Obrázky na stránke
[ocr errors]

(C) P. & A. Photos

Leaders at the Locarno Conference The spokesmen of the major Powers are indicated by numbers as follows: 1-Foreign Minister Stresemann, of Germany; 2-Premier Mussolini,

of Italy; 3—Austen Chamberlain, of Great Britain; 4-Aristide Briand, of France; 5-Emile Vandervelde, of Belgium

detectives, but do not make a fuss about As to the second, the Germans know comings at Cannes and Washington, was it. During the Lausanne Conference I perfectly well that the Cologne area will a clever scene-shifter. Witness, for exsaw Marquis Curzon always followed by be evacuated just as soon as they have ample, his Ascona and lake affairs. To a detective. His lordship even took the carried out their disarmament promise. the modest Elvezia restaurant, in the man with him to Geneva in going thither Nevertheless, under Nationalist pres- delightful neighboring lake village of to see Sir Eric Drummond. Lord Cur- sure, a week before this Conference con- Ascona, he tempted Dr. Luther for an zon stepped into the League of Nations vened the Berlin Government made the intimate talk, with only the Germanbuilding and up to the Secretary-Gen- grand-stand play of actually mentioning gifted Berthelot as occasional translator. eral's office on the second floor so quickly these two matters to the other Govern- The three were quite alone save for the that the Leaguers were not aware of his ments, only to be instantly reminded house cat. The padrona, ignorant as to presence until a journalist who knew the

that the Allies deprecated such proposals. the identity of her guests and looking at detective informed them. Now Lord What really counts is that this is the them from a distance, told us afterwards Curzon was a decidedly self-conscious first time since the war that the Ger- how the cat now perched on M. Briand's person. Only he was not exactly an ad- mans have met the Allies on a genuine shoulder and now snuggled into the vertiser

basis of equality. At Versailles there Luther lap. It allowed its unpartisan fur Of course the German Nationalists was no discussion as between equals. to be stroked by both alike. stood right in the way of international Spa was not much better. At Cannes, The French Foreign Minister followed understanding and good will. They de- Genoa, London, however, the Germans this by a party on the lake, a larger but clared, first, that they would not listen were more and more treated as equals. still very select party. To it the English to any peace proposal; they wanted war. Now at Locarno there was full equality, and German Foreign Ministers and the Then they cooled off a bit and allowed an outstanding feature of this Confer- English, French, and German jurists that if a German delegate did go to a

were bidden. By privacy and indepenpeace conference, it must be strictly con

dence you can do a lot in a short time. ditional, compelling the Allies both to L"

IKE the long-headed men they are, At Aristide Briand's two little parties, efface the war-guilt clause from the Ver- Chancellor Luther and Herr Strese- not only was the Rhineland demilitarizasailles Treaty and immediately to evac- mann would not have journeyed to Lo- tion difficulty settled, but also Germany's uate the Cologne area. Even as the Con- carno unless sure that the Conference objection to entering the League of Naference concluded that old fire-eater the would succeed.

tions was definitely put to one side. The Junker Berlin "Kreuz-Zeitung" asserted On the other hand, the greatest hope urbane, smiling host, always ready with a that under no circumstance would the of all the conferees for success (and the joke, was at base no less determined German National Volkspartei accept a second outstanding feature of the Con

upon a proper pact than were the able treaty not complying with these two de- ference) was that Dr. Stresemann and Luther and the austerer Chamberlain. mands.

M. Briand had to compel it to succeed, But he had a peculiarly pleasant way of As to the first, the Nationalist papers if, for no other reason, because failure accomplishing his ends. scorn “being bound by forced conceptions would probably not only have cost them of war guilt.” To this a wag here re- their jobs as Foreign Ministers but also

A" the opening session of the Conferjoined: “Germany does not wish longer their positions as party leaders.

ence the delegates asked Austen to be regarded as a convict on ticket-of- In his attempts to this end M. Briand, Chamberlain to be their presiding officer. leave in decent society.”

doubtless wishing to atone for any short- He declined. He foresaw that matters


might be more easily adjusted by the Christmas tree there, as did the present
simple, familiar round-table method, writer.
without any formal direction. But Mr. Something of the old hearty German
Chamberlain could not keep himself ring of those unsuspecting years before
from being justly regarded as a presiding the war seemed to characterize his tone
genius, not only because he is Foreign as he read to us the other day a page
Minister of the chief Power at the Con- from Viscount Grey's Memoirs (Volume
ference, but also because he is a person of I, Chapter XIV, page 273). This was
peculiar prudence and poise, and, in par- regarding “open diplomacy.” With spe-
ticular, because of his understanding of cial reference to Locarno, the speaker
and insistence on the necessity for Inter- commented as follows:
national Union.

If the term "open diplomacy" means
His opening speech was in fluent that everything should be said aloud,
French, and later he often spoke in that if every difference of opinion revealing
language. When recently he went to

itself at the Conference table were Rome, he surprised the Italians by talk

immediately to find an echo in each ing to them in their own tongue. His

country concerned, the result must be

that, instead of thinking of those presGerman was perfected during his student

ent at the Conference, the delegates days at the University of Berlin. He

would necessarily be thinking of the was a favorite at the home of Dr. From

effect their words might produce on mel, the Court preacher, and took part the public at home. Under such cirin the Christmas festivities around the cumstances, the discovery of a solution

would be impossible. Open diplomacy in that sense can never be practiced with success.

There is another meaning, however, to the term “open diplomacy.” It is this. No binding decisions will be taken at this Conference without the assent of the British Parliament, nor any secret undertakings added to any public engagement. You must allow us to cook the meal in the kitchen. But as soon as it is ready it will be publicly served.

The speaker's own subsequent acts in bringing together variously obstinate points of view and reducing them to a common agreement has now brought so redoubtable a critic of England as is the Berliner "Tageblatt's" correspondent to this conclusion: “There has not yet been a Conference where a delegate has played such an important part as has Mr. Chamberlain here.


As Advertised

A Pennsylvania graduate pays a tribute to the “ Flying Iceman
OW seldom does purchased fact terous performance. First, there came and sorrowing fellow-Pennsylvanians,
compare favorably with adver- on the field the Illinois Band-an outra- and that is almost all there is to the

tised fancy! We keep right on geously big band that reached from goal story. The first two minutes of the game buying, of course, as hopefully as ever, post to goal post. It was a band that presaged the inevitable ending of it. but we know—even before the book, or had whole clumps of bass horns scattered There was no such other man in the the utensil, or the Florida real estate, is through it like flower-beds on a lawn. football world, and certainly not among acquired—that we are quite apt to be And that band could play! Then there the Pennsylvanians, who fought grimly disappointed. But we keep right on ex- was a drum-major. He simply put one's on in the face of certain defeat, seeing perimenting just the same!

eyes out. He strutted ahead like a com- the end of their hopes as a championship Sixty-some thousands of us were quite bination of Polish hussar, Scotch High- eleven. ready to be disillusioned at Franklin lander, and a peacock-and good reason Three times Grange made his touchField. Despite which some paid as high had he to strut! And in their midst down, and contributed largely to the as $20 a ticket! And when we beheld came the grand and monstrous tribal fourth. Penn, minus her great backs that dark and slimy field, soaked with tom-tom of all the tribes of the Illini-a Kreuz and Fields, and with cripples on rain and melted snow, we shook knowing whale of a drum that could have eaten her line, wallowed with her opponents in heads and said: “Aha! This will be all of Pennsylvania's drums and still the black and sticky mud until it looked the finish of the 'Flying Iceman of have room for Penn's six-foot-eight like a combat between dazed tribes of Illinois.'»

You know how it has been. drum-major. That drum got on one's darkest Senegambians. For lo! these many months we have had nerves. It obscured the landscape.

How does Grange do it? Probably by dinned in our ears the doings of a fiery- And then-"Red" Grange. In the a combination of talents an instant cohaired super-football wonder who was early seconds Penn had kicked the ball ordination of quick mind and wellmaking hard-working, hard-fighting, and to Illinois, and the first thing you know trained body, an incredibly rapid and thoroughly self-respecting mid-country there was a shout "Here he comes!” accurate judgment, coupled with a elevens look perfectly ridiculous. We Through the dissolving groups of agi- treacherous swing of the hips and a heard this a year ago. This summer we tated players came bobbing an orange varying pace and direction of the legs heard that he was delivering ice to house- helmet-here, there, back again, elusive, that put them just out of reach of wives in his home town. And this fall and unbelievably swift. A few leopard tacklers.

. it began again. There was overmuch of like bounds from side to side—and his When all was over, Penn and her it. Said we to ourselves: “Just wait till opponents slid away from him and he massed alumni arose and cheered “Red” he runs up against a strong Eastern flew alone toward the goal line, leaving Grange, and then, like a melancholy eleven and a slippery field!” Well, here behind a mass of dazed figures wallow- dirge, with sad drums and muffled horns, was Pennsylvania that had humbled ing

they sang their melancholy song. But Brown, Yale, and Chicago, and one or

Thick as autumnal leaves that strow

nevertheless all of the sixty-two thoutwo others. And here was a field for

the brooks

sand, Penn men and all, went home with which the word slippery was inadequate In Vallombrosa.

their faith in humanity renewed. For, to by a large margin.

say the least, "Red" Grange was as adWell, it was an amazing and a prepos- Repeat that even three times, friends vertised!


Photograph from Jeffrey Mfg. Co.

How the Fruit Goes into the Modern Cannery- an Apron Conveyor in Operation

The Coming of the Conveyor


By CHARLES FITZHUGH TALMAN CONVEYOR, says the "Mate- The history of industrial conveyors is while everybody has long recognized the rial Handling Cyclopedia," is "a now entering a new stage. Not many importance of efficient transportation of more or less self-contained de

years ago, in common with most other goods from producer to consumer, little vice for continuously transporting mate- mechanical contrivances for handling thought has been given until recently to rial in a horizontal or slightly inclined goods and materials, they were generally improving methods of transporting goods direction. If the inclination is steep, and regarded as experimental. They were, as in process of manufacture. Industry the material is carried upward, the device a matter of fact, imperfectly developed, demands steam,

demands steam, electricity, and the is usually called an elevator; if down- and their use led to many disappoint- internal-combustion motor in the one ward, a lowerer. The operating force ments. Then came the period when the case, but has generally been content with may be gravity or some form of mechani

use of conveyors for certain kinds of man power in the other. The incongrucal power, as electrical, hydraulic, pneu- work—especially in the handling of bulk ous spectacle may still often be witnessed matic, or steam. The material to be materials --became standard practice, of marvelously ingenious automatic matransported may be in bulk in a more or but at the same time the ultimate range chinery for making things used side by less continuous stream, in bulk but di- of their possibilities was hardly dreamed side with crude non-automatic methods vided temporarily for the purpose of of, even by far-sighted engineers. In of moving them. conveying into small portions, each car- this stage conveyors formed a common The "conveyor assembly line," as used ried in a separate container, or in perma- but subordinate part of the equipment of in automobile factories, became widely nent individual units or packages of a large proportion of industrial plants. familiar some years ago. It is essentially uniform size and weight." This defini- In the third and present stage conveyors, a traveling work-bench on which an aution suggests a wide diversity of forms in conjunction with such kindred devices tomobile is built up from a rear axle to a and uses, and the conveyor is, in fact, as cranes, hoists, cableways, and power completed car, which runs off the line one of the most versatile contrivances of trucks, handle material at every step of under its own power. Nowadays the modern times. A moving sidewalk is a its progress through a plant, from the "final assembly line" is fed by “subconveyor. So is a pneumatic tube. A time it enters in its raw state until it is assembly lines," and there are other log flume is a conveyor. An escalator is loaded for shipment as a finished prod- elaborations of the process, which has an elevator conveyor. A merry-go-round uct.

spread far beyond the automobile indusis a conveyor, whether its freight be The "conveyorized” plant is not yet, try. At the same time the principle of Young America or a string of molds in a however, so common as to have lost the "production on the move" embodied in foundry.

air of novelty. It is a paradox that, the conveyor assembly line has been


Elevator Conveyors in a Soup Cannery


The Conveyor in the


From the electric milking machine the motor vehicle that delivers the bottled fluid at

your door, everything is mechanical in the modern milk industry. Milkcans are handled mainly by conveyors of the gravity-roller type. In the pasteurizing department the bottles travel from the washery to the fillers, and thence to the refrigerator on apron conveyors consisting of metal slats borne on roller chains and forming an endless belt. The solitary man in the picture is keeping lookout for the OCcasional broken or imperfectly washed


Canning, in all its phases and branches, is one of the most fully "conveyorized” of the industries. The most conspicuous and striking feature of the modern

cannery is the endless stream of tin cans flowing to and from the filling machines on elevatorconveyor belts. This mode of transport, besides insuring the uninterrupted operation of the machines, sares space, promotes order, and is more cleanly than the trucking of the cans

along the floor


Photograph from Campbell Soup Co.


Photograph from Standard Conveyor Co.


The Ford Assembly Line

The process of building an automobile on a moving conveyor is one of the most famous of industrial operations. These trareling "work-benches," running at such speed as to insure the maximum output of each workman along the line of production, not only save time, labor, and floor space, but promote in

very appreciable degree the spirit of order in the factory. The general use of the assembly Ilne in the automobile industry is far less striking than the general neglect of its obvious advantages that has prevailed in other industries until within the last few


Photograph from Ford Motor Co.

found adaptable to many operations be- of rolling, annealing, grinding, and pol- not happened. The flow of materials has sides assembling machinery. Striking ishing.

not been speeded up to the detriment of proofs of its possibilities are afforded in The conveyor, besides saving floor the worker, and the evolution of conveythe vast and complex establishments space and promoting order in a factory, ing machinery has been along the lines of where Henry Ford is producing so many is a labor-saver. This means more than making the process more and more elasthings besides automobiles including, that it saves labor costs to the manufac- tic. The proof of the pudding is in the above all, ideas. In Ford's model foun- turer. A good deal of concern has been eating. Wage-earners are not complaindry, for example, castings are poured in expressed over the fact that conveyors, in ing about the introduction of machinery traveling molds, and in his plate-glass some of their applications, are frankly that almost completely eliminates painful factory the glass is carried by conveyors pace-makers, and might conceivably set stooping, lifting, hauling, and shoving straight through the successive processes the pace that kills. In practice this has from their day's work.


A Shuttle Conveyor Though the day of the conveyor has but recently dawned, great many different types of conveying machinery have been developed, each being adapted to a particular kind of work. Here is one of the less familiar typesthe shuttle conveyor. It is a belt conveyor, the frame of which is supported on wheels running on a track, so that it can be shifted lengthwise. The belt can be run in cither direction. The material is received from a feeder at the middle of the length over which it Is to be distributed. The conveyor can be adjusted to deposit material at any desired point, or it can be made to run continuously back

and forth, reversing auto


[ocr errors]

Photograph from Brown Hoisting Machinery Co.

« PredošláPokračovať »