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knowledge of the note itself. That was Pro-German persons in America de- portraiture of two men whose struggle published for the world to read in Febru- nounced the message as a British hoax. with each other profoundly affected, if it ary, 1917. In it Zimmermann informed They were left in a ridiculous position,
They were left in a ridiculous position, did not determine, the course of the the German Minister in Mexico that however, when Zimmermann acknowl- United States at one of its critical peGermany was about to begin again her edged the authorship. Americans were riods. unrestricted submarine warfare; that she given the credit of having captured and In the first place, it is a portrait would try to keep the United States neu- deciphered the despatches. British news- of Lodge himself. As no other book that tral; failing this, she would make an papers assailed the British Secret Service has appeared, or is likely to appear, it alliance with Mexico and together make as less efficient than the American, since explains to the reader of imagination the war upon the United States; that Mex- in this instance the Americans had won animosity which Senator Lodge aroused ico's share of the profits was to be Texas, out. Both British and American Gov- in his political opponents, and particuNew Mexico, and Arizona; and that it ernments let this misconception go un- larly in Mr. Wilson and his more-devoted would be agreeable if Mexico would patch disputed, as the possession by the Eng. followers. Complacent ignorance was a up a peace between Germany and Japan. lish of the German code was still a se- trait in others which Senator Lodge What Mr. Hendrick reveals is the method cret. And the German Minister in Mex- could not well forgive, and this scorn was by which this delightful note came to be ico, von Eckhardt, was extremely un- a feeling (his opponents would say one known, and some of the results thereof. happy, despite the' "storm of cheers” of the few feelings) which he took small
Germany sent the message by three with which he was being greeted in the pains to conceal. And not infrequently routes: by wireless through Sayville, streets and the "three faint hisses” which he found President Wilson ignorant of Long Island; by the Swedish diplomatic formed the chilling reception of the important matters and undisturbed by service; and by the American State De- American Ambassador. One copy of the his ignorance. Thus when Mr. Wilson partment. The British Government was message was actually bought in Mexico proposed to subject Mexico to a blockade in possession of the German wireless City-presumably by an agent of the without declaring war, to Mr. Lodge it code, and was accustomed to read the British Secret Service. Von Eckhardt seemed incredible that the President of voluminous messages with which Berlin explained at great length to Berlin, and the United States should not know that was filling the air. The British captured his messages were read with mirth in the without declaring war no blockade could or decoded all three messages. The Say American Embassy in London and in the be established, for the fact that a general ville wireless was being used by the Ger- British Foreign Office. These messages
blockade is a purely belligerent right is mans in defiance of the fact that Wash- show where Mr. E. Phillips Oppenheim "the A B C of international law.” Mr. ington had forbidden it. The Swedish gets the material for his novels. The Lodge's comment upon the one classical diplomatic service was more than accom- good Herr von Eckhardt was deeply dis- illusion he could find in Mr. Wilson's modating to all German requests. But it tressed. Despite all the efforts at speeches or writings, in which Mr. Wilmay be questioned whether a message secrecy, despite his Government's be- son confused Hercules and Antæus, is a proposing war against a country, and trayal of confidence about the Sayville case in point. After giving the true verpartition of its territory, was ever before wireless, there was a leak somewhere. sion of the myth, Mr. Lodge adds: conveyed by the diplomatic service of Probably in the German Embassy in
The story is as popular as it is old. the country plotted against! Zimmer- Washington, he suggests. Not in his It is in every classical dictionary and mann handed his message to the Ameri- Chancellery! His secretary had burned
in all the books which boys used to can Embassy at Berlin and asked for its the despatches and "scattered the ashes."
read about the Greek mythology. But transmission to Ambassador Bernstorff in They had been read to him “at night, in
as Macaulay says in one of his essays,
"I have no desire to detain my reader Washington. He said it was a reply to my dwelling-house, in a low voice," and,
with this fourth form learning.” The President Wilson's peace efforts. Con- until destroyed, kept in a "steel safe.” point is that it seems incredible that trary to all custom and common sense, Ah, was it not so shameful?
Mr. Wilson should have made a blunthe American Embassy was transmitting
der of this sort, which not only would
be impossible to a scholar but, one messages without knowing their contents.
Senator Lodge's would think, impossible to an educated Mr. Hendrick absolves Ambassador
man. Gerard, and says he could have acted Posthumous Evidence
This scorn led M thus only on orders from President Wil
Lodge to the use MONG the multitude of books son. The Americans asked for no trans
of irony calculated to infuriate its victhat tumble from the presses
tims. lation; the message was telegraphed in
A single example must suffice
into obscurity there occasionally here as typical. In the Senate committhe German cipher, but read by the Brit
emerges one whose publication is a pubish officials as it crossed England. The
tee's report on the Treaty of Versailles lic event. Such was Winston Churchill's British did not have that faith in Ger
Senator Lodge, in reply to the “clamor “World Crisis." Such have been the many's innocence which characterized
for speedy action” by the Senate, revolumes of the Page letters. Such now our Government up to the spring of
ferring to the fact that neither France, is “The Senate and the League of Na1917. Bernstorff's relay message to
nor Italy, nor Japan, had yet acted, tions” of Henry Cabot Lodge."
wrote: Mexico was actually found by our State
No historian of the World War and Department (after the tip came from
Persons afflicted with inquiring its aftermath will find that he can afford Ambassador Page in London) in the ca
minds have wondered not a little that to pass it by. It is more than a notable
the distressed mourners over delays in ble office in Washington! And Mr. Page public document of the times; it is a the Senate have not also aimed their gained his first knowledge of the message
criticism at the like shortcomings on from the British Government.
1 The Senate and the League of Nations. By Henry Cabot Lodge, Charles Scribner's
the part of France, Italy, and Japan, Some of the results were amusing. Sons, New York. $4.
an act of even-handed justice in fault
throughout is governed by his sense of reality. What offends Mr. Wilson most is an affront to his emotions as aroused by some imagined future; what offends Mr. Lodge most is an affront to his common sense and his knowledge of facts. The contest between Lodge and Wilson as pictured in this book was in dramatic and extreme form the contest between those two types of character and conceptions of government that have divided American parties. In the words of William Garrott Brown, this is the conflict of “the universal and the visionary against the specific and the practical, the kingdom of the air against the kingdom of the earth.”
The bitterness of this struggle would have been avoided if men of the type of Lodge could have seen in the Wilsonian some measure of common sense, and if the men of the Wilson type could have seen in their opponents ideals, none the less ideals because they were not their own.
As it was the extreme idealist, with
out an adequate sense of reality, who Henry Cabot Lodge
was the chief executive in negotiating finding which they have hitherto failed is to be found in extreme form the con- the treaty and in determining its fate, to perform
trast between the two parties they rep- upon him rests the responsibility for the Not less vigorous than his portrait of
resented. Mr. Wilson is commonly failure.
called an idealist. There is no doubt himself, however, is the portrait which
It is not merely the future historian he has painted of President Wilson. It
that he was governed by ideals. Whether that will profit by the evidence in this is hard sometimes to distinguish between
they were sound ideals or unsound ideals book, but the future statesman. He
is not to the point; they were not ac- ought at least to learn from it the danthe act of ascribing motives to a man and the act of delineating his character.
tualities, but something imagined for the gers that will beset him from the exWhat Mr. Lodge does in this book is to
future. On the other hand, Mr. Lodge tremists on either side. show how his estimate of Mr. Wilson's character, and incidentally his estimate of his dominant motive, guided him as
By LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT
Contributing Editor of The Outlook ment upon Mr. Wilson; but throughout CUCH talk there is nowadays of the Lees, and the Henry Clays in the the book he shows how his judgment of
the widespread degeneracy re- South; the New England race of the the President's mind and attitude served
sulting from the World War- Daniel Websters, the Rufus Choates, and in successfully putting through a Na- nobody wants to work; those who do the Charles Sumners is extinct. Such tional policy. Mr. Lodge does not rest consent to worlu give scant quantity and are some of the lamentations of the modhis case upon mere surmise. He adduces low quality for high wages; woolen cloth ern pessimist. evidence, and he reaches the conclusion is half cotton; silk is loaded with lead Now I do not want to list myself with that, "as the strenuous days which were and cracks and breaks in a way that those self-satisfied persons who are enfilled by the contest over the League of would have scandalized our grand- tirely content with things as they are. Nations passed by, almost every one mothers; Havana cigars are made of There is beyond cavil room for considerbringing its difficulty and its crucial Connecticut tobacco; steam laundries able improvement in the present scheme question, I made no mistake in my esti- ruin our collars and shirt bosoms; the of things, and some of the improvement mate of what President Wilson would do customs and manners of our children (to might be made by considering the fine under certain conditions." This esti- say nothing of their morals) are far more standards and achievements of the past. mate was based on the view that rude and boisterous than our own when But to those who profess to think that throughout his career Mr. Wilson was we were their age; the House of Repre- the present is wretched and the future guided by his "overwhelming thought of sentatives is composed of illiterates and hopeless it might be pointed out that the self.” And in this Mr. Lodge found the the Senate of rich boobs; statesmen of past is not always as bright as they like key to all that Wilson did.
the type of the Bleases and the Varda- to paint it. John Jay and Gouverneur mans have taken the place of the Lamare Morris once agreed in a reminiscential
In the contrast between these two men
after-dinner talk, that there were a lot of startling because they have been adopted flights of stairs to his lodgings in a re"damned scoundrels” in the Continental by almost every modern painter-a dis- spectable house in Craven Street? Well, Congress. A friend of mine, who is inter- tinguished Professor of Physics in Co- I did on my first visit to London forty ested in the history of the development lumbia University went to the exhibition. years ago, and I much prefer a modern of written and printed language, told me He came home saying:
elevator. Has he ever tried to shave by not long ago that one of the oldest known “I have just been to see the most out- candlelight in an English inn of the manuscripts in syllabic characters is an rageous pictures by a Frenchman named early 'eighties? Well, I have, and I essay written on papyrus several cen- Monet. Such colors! Such light! Such much prefer electric light. Has he ever turies before Christ by an Egyptian and reflections! All contrary to the laws of swung a scythe on an Adirondack farm preserved in either the British Museum nature! He must be insane!”
in the days when that beautiful mounor the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris. “Well,” replied his daughter, "I'm tain region was reached by dusty stageThis Egyptian author deplores the man- afraid you are partly responsible, for coaches? Well, I have, and if I were an ners of the young people of his time- Monet says that he is greatly indebted agricultural laborer I should regard the flappers and the fresh guys of Tut- to your book on optics and the spectrum, Cyrus McCormick and Walter A. Wood ankhamen's day—and implores them to of which he has made a careful and as public benefactors. He thinks that go back to the higher standards of their scientific study."
the modern ocean liner "with elevators fathers. When I heard that, I said to Such is the effect of traditional dogma and fireplaces and swimming-pools and myself: Why worry? That Egyptian and habit even on the scientific mind! Ritz restaurants” is out of place on the moralist was suffering, I am afraid, from But if the pessimist is wrong who ocean, and deplores the disappearance of what a very modern young lady I know thinks there is nothing good except in the the deep-water sailor, "the old shellback of calls "the Parent Control Complex"! traditional past, what shall be said of the taking his trick at the wheel.” Has he
Is it not possible that the Tories of man who wants to preserve all the dis- ever taken his trick at the wheel? Well, the days of the English Reform Bill may comforts of the past because they were I have, off the Cape of Good Hope when have deplored the fact that England was picturesque? A contributor-one of my our thirteen-hundred-ton bark was yawgoing to the dogs because it had no favorite contributors to the excellent ing its way through rain and sleet in a statesmen capable of producing a Magna “Atlantic Monthly," whom its editor hurricane, when the “shellbacks” on Charta? It certainly is quite probable rightly calls “an ‘Atlantic' philosopher," watch could keep their fingers from that lovers, or would-be lovers, of litera- professes such a doctrine, although I freezing only by pulling woolen stockings ture when Shakespeare was an insignifi- more than half think that he is indulg- over their hands and arms, and I undercant actor-manager at the Globe Thea- ing himself in some amiable fooling. stand the charms of steam or electric tre thought that English literature had In a recent issue of the “Atlantic” he steering gear. come to a melancholy end because there says:
Let this "Atlantic" philosopher read were no more Chaucers. And it is not a
How well I remember my first trip
the letters of Erasmus to find out what matter of possibility or probability, but
abroad, my first sight of England! I
the inns of Germany were three hundred a matter of fact, that Beethoven was was fearful it would not come up to years ago, or Arthur Young's Travels to denounced by some of his contemporaries
the advance notices. I savored every appreciate what the roads of France were as a rude and boisterous innovator, for
scene and incident that was peculiarly in the days of George Washington, and
and indubitably English. I relished getful of or disrespectful to the nobler
even the discomforts. I should have
he will be glad that he now rides in standards and traditions of his fathers.
been disappointed if the rooms had
a limousine instead of in the saddle Some years ago a well-known artist of been warm, the beer cold, or the coffee when he visits the Black Forest or the New York-if I remember correctly, it good. I drank tea for breakfast, Alps. was the late Kenyon Cox-had an exhi- scorned the Paris edition of the New
As to plumbing-but perhaps it would bition of studies of the nude, made some
York "Herald," and took in the
be better to draw the veil of modesty and what in the manner of Botticelli or
“Morning Post.” I rejoiced that a
reticence over that. I may be pardoned, Arthur B. Davies. A humorous critic in
hidden behind so noncommittal a head however, if I recall the fact that when I one of the newspapers confined his com- as "The Pimlico Affair.” At Tilbury went to an excellent preparatory school ment to saying that the studies were re
where we docked was a P. & O. steam
in the seventies, not many miles from pellent alike to the artist, the moralist,
ship tied up alongside. From a port
New York, we boys had a bath once a and the sensualist. So it was with the
hole protruded a gayly turbaned head,
week, on Saturday nights, in tin tubs temFrench innovators Millet and Monet.
beneath it, a timely symbol of Brit- porarily placed in the German recitationTheir pictures were repellent alike to the ain's far-flung empire. I felt as if this room, the water being laboriously carried artist, the scientist, and the sociologist. gorgeously illuminated footnote had from a pump which was mercifully The artists objected to their violation of
been set just here at the beginning of
placed in a lobby or coat-room, so that tradition, the sociologists to Millet's de
the very first chapter of my English
we did not have to go out into the ice piction of the hard lot of the peasant, and
and snow for it. No running water came the scientists to Monet's new treatment And now, he pretends to complain, all into or left the building, so that all other of the effects of light and color in nature. this charm has been destroyed by the in- appurtenances which are happily con
Twenty-five or thirty years ago, when troduction of iced drinks, the telephone, nected with modern plumbing, and are Monet's impressionistic pictures were electric lights, elevators or "lifts," the considered essential not only to comfort first exhibited in New York and were the taxicab, American agricultural machin- but to civilized hygiene, were about as talk of the town because of their startling ery, 'and modern housing for factory primitive as they were in the days of the effects of light and color--no longer workers. Has he ever climbed three Neanderthal man. The same conditions prevailed in Europe, and even so late as fifteen years ago a distinguished Imerican with whom I was a guest in one of the great and splendid palaces of a regal European city found the plumbing so inadequate in the royal suite which had been assigned to him that he said, with a twinkle of humor: "Do you know, I
don't like living in these palaces, for I be grateful to the utilitarians. I am percan't ring my bell and complain of my fectly willing to get my picturesqueness room!"
from the green fields of England and the No; when I hear anybody deploring snow-capped peaks of France and cheerthe loss of the beauty and simplicity of fully accept the services of the railway "those good old times," I have only to engineer, the automobile chauffeur, the think of the discomforts of travel and telephone linesman, and the plumberdomestic life in my younger days and to especially the plumber.
The Outlook's Editor in Europe
world, in the midst of a balmy at- peace must have flown from this earth others, is now to be open the year round.” mosphere and under an azure sky, and taken refuge elsewhere."
"It is, then, I suppose, hot and close I have just done the three worst articles Lovely nature and lovely weather do here in summer,” I suggested. I have ever sent to the ‘Revue des Deux inspire optimism. And we have had "Oh, no, signore," was the reply. Mondes.'" So once wrote here Alex- both.
“Make no mistake. Almost always we andre Dumas père.
Locarno has the lowest altitude of any have a lake breeze." In the same spirit, Gustav Stresemann, place in Switzerland. Hence its air may More than four centuries ago this upGerman Foreign Minister, remarked to seem hardly as dry and invigorating as per end of Lake Maggiore became Swiss. us the other day: "It is going to be a elsewhere. But it is invigorating, all the In appearance and life, however, the hard job to attend to politics in such a same, for it is Alpine air, albeit mild and characteristics of the country remain paradise.
restful. Protected by the mountains, the thoroughly Italian-from the little lake In truth, the country is so beautiful winds from the north pass high over it boats with their bent-wood covers, to the that the usual incitement to the usual and do not touch it.
deep clefts on the hills, with their dark kinds of work found in the usual uglier This morning I talked with a Locar- dramatic shadows in startling contrast to places is absent. On the other hand, nese. He said: “You should be here in the luminous southern sun. Or from the Locarno does incite to the particular January, signore. Primroses begin to vast vineyards (no stubby growths, as in work the Foreign Ministers of seven bloom then. It is our best month. Every the north; the vines are supported on Powers have been doing here. They year more and more strangers profit by long, thin stone uprights and are strung want to frame a pact to assure justice our climate. Last winter we had practi- across, the rich purple clusters hanging and peace to themselves, and so to the cally no snow, and we never have fog. temptingly over one's head) to the villa world. "Certainly, if their foundations,” Indeed, the colder months are the pre- gardens, with their peculiarly Italian said Austen Chamberlain, British For- ferred season here now. The Grand colors and odors of chestnuts, cypresses, eign Minister, on arriving here, “could Hotel, you notice, has been open only magnolias, mimosas, eucalyptus, oranges,
lemons, pomegranates, persimmons, and The proximity of this Italian-speaking really a more appropriate designation for palms. Or from the noon and evening canton to the German-speaking ones ac- such a meeting-place than Palace of calls across the lake from the tall clock- counts for the Teutonic names on many Peace would have been. Over its porch towers--alongside, but detached from the hotels and pensions hereabouts. One have been hoisted the flags of the seven churches—in the many little lake ports hears the German language more fre- participating Powers, arranged in French or in the high-pitched mountainside set- quently than any other, save, of course, alphabetical order, and atop the edifice tlements, pictures of aloofness and seren- Italian. But I have hardly ever heard has waved the Swiss white cross on its ity, to the perfectly proportioned, ample German-German; almost invariably one cheery red ground. church porches that cause you to wonder hears the Swiss-German dialect, a seem- According to legend, centuries ago a not at all that this southern Italian slope ingly harsher speech but spoken with a Locarno monk, praying ardently, saw the produced a Palladio. And what friendly gentler and friendlier face, contrasted Queen of Heaven appear on a projecting churches, always open and seeming to with the more harmonious Hanoverian rock high over the town. She desired, say to the wayfarer: “You must pray tongue, paradoxically used by more piti. he concluded, to have a sanctuary there. eventually; why not now?” less personalities.
The present sightly church and cloister True, October brings no such brill- Locarno is a settlement of about ten of the Madonna del Sasso are the result, iantly gorgeous colorings in Europe as thousand inhabitants. In their delight at Locarno's most distinguishing feature. It with us in America. Here the shades are becoming a world capital for some weeks, has an exquisite setting. Some one said less striking, but more delicate—the sun- the Locarnese have lavishly decked their the other day: “Those monks up there set tones on the bare brown-gray rock of buildings with the flags of the nations must needs be holy men. The place is the near-by mountains or on the more taking part in the Conference of Foreign too beautiful for sin." distant snow peaks harmonize with the Ministers here, together with a liberal The monks of to-day are alive to what soft russets and yellows and greens of the sprinkling of their own national, can- has been going on below. Every evening lower slopes. And wild flowers are still tonal, and municipal banners.
now, over the cloister door shines, in illubravely blooming on the roadsides in The Conference has held its sessions in minated, giant letters, the word PAX. It great quantity and variety. the cantonal Palace of Justice. This is can be seen far down the lake.
Villa Muralto, Locarno.
“ Rome and Science'
W ITHOUT any desire to stir up controversy, but with a
full realization of the controversial elements in the subject, we printed an editorial in the issue for October 7 under the title “A Cardinal Pays Tribute to Science.” In contrast with this tribute to students of science in search of the truth, we quoted from the postscript of a letter written by a well-known Roman Catholic layman to the effect that a teacher in a Catholic university or Catholic school "who would teach that man had descended from a lower order of animals" would be "fired.” In our comment we said that there was not only in ihe Catholic Church, as in other churches, the difference between those who feared science and those who welcomed it, but also the difference between those who think of religion as a creed and those who think of it as a life, and quoted Father George Tyrrell as a Catholic who could and
did believe that Christianity was a life. A Methodist pastor, in a letter printed in The Outlook for October 21, described this editorial as an “effort ... to place Roman Catholicism in the ranks of Modernism” (not, in our judgment, an accurate description of the editorial in question), said that the Protestant Church has changed its view of creation when faced by the facts of science, and described such remarks as those of Cardinal Hayes as "only a shrewd attempt to make Romanism appear sympathetic with the modern scientific view-point while it remains, by a process of subtle casuistry, true to its own reactionary mediævalism."
In printing the following letters from Roman Catholic points of view we confine our comment to two points in the one case that the issue be made clear, in the other that our position may not be misunderstood.—THE EDITORS.
Mr. Callahan Remonstrates
EFERRING to your article “A
ence," appearing in your issue of October 7.
You embarrass me to no small degree in publishing my inelegant, if rather forceful, letter to my friend, Father Ryan, and also when referring to me as “regarded in some quarters as the foremost Catholic layman in America.”
It is now a platitude to say, “There is no conflict between the Bible and science," and I would like to paraphrase the same by saying there is no conflict between the statement of Cardinal Hayes
and my postscript; and if my letter re-
The Cardinal nor any one else has a
Neither does Tennessee undervalue the service rendered by science. The Christian men and women of Tennessee know how deeply mankind is indebted to science for benefits conferred by the discovery of the laws of nature and by the designing of machinery for the utilization of these laws. Give science a fact, and it is not only invincible, but it is of incalculable service to man. If one is entitled to draw from society in proportion to the services that he renders to society, who is able to estimate the reward earned by those who have given to us the use of steam, the use of electricity, and enable us to utilize the weight of water that flows down the mountainside? Who will estimate the value of the service rendered by those who invented the phonograph, the telephone, and the radio? Or, to come more closely