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By O. E. DUNLAP, JR. An article by the radio editor of the New York « Times " which clearly defines a sig.

nificant development of radio broadcasting. It is something for radio fans to watch ROADCASTING is fast becoming policy-holders pass on to the undiscov- When advertising over the radio first commercialized, and the trend in ered country. It is estimated that over appeared, there was some protest, but

that direction is one of the chief 100,000 take these early morning exer- most of the leaders agreed that the best subjects under discussion at the fourth cises, directed by radio, and it is reported solution would be public opinion. There annual Radio Conference, which Secre- that one instructor who gives the count has been little protest on the part of the tary Hoover called to meet in Washing- to the microphone every morning receives public, probably because the advertisers ton during this week.

$15,000 a year, so important is his work have improved the quality of the proMr. Hoover told the delegates to last considered.

grammes and the advertising has been year's conclave that the quickest way to Talks to housewives in many instances tactfully shielded so that it does not kill broadcasting would be to use it for include recipes for preparing delicacies dominate the entertainment value of the direct advertising, but to-day advertising for the table, and of course each one re

broadcasts. The listeners do not seem to motives are the incentive behind most of quires that a certain brand of flour or object if an advertising trade name or the attractive features on the air. Radio foodstuffs be used in the cooking. the name of a manufacturer is grafted to impresarios admit that the desire to Authors broadcast so that listeners will an orchestra or a particular hour of place the names of firms and products become acquainted with their names and broadcast entertainment. before the public is responsible for bring- books. This is the case in some broad- It may make an evening of revelation ing the world's greatest artists and musi- casts for children, and it is said to create to listen in to some of the big broadcal organizations before the microphone. a demand for the books. College profes- casters, almost any evening and jot

The advertiser pays for the facilities of sors often go on the air with a series of down the number of events promoted for the broadcasting station, and he must educational broadcasts in order to stimu- the benefit of advertising or publicity. hire the artists to perform for him. The late an interest in the subject on which The auditor will find that advertising stations seldom pay the entertainers. they have written books, and the an- lurks in the ether channels and that for There are also cases where stations do nouncer releases the news that a syllabus some time radio programmes have imnot charge for use of their transmitting covering the professor's series on the air printed certain names on the minds of equipment, but the advertiser provides has been prepared and can be obtained

has been prepared and can be obtained listeners, who have unconsciously acthe programmes. The former class of for a definite sum.

cepted them because the incoming waves station is known as a toll broadcaster. Broadcasts by moving-picture theater were sugar coated with advertising.

There are hundreds of radio enter- orchestras and artists are primarily for Stop and think. Did you ever buy a tainers who are prompted to actuate the attracting the public to the box-office.

. radio battery because you knew its name microphone because of personal pub- Dinner and dance music from hotels is better than all others, or a washing licity, or with the hope that they will generally radiated with the hope that it

generally radiated with the hope that it powder because you liked the twins you attract attention and be hired to broad- will attract the listeners to dine there, or heard on the radio by that name? Did cast under the auspices of an advertiser. when out-of-town listeners come to the you ever buy a box of candy because you Radio entertainers who give up an eve- city they will have the desire to stay at tuned in two boys who radiated happining or an afternoon for the novelty of the hotel they have tuned-in so often on ness once a week through your loudhaving friends hear their voices over a the radio, or they may wish to dance in speaker? And if you listen you will hear wide area are now in the minority. the grill or night club whose orchestra quartettes, duos, orchestras, bands, and

In some cases an advertiser is satisfied has entertained in their home miles away. soloists on the air bearing the names of and feels that his efforts have been re- Bridge lessons are the latest innova- tooth-paste, fountain pens, pianos, musiwarded if his name is mentioned a cer- tion on the air, and the promoters un- cal instruments, tires, radio sets, soap, tain number of times throughout the doubtedly hope that this particular furniture shops, dry-goods stores, autoprogramme, but lately some of the an- broadcast will stimulate greater numbers mobiles, theatrical productions, shoes, nouncers have ventured further. They to play auction bridge, and thereby books, jewelry, clothing, typewriters, tell the name of the concern under whose create a larger demand for playing cards. lunch-rooms, magazines, and newspapers. auspices the concert is broadcast, and Travelogues are wafted into space Various musical funds have been atthen they tell what wonderful values in from the aerial wires so that touring tempted as a means of supporting broadprice and quality can be obtained at such agencies will be better known and people casting, but all have failed because the and such a shop. Then they reveal the will be encouraged to travel, enticed to public did not respond and contribute. location of the store and invite all broad- do so by the beautiful descriptions of One of the biggest attempts sponsored by cast auditors to drop in and inspect the foreign lands, mingled with the native prominent bankers and business men fell goods when in the neighborhood. music and folk-songs. Several automo- flat and the money was returned to sub

But how do the advertisers reap a bile concerns do likewise to encourage scribers because the contributions were benefit? The incentive promoting some travel over the motor highways, but of scarcely enough to pay one or two of the morning setting-up exercises and course in a certain make of car. Munici- Metropolitan Opera stars to broadcast a health talks are radiated with the hope palities tell of their charms and the rea- single concert. that they will serve to prolong life, so sons why tourists should make those par- Then the advertisers saw their opporthat insurance companies will benefit by ticular localities stopping-places on the tunity, and when the stations opened the having more paid-up policies, before the itinerary.

door they walked in. Several managers

offered the facilities of their transmitting a name through space so that it will en- The gross charge per hour, using the apparatus and hired solicitors to bring in ter millions of homes.

thirteen-station American Telephone and business for their ethereal channel, so The following prices have been verified Telegraph hook-up above mentioned, is that their efforts in broadcasting would by the American Telephone and Tele- $3,000 per hour. Talks are limited to no longer be for the love of the thing but graph Company: Station WEAF, New ten minutes, and are assessed at half the for money. The public wondered why York, $500 an hour, $312.50 per half- hourly charge. Broadcasting music or any concern in no way allied with the hour, and $195.35 per quarter hour; entertainment for half an hour is oneradio industry should find an advantage Philadelphia, WFI or Woo, $200 an half the hourly charge, plus 25 per cent. in providing radio entertainment and in hour; Pittsburgh, WCAE, $200 an hour; In addition to paying for the station's some cases pay as high as $3,000 to Washington, WCAP, $150; Buffalo, facilities the advertiser must pay the $5,000 for broadcasting an hour's pro- WGR, $200; Boston, WEEI, $250; artist, which in the case of some stars gramme. Surely they were mad! But Providence, WJAR, $250; Cleveland, runs at least $1,000 for a single radio to-day there is so much advertising ma- WEAR, $150; Cincinnati, WSAI, $200; performance. As John McCormack said, terial passing through the ether, seeking Detroit, WWJ, $200; Davenport, WOC, "I'm a business man. I never said that loudspeakers from coast to coast, that $150; Worcester, WTAG, $150; Min- I would not sing over the radio. I will the method in their madness is clearly neapolis-St. Paul, WCCO, $250; and St. sing when they come to me with a busiapparent. And it costs money to weave Louis, KSD, $250.

ness proposition."

The Air Service Serves

Mr. Gregg tells of some of the practical work accomplished by our

aviators during the past few years. Here is an article on

aviation outside the realm of propaganda and opinion THE knockers of our Air Service has been borrowing four or five airplanes

has been borrowing four or five airplanes their total work for 1925 alone will equal have had their say. Now let us a year from the Army and Navy to make an area about the size of Pennsylvania.

put away our emotions and prej- photographic maps of the United States. To fly over and photograph every square udices and look at some of the facts. Their photographs cover every square yard of the State of Pennsylvania in one

For five years the Geological Survey yard of the surface they fly over, and season is some job. Airplane map



A section of Chicago. This photograph contains details which no hand-made map could include, the most prominent

of which is the exact depiction of the filth and pollution in the Chicago River

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making commenced in 1920, and has approximately five months;" the flying sidering miles flown. You will also see been steadily increasing.

“has been completed for this Bureau by that in 1925 they have decreased their I asked Colonel Glenn Smith, of the either the Army Air Service or the Naval accidents while increasing the flying over Geological Survey, how many deaths and Air Service without casualties as far as the year 1924. Their main line is beaccidents had occurred over the five- this Bureau has any knowledge."

tween New York and San Francisco. year period. His answer is amazing: The Post Office Department has run They go over the same territory regu"No deaths and no accidents." (The an Air Mail Service since 1918. Here larly. They gradually improve their Colonel rapped gently on the wooden is the record:

practice and systematize their inspection table.)

Year Ending

Men Seriously Planes

and repairs. They eliminate as much as The Forest Service also uses airplane

July 1

Killed Injured Crashed possible the experimental element. But

1918 patrols to report forest fires. This work


woe to aviators who get drunk or care

166,813 has been going on for the last few years.

less, or even just overconfident! Theirs The flying has been done both by the


is a dangerous business. Army and its own men, but all with


Every flier must have

1.644,437 Army planes. This year they are using


A sure running motor in nine machines in three different districts.


A never failing airplane, So far one district reports 83 flights,

Reasonable weather, averaging five hours each in duration.

Natural or artificial light, Mr. Kneipp, acting Forester, wrote me,

The killed include 9 passengers and 2 A good landing-place, October 20: “During the year's op- on the ground.

And be himself 100 per cent efficient erations (1925) not a single man was The seriously injured include 16 on that is, if he follows the business and killed or even seriously injured. While the ground.

dies of old age. there were several forced landings, there The average miles flown are three The Army and Navy are running two were 'no serious accidents to menor hundred and thirty thousand to one dead experimental aviation departments. We machines.” I understand the same is aviator.

could of course stop that hazardous busitrue of previous years. The Coast and I don't at all believe that flying is ness, with its necessary loss of life. We Geodetic Survey has used Navy ma- as safe as automobiling, but the above could also close down the other activities chines since 1920 in making photo maps mileage to one death is equal to an air- of the Army and Navy. But the Ameriof harbors. One recent job was pho- plane going from New York to San can people know that experiments must tographing the delta of the Mississippi Francisco one hundred times.

be made in order that we may live in this River where it spreads out like a great This record of the fliers of the Post uncertain world with a certain power of fan into the Gulf of Mexico. The Office Department is one to be proud of. self-defense. Survey Bureau does not know of any Last year was their best, with over two I have great respect for constructive serious accidents in previous years. It million miles flown and two deaths. If criticism, but little patience with the reports further on 1925, “The total you examine this table carefully, you will constant fault-finder, who becomes distime of the parties in the field aggregated see that 1920 was their worst year con

see that 1920 was their worst year con- gustingly intemperate when the delayed but inevitable accident happens. Colonel regulated aviation families, what guar- a little appreciation of the progress we Mitchell seems to belong to this class. If anty have we against more accidents have made and are making under the he were made the high cockalorum of than we have at present? Nothing but present administration and its various everything in aviation-Navy, Army, his more or less plausible comments on departments? Let us keep in mind that Post Office, Forestry, and Map Making past accidents. But isn't that hindsight the airplane is becoming a machine, like


I suppose we would have a Mitchell criticism? Does he think that his mere an automobile, but to be handled as yet millennium. He would, of course, handle appointment to absolute control of by experts only. Why may not each equally well the hundreds of thousands United States aviation would reduce life department of the Government buy its of miles of flying that are now made insurance rates on his aviators?

planes as it now buys its trucks and run without fatality. Do we think he could Aviation is very new. When it be- them both? We may have a general handle all the rest without fatality? Of comes as old as politics, we shall be able production and repair department, but course not. But, if he admits that acci- better to measure promise and perform- why “unified command” over airplanes dents would happen in the best Mitchell ance. In the meantime, why not express any more than over automobiles?

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HERE is a story of the

We passed

THE moon is nothing but a cinder

After the long waiting, the barrier was -so they say-a dead thing

down. The tension, the noise, the haste, dragging terrifically in the wake

siege of Verdun-a

the grime, and the blood had all faded of the earth. To walk across those story to make men and women away. In their place the silence had blanched and lifeless plains or upon the live again through those hours come, and the gloom and the paralyzing brittle crispness of its high places is a of Armistice Day when the

languor. One could at last pass this thought cold as death and not to be en

glad word went out that“Cease way. The gate to France was opentertained.

firing ” had sounded.

mutilated France—marred beyond recWalking about Verdun that night was

ognition, utterly benumbed. like exploring the cinder-strewn expanses

We crept away once more in silence of the moon. All the bellows in the dim place, after all-a cellar left intact down the long dark street. world could blow until they burst, and under the wreck of a house. There was over the drawbridge and beyond the there would be nothing but the scatter- no welcome for us; a scant direction to walls of the town. There was not a soul ing about of cold ashes. The heat and follow the passage, which was brick and to be seen. We spent the night in an life had gone forever. To be a living low and smoke-stained. This ended empty railway carriage in the station. thing venturing there was an effrontery. abruptly in a small room like a cage, Verdun lies high, guarding the passes in There was that in the atmosphere that without windows, so far as we could see. the hills. The air grew chill and very pushed one back, with a not too gentle

thin, with the freshness of mountain air. hand--something silent, somber, and re- A DEATHLY silence met us. Around a An old lopsided moon rose late and sistant. One advanced with reluctance bare table sat a perfectly motionless shone into the windows of the car. The and hesitation.

company. A candle in a shallow tin world outside lay bathed in a great The silence was overwhelming. There hung from the low ceiling. It threw luminousness. The familiar dipper were no lights in the town, and no moon. long, crooked shadows. It was a menac- mounted high in the sky, swinging over But against the bright blackness of the ing scene, and strangely dramatic. Three that silent but indomitable fortress, and sky was a ragged silhouette of broken gaunt women in black veils sat side by over the great battlefield where lay the walls looming high, and through empty side. Their faces were the color of tal

unmarked graves of thousands and hunwindow sockets the stars were shining as' low, like the candle above them. Their dreds of thousands of men. The cold from an immeasurable distance. The eyes stared at us without seeing. In silence was all-surrounding, a silence cutway was strewn with bricks and plaster some way their three shadows shrouded ting like knives. They were sleeping and fallen masonry. Verdun drew her in veils were cast on the ceiling directly about us and forever—those men.

So remaining rags about her, victorious but above them. A soldier and a very old near they were and so recent the sleep utterly spent, and brooding and morose. man sat beyond. In the distance some- that it seemed almost that one could

We groped with our feet along the where, infinitely remote, sat other shad- hear them breathe and stir. And from cobblestones, as though following a trail. OWS. There was not a word-not a their immense distance the stars shone At the end of the long dark street, at breath-not a movement. We sat pal- down upon them in silent and silver an immense distance, broke a shaft of sied in the midst of this mute and benediction. vellow light. There were people pass. striking scene. Finally bread was In the morning we saw the German ing, stumbling with us in the darkness served, and cheese, and yellow wine in prisoners marching in squads about the and speaking in low tones. The sense of a glass decanter was passed in silence town-amazingly blond, very young, what had been was overpowering. We down the long board.

with raw, bold faces. They were clad went whispering in the face of it, our They had come, these women, to find in old French uniforms dyed a bottlespirits crushed as under a colossal their dead. They lay there somewhere green, and on their heads were the little weight. Skulking so, we came to the low in the plain about Verdun. It seemed Boche caps with faded red band. They doorway whence fell the light. It was a very near, with only the wall between. looked sturdy and ruddy and well fed.

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