en- Neither the Army Staff nor the Gen- appropriations and its own commanding gaged. The supremacy of the air de- eral Board of the Navy are willing to
officers. pends upon the superiority of one or the surrender control of flying to the fliers. Yet the Marine Corps does efficient other force. Regardless of the activities They claim, with some justice, that the work and has a deservedly high reputaof the Army and the Navy, this contest United States has produced the best ma- tion with the Nation. How much more between the air forces must be decided chines in the world under present condi- necessary is the independence of aviabefore either the Army or the Navy can tions. We have won most of the air tion-a highly specialized science known operate without fear from the air. records and our war planes are distinctly only to its devotees!
It is the Air Force that American superior to those of any other nation. As the years pass fliers accumulate aviators want divorced from its old mas- What more can be desired?
discretion and wisdom. In due time ters. They have no desire to take away Furthermore, it is obviously essential graduates of this flying school must apfrom the Navy the "aviation which is an that fliers be trained to co-operate with pear, competent and experienced. The integral part of the very fabric of the land forces and with the fleet in prepara- aviators believe that time has now arXavy.” Nor do they feel so deeply in- tion for war.
A separate Air Service rived. The problems of aviation cannot dignant over the fate of the Corps Ob- would injuriously affect this liaison be- adequately be handled by non-fliers. If servation Squadrons which the armies in tween the several arms of the Service. the Nation wants the best that can be the field require for their information as The Navy Board insists that airplane produced in aviation, it is the part of to enemy movements. But they insist service is an integral part of the Navy. wisdom to turn aviation over to the that the purely Air Force, which at no To separate it would be fatal to National
aviators unhampered by the restrictions time has any other function than that of defense.
of unsympathetic masters. meeting and defeating another air force, There can be no question as to the The gravity of the situation is this: should be selected, trained, and operated validity of these claims. Yo flying-man unless the experts on National defense solely by airmen and not by soldiers and denies them. The fullest co-operation agree, this confusing problem will be
united—ying should be under the sole The problems of promotion and of
handed to Congress to decide. Influenced by sensational and hysterical newspaper comments back home, a Congress of nonexperts may easily become lost in the mazes of perplexity.
The Army Staff and the Naval Board are composed of honorable and learned
men. They are self-perpetuating, self- Landmen and seamen know nothing selective boards. They control our Na- about its virtues or its limitations, its tional forces on land and sea. None problems or its aspirations except by could control them so well.
hearsay. When airmen are given absoBut our Air Force is neither of the lute control of their own functions, and land nor sea. It has a vastly different not until then, shall we see the end of element, a different science to learn. our aviators' rebellion.
THE old Countess of Dufferin distance, while with enormous intentness, of their almost boundless square miles of
sleeps in the green gardens of but without a word, the four bowlers fertile soil the greatest granary of the
the "C. P. R.,” just across the watch their course, make slow gestures world. For a great many years this street from the stately Winnipeg station with their hands, and sedately exchange grain formed the life-blood of Winnipeg. of the Canadian Pacific Railway and its their positions at the end of each game. Nearly all of it flowed in multiplying mansion-like Royal Alec Hotel. She Forty years ago only forty years ago volume each year into the city's grain sleeps very soundly in the late evening —the predecessors of those peaceful elevators and warehouses. Banks and sunshine of northern summer latitudes, bowlers-on-the-green fired and drove the brokerage offices and a wheat pit grew as her cowcatcher, her guards, and her Countess of Dufferin across Canada to rapidly as the crops which brought the capacious coal-tender full of brightly the Pacific terminal port of Vancouver. money into the city. Winnipeg became growing petunias and geraniums. Her She was the first steam-actuated lady to the great distributing center of westtender is forever coalless now, no more make that transcontinental journey, and ern Canada, multiplying railroad lines steam engenders in her ancient boiler, that is why she is now allowed to sleep centered there, big hotels and emporiher whistle is silent, her bell without a among her flowers, metamorphosed from ums followed the population. Winnipeg tongue, and no more at night will the old a locomotive to a monument.
boomed and boosted, like a hundred kerosene lamp in her reflector headlight The Countess of Dufferin's forty-odd other American cities on the continent, feel out the long steel trail across the years of life cover the growth of the city and blossomed on the flour of the continent.
of Winnipeg and the primary reason for wheat. Silently, as though not to disturb her its growth. Following the steel trail she And, like other booming, boosting slumbers, four shirt-sleeved employees of first traveled to the Pacific, immigrants communities, Winnipeg became inflated. the railroad are bowling on the green. and colonists have peopled the western It juggled with its population figures Without one sound the balls roll across provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, until they soared to an estimated number the turf from end to end of the marked Alberta, and British Columbia, making close to three hundred thousand. It began to talk a Canadian patois of Los ural outlet through its own ports on Lake Winnipeg: Main Street and Portage Angelican. The war came along, and Superior or by rail either to the Maritime Avenue. On or adjacent to those two called away the flower of its young men,
Province of Quebec or to the markets of thoroughfares, intersecting at right anbut it still further boosted the price of the eastern United States. The tariff on gles, the commercial life of the city conthe raw products of western Canada. Canadian grains protectively imposed by centrates.
centrates. A hundred yards off either And after the war Winnipeg- just like the American Congress shuts off former one of them you might be in Sardis or many another municipal joy-rider across bulk shipments southward through Win- Pompeii; the buildings are intact, but no the border—kept booming right ahead nipeg to the big milling centers of Min- human beings enter or leave or tenant on high. There was plenty of money, nesota and the Middle West. And now, them and the atmosphere is archæologiand everybody had a good time. Not a with the drift westward away from cal. The two main arteries of business golf course or a bathing beach within a Winnipeg of Canada's biggest market- are decorously busy by day, but at night radius of fifty miles that hadn't a good seeking commodity, the city has found they are as nearly deserted as the huge macadam road to it. The farmers wore itself in a fair way to become economi- manorial hotels and the spacious mesilk shirts and everybody bought a motor
morial stations of the two great trunk car. Then things began to happen-one
railroads which have built, and are still thing of cardinal import to Winnipeg.
building, western Canada. Early in the Wheat began to move west to the Pacific.
evening, when The Outlook's representaRemember that Winnipeg was built
tive transferred his kit from the Cananot inflated on the substantial basis of
dian Pacific to the Canadian National wheat. Wheat was the reinforcement on
Railway, with some time to spare, he was which the concrete municipal structure
making his way on foot through the was built up. The most supportable of
moonlit silence of Main Street, "whence Winnipeg's many superlatives was "big
all but he had fled.” On this silence gest grain center in the world."
broke the even clumpety-clump of horses' Very well then; somebody—some big
feet smacking the asphalt, and, looking shipper of wheat-discovered the Pan
up, expecting to see the carriage of some ama Canal, and he and his co-discoverers
personage, he beheld his own luggagefound a use for the superabundant ship
trunk, grip, and typewriter-sitting solping which the war hatched like salmon
emnly in banc, very snobbishly and enspawn on the rivers and bays of the
tirely alone, driving in triumph to the American continent. It was found that
baggage-room. wheat could be moved more cheaply
So much for the Countess of Dufferin. from the Canadian Northwest to Van
Requiescat in pace. couver, and thence by cargo steamer
The door to the office of his Worship through the Canal to Europe and the
the Mayor of Winnipeg is locked; but an Atlantic seaboard than by rail through
efficient, first line of defense secretary Winnipeg eastward to the Atlantic ports.
has his instructions, and in Winnipeg an Through the Pacific port of Vancouver
appointment is an appointment. Beyond alone last year more than fifty-five mill
the outer defenses, manned and woion bushels of Canadian wheat were
maned by clerical and secretarial helpers, shipped. Other millions of bushels
the Mayor sits in his official sanctum found their way by specific gravity over On his way across the American continent working on specifications which he will the Canadian National Railways to their George Marvin found few men as inter- have to sign or reject that afternoon. A more northern Pacific port at Prince esting as Winnipeg's war hero Mayor.
snow-drift of papers covers the table, the Rupert. The trend of the grain fields
This is R. H. Webb, a man who reads
high windows are open on the green of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and western
the signs of Winnipeg's prosperity in the
lawn of the garden, and his Worship,
northern skies Manitoba is now towards the Pacific,
coast and waistcoat discarded and sleeves where, in addition to the cheaper com- cally marooned in the very midst of rolled up over a pair of mighty arms, petitive haul to Europe and the eastern plenty
bends over his job of waking up Winniseaboard of the United States, the mar- This phase in the life of the Chicago peg. kets of both the east and west coasts of of Canada is rather amusingly symbol- Mayor Webb is the antipodes of the South America and those of the Orient ized by the old Countess of Dufferin Countess of Dufferin. He is entirely hold out tempting prospects.
asleep among her flowers. In the late awake. In 1914 he volunteered in the On a map of Canada Winnipeg will be summer she seemed to set the tempo of first overseas contingent, and was profound almost exactly on the middle line the town. An aftermath of flags and moted to lieutenant-colonel of infantry. of longitude between Vancouver and bunting told of the recent passing of After nearly five years of service, he Prince Rupert on the Pacific and Mont- Field Marshal Haig, and the City Hall came back to his home in Montreal withreal on the St. Lawrence estuary, the was nightly lit up with festooned electric out his right leg, but with the D. S. C. largest Canadian port on the Atlantic lights of many colors strung there in de- and four other decorations on the left seaboard. Its situation has made it until vices to do him honor. But, by contrast breast of his uniform. The war veterans recently the normal and natural dis- to Vancouver and Calgary, Seattle, or of Ontario and Manitoba are for him to tributing center for trade moving east Minneapolis, the town seemed weary of a man. Less than three years ago, when and west. Its growth and prosperity shows, tired of oratory, sunk in a lassi- in the general business depression one of followed the tides of this latitudinal tude which contrasted agreeably with the the largest hotels in Winnipeg was about trade. Eastward of Winnipeg the great vainglory and fret of other more booming
vainglory and fret of other more booming to go on the rocks, a group of stockholdmineral wealth of Ontario finds its nat- localities. There are just two streets in ers persuaded Webb to take charge of it. In less than two years that caravansery. was paying dividends and Webb had almost revolutionized the hotel-service standards of the city.
In 1919 a severe strike accentuated the hard times in Manitoba and, partly as a result of industrial unrest, a radical Labor candidate was elected to the Mayoralty. During his two terms of office things took no decided turn for the better in Winnipeg, and at the last election R. H. Webb, the new hotel salvager from Montreal, was put into the Mayor's office on a constructive, readjustment platform. Webb is not responsible for all the waking up that is going on in Winnipeg to-day, but he is identified with most, if not all, of the projected renaissance of a city which persists in considering itself the Chicago of Canada. Formerly the city grew and enriched itself on the meeting of east and west within its trade gates. The new Winnipeg that Webb is championing, keeping what it can of its strategic value of position along degrees of latitude, is looking now towards development north and south; southward to the Twin Cities of Minnesota and as far as Chicago and the central Mississippi Valley; northward to Port Nelson, on the shore of Hudson
Winni peg's Main Street Bay. In order to demonstrate the neighbor: blank expanse of white, corresponding to statements. For two hundred years
the hood of Minneapolis and St. Paul and, the ice and snow under which they are Hudson Bay Company has been provisat the same time, direct general attention currently believed to be buried.
ioning its posts in the Northwest Territo the advantages of the new interna- His Worship, limping over to the big tories and Canada by ship through the tional highways built and building by the wall map in his office, points out the bay that bears its name, and last year, State of Minnesota and the Province of actual facts graphically represented by in the work of building up at Port NelManitoba, Webb got a number of promi- the most recent and accurate cartogra- son a rail and sea terminal, the Dominnent business men together and made a phers. There runs the solid red line of ion Government sent thirty-eight heavy. record motor-car foray across the border. the Hudson Bay Railroad from the lakes laden steamships through the straits and Leaving Winnipeg at 3 A.M. of a July northwest of Winnipeg to a point on the across the great bay to the mouth of the morning, they got into St. Paul at 2 P.M. Nelson River, where a continuing dotted Nelson River without mishap. The tide that same afternoon—altogether too fast line indicates the ninety miles of survey drops thirty-two feet from flood to low for comfort, as some of them had to ad- which intervene between rail-head and ebb along the shores of Hudson Bay, and mit. About two weeks later a delegation the northern terminus of the line at Port the only man who tried to cross the from the Twin Cities, including the Nelson, on the shore of Hudson Bay, . mouth of the Nelson on the ice last win. Mayor of St. Paul and the Governor of From Port Nelson the red dotted line ter fell through Minnesota, returned the visit, still fur- continues on across the salt inland sea The significance of those little red ther emphasizing the new route and the that is called a bay and out through numerals on the blue is explained by the new reciprocity.
Hudson Strait to the North Atlantic. Mayor. They mean that the wheat Webb and Winnipeg and Manitoba And printed in neat red type on the deep fields of the three western provinces and want United States attention. They blue water, parallel with the dotted line, the Northwest United States, the inex want tourists, immigrants, and investors, runs the legend: “Port Nelson to Liver. haustible mineral wealth of northern and they are getting all three. But pool 2,966." ”
Minnesota, Ontario, and Manitoba, and Webb's big project, in which the neigh- "Of course the water is actually blue," the railroad and distributing center of boring United States will have an inter- says his Worship. "Hudson Bay is Winnipeg are 1,500 miles nearer to Liv. est, his big dream, is northward. On never frozen over. Port Nelson is an erpool than is the port of Montreal 01 school maps of the North American Conopen port all the year round!”
any one of the United States ports on tinent the district “North of 53,” a vast With the school-book geography fro
the North Atlantic seaboard. region of iand and lake greatly exceeding zen waste of white etched in deep by On the many other reasons for Winnithe combined area of the United States years of hearsay evidence, you are in- peg's reawaking importance in the whole and Alaska, is charted blank without de- credulous of the animation traced on the American scheme of things his Worship tail. And in the minds and imaginations Mayor's big map. But he has accredited
Mayor's big map. But he has accredited is fluent. On this dream of Winnipeg as of those who can visualize geography at history, governmental records, and his a seaport and of Manitoba reborn into a all the Hudson Bay regions remain a own personal experience to back up his maritime province he is eloquent. There