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culture on the Kansas prairie, the other And what have fifty years or more ne

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man is notoriously indifferent about his
right to vote, so citizenship has seemed clinging to a marauding existence along

the a burden to many an Indian, and

exemp- the Mexican border—these stories illus- tribes? Have we given full measure of tion from taxation a much more tangible trate the variety of the problems. Is good for the old ways that are bound to good than the right to cast a vote. Many there any occasion for wonder that the disappear? Indians quite capable of managing their settlers or soldiers or administrators who Largest among the influences that property have resisted the proposal to dealt with these questions in their earlier, have been thrown about the Indian is the give them certificates of competency and acuter stages made many a mistake and Government school system. Three types patents in fee to their land.

perpetrated many an injustice? Or that have developed through these years of All this story of allotment and citizen- Comanche or Apache or Cheyenne, no experiment to meet three different sets of ship indicates in what-direction Congress longer on the war-path or hunting the conditions. Among Indians of settled hopes to have the Indian go. It is the buffalo, still has a long way to travel be- habitation the day school, with its direct "white man's road”—just the way of the fore the effects of the days of strife shall contact with both the child and his home, ordinary self-respecting and self-support- pass?

adds to the teaching of any public school ing citizen who needs no special treat

the instruction in simple housekeeping ment from his country. Special laws for UST as among the Indian tribes, so and industry that is so marked a need. the Indian indicate the belief that he is among their white friends are those

Among tribes of a more nomadic way of not yet ready to go unaided.

who would have them go forward and life the reservation boarding-school grew A body of well-meaning people protest those who would have them go back. But

up; here children are fed and taught and most bitterly against this whole assump- they are less clear in mind as to the mat- cared for nine or ten months of the year, tion. We must not deprive the Indian, ter than is the Indian himself. They spending half the day in the school-room they say, of his ancient heritage of tradi- often ask for him freedom and continued and half in the industrial processes of the tion and custom, nor interfere with his protection in the same breath. We are school. This work is less easy of adaptaprimitive mode of living. We must pre- besought to leave the Pueblo undisturbed tion to their camp life, to which they reserve his arts and his industries, his an- in his ancient culture and at the same turn in the summer; it is on a larger, cient culture and beautiful ceremonial. moment to surround him with a higher more mechanical scale. But some effects

It is true, indeed, that primitive life degree of education and sanitation, im- cannot fail to remain; those who lament has many beautiful features one regrets proved farm machinery, and systems of that the educated Indian "goes back to the to lose. Our thought is the richer for irrigation. We seem vaguely to expect blanket" present only part of the story. them, our sense of beauty the keener. that an Indian lad will come back from The system culminates in the big nonBut a race cannot be kept in its infancy Johns Hopkins Medical School to dance

reservation boarding-school, where sevany more than an individual child. In- in the kiva and pray for rain; or that his eral hundred boys and girls in their teens exorable time is our adversary.

sister will specialize in domestic science follow a rigidly supervised routine as difThe sound of the first Spanish gun

at Simmons and return to the trampling ferent from the aimlessness of camp life upon the shores of a West Indian island out of grain on a dirt floor. It is such as can well be. Here the boy becomes marked the vanishing of a great era. muddy pseudo-thinking as this that gave painter or printer or mechanic; here the From that day to this there has been no the spectacle, not long ago, of peaceful girl learns housekeeping and sewing and possibility of keeping the Indian un- Pueblo Indians, decked out in Sioux war- typewriting and nursing. touched by the ways of the white man; bonnets and wrapped in machine-made there has only been the question of the

, , degree of his assimilation of those ways.

to As weeds spread faster than flowers, it own tribal ways. The gods must have but the new generation knows a little would be beyond human power to with laughed at this—even the Tesuque rain more, does a little better, than the one hold from the Indian the ills of our gods.

preceding. We shall have cause for concivilization, though we might be able to The Indian himself sees through these gratulation if this is true of the white deny him the benefits. We must act, not pretenses. His reticences often hide a race too. in the hope of restoring him his old wild deep comprehension and a shrewd ap- At Carlisle, once the largest of the life, but in the hope of giving him the praisal. If the white man would have Indian schools, General Pratt's "outing best of the new mode of living. This is him play at council, he will do so gravely system” involved the placing of Indian the theory upon which the bounty of enough, concealing his amusement. I boys and girls in the homes of the whites food and implements, lands, schools, and once saw an old Indian of the pueblos for a portion of each year, that personal hospitals has been bestowed.

reproduce in caricature his own perform- contact might teach its invaluable lessons

ance as an outside attraction, a "barker," of thrift and industry. To-day Carlisle E very Indian tribe has its conservative at a moving-picture show. There was a as an Indian school is no more and the

party which would cling to the old world of meaning in his pantomime. One era of letting the Indian go is well upon wild life, and its progressives who are gathered, too, his opinion of his audi- But the closing of boarding-schools ready to adopt the white man's ideas of ences--falling somewhat short of adula- is bringing about the necessary contact education and industry and sanitation. tion.

through Indian attendance upon public There are the Cherokees who went with It would be well worth while to know schools. The pendulum has swung all the other tribes to the Indian Territory the real Indian under his politic mask. the way around and has returned to its and those still immured in a remote spot The old Indian has a fine inscrutability; original position. in North Carolina who refused to move. the younger generation is schooled in the Schools were to train the children; In the same way a remnant of the Semi- white man's way and approximates much landholding was expected to civilize the noles still lingers in the Florida swamps, more nearly the white man's processes of adult Indian. At first his friends anticisavage and yet inevitably dependent. The thought. The old Indian fights against pated that every Indian would become a two branches of the Kickapoo tribe, one this change, but recognizes its inevita- farmer. But a human being is not a settling down half a century ago to agri- bility none the less.

counter on a checker-board, and whole

us.

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sale solutions do not solve. Some have, thousand people without chart or com- forces; merely an unromantic story of indeed, become farmers. Many have pass. We are swept along by continued our own unwillingness to give sustained become owners of valuable oil lands, their waves of popular sentiment. To-day we thought and effort. We would rather sob business administered for them by the ride on the crest of a great wave of feel- over the Indian than study him. We United States. Many others have in the ing; to-morrow we collapse feebly into would rather read picturesque propasame way become landlords—landlords the trough of indifference.

ganda than learn simple facts. We have without a care, with a Government agent

an Indian problem because we have no to manage their properties and collect It is easy to draw up a stirring indict- permanent policy. And we have no

is

ment; recently a tempest was raging permanent policy because we haven't the lacking in initiative, in industry, in the about the Indian Bureau and the epithets knowledge necessary to create one. sense of responsibility, is a direct result “bureaucratic” and “oppressive” were on We applaud the orator who says "Let of this leasing system, which, with the every one's tongue. But the Indian Bu

my people go!” without reflecting best of motives, has proved a serious hin- reau and Congress are merely the in- whether they will go to the Legislature, drance to development.

struments through which we, the people, the poorhouse, the penitentiary, or even What incentive is there for the student do our will; and it is we who are at -it's remotely conceivable to work. returned from boarding school to prac- fault-you and I and the man down the But it's a fine phrase and we like the tice what he has learned? There is street and the woman on the next block. sound of it. We like to have our emoenough to support him without exertion; We don't know what the Indian is, what tions played upon. We like the fine virthe Great White Father in Washington he does, what he needs, where he is now, tuous feeling that comes from making will not let him come to actual want. or where he is going. Yet every once in vigorous protests about something we

So we teach the Indian to labor and a while we work up a great popular don't in the least understand. We don't, encourage him to be idle; we thrust re- movement, upset something in frantic we must admit, like to work; in that we sponsibilities upon him, see with dismay haste, then forget all about the matter. can own our kinship to the Indian. the effects, and remove them summarily. It is not that mysterious “they” to Honest investigation, calm consideration, We meet his problems, not with intelli- whom we love to ascribe all our troubles clear thinking, unemotional, untrumpeted gence, but with incoherent emotion. We who have brought this about. There are study and effort—these are what the sitare directing the course of three hundred no sinister rings, no malicious hidden uation demands. Can we supply them?

Why Complicate Business ?

By WILLIAM ATHERTON DU PUY

T

HERE was a chain of drug stores season to fade and die. There were acres types. There is no evidence anywhere

that got the idea of simplified of these hats scattered all over the that anybody has missed the other 96.

practice, of eliminating unneces- country. The users of conservative A certain great shoe manufacturer was sary varieties in its stock. It put it into hard-boiled lids have to pay high prices making three grades of shoes and 2,500 operation. The first result was its ability to carry the losses and all these unneces- styles of each. He got to studying simto abandon seven of its nine warehouses. sary styles. Effort is being made to plification, and decided to reduce his Employees were reduced 30 per cent. It eliminate at least three-fourths of the output to one grade with 100 styles. saved a whole $5,000 a year that it had varieties.

This cut the cost of production 31 per formerly spent for night work of people The International Harvester Company cent, increased production and the turnlooking after stock. Loss from, unsold in 1918 made 876 types of two-horse over 50 per cent, and made three dollars stock went down from $263,000 a year wagons. Four years later, 16 types. The go as far as four had gone when John to $100,000. The number of stores went 16 do everything the 876 could do. The Consumer, urged on by the Missus, went up from 143 to 216; the volume of user gets at least a part of the saving to the shoe store just before school business from $19,000,000 to $33,000,- from the elimination of the 860 varieties. opened in the autumn. 000. These stores made much more The task of maintaining stock is vastly A manufacturer of cutlery in Newark, money.

simplified at the factory and in Babbitt New Jersey, took a cross-section of his The hat industry made a study of the Brothers' general store in Flagstaff, Ari- business and found that he was making field from the standpoint of the cha- zona. And when the user needs a brake- 3,000 styles. He got the simplification peaux men pull down on their heads, thus block bolt it is much more likely to be idea, and cut these to 250 styles. He shutting off blood circulation to their standard.

found he could sell these so much more scalps and making them bald. It showed It used to be that when mother bought cheaply, due to greater economy of that there were 3,684 styles and colors. a piano for purposes of development of operation, that more boys were able to Ninety per cent of all men who bought the family embryo Paderewskis there buy jack-knives, and his business was hats, however, made their selection from were 103 kinds of stools to go with it, increased 200 per cent. seven styles and ten colors. Ten per from which she might select. Mother A survey of the waste in six of the cent of novelty business necessitated the was certainly not a connoisseur in piano major industries of the United States led manufacture and maintenance of 3,614 stools, and it is doubtful if she appre- to the conclusion that the average of prestyles and colors. Producing a distinct ciated the consideration that was thus ventable loss was about 40 per cent. type of hat costs money at the factory; being shown her. Finally, the industry In one year preventable waste in instocking up on it at the wholesalers' decided to try an experiment. It would dustry, according to estimates of our own and retailers' is expensive and takes lots allow its own experts who really knew Department of Commerce, was about ten of space. Millions were left over every piano stools to settle on the seven best billion dollars. It all came out of the

445

b

Accurate to a yard

pockets of the people, because it was added to the price of goods sold.

Now if this money had been saved, it would have been sufficient to pay everybody's taxes, Federal, State, and municipal, would have paid for all the automobiles bought that year in the United States and for the gas to run them, for all the homes built between Canada and Mexico. The annual loss by fire in the United States, so great that it appals the world, is less than five per cent of the annual loss from waste in industry.

The first organized impetus toward saving in industry and business was given during the war, when the War Industries Board made studies, pointed out certain wastes, induced industrials to get together for the elimination of unnecessary varieties, even went so far in the allocation of raw materials over which it had authority as to refuse them to manufacturers who failed to abandon wasteful practices.

After the war the Federated American Engineering Societies appointed a committee, of which Herbert Hoover was chairman, to attempt to save for the Nation these lessons of the war, to make a survey, and set down the facts with relation to the waste in industry. Thus was a record made.

In all this a certain important fact was developing. This was the fact that everybody profited by simplification. The infinite problems of the manufacturers were lessened by it. The wholesaler and retailer both found that most vexing detail, the keeping in stock of an infinite variety of materials, greatly lessened. Father saved on shoes and son on jack-knives. Everybody was putting more money in the bank. Everybody was for simplification. The problem was how to bring it about.

Mr. Hoover knew this situation very thoroughly when he became Secretary of Commerce. He knew that industry, the middleman, the consumer, wanted simplification. He evolved a plan for making it possible for them to get it.

Industry, he said, should simplify itself. The Government would assume no authority in the matter, but it would provide a means for co-ordinated action wherever groups wanted to solve their own problems. Nearly every important industry had a National association, which was a very handy agency through which it might work. The Department created its division of simplified practice. Were there any industries now desiring to work with the Government on simplification?

Here entered the manufacturers of paving brick, some 44 companies bound

re

From a cleverly camou

station is so many meters flaged emplacement, a bat- -you can bank to the tery roars. An observer limit on the exactitude of in a plane watches intently. the information. He pricks on his map the In every home there exact spot where the shells is a definite need for a fall. Then he taps out a RAND MCNALLY atlas wireless message of this and globe. Youth needs "pin-point." The battery them to grasp the meaning commander locates it on and co-ordinate the counthis map! The burst fell

less new thoughts that 14 yards north and 18 yards

every day of school brings west. The guns are forth. Everybody needs sighted. This time the aim them to visualize and is exact!

truly understand the vast The report of fliers on mass of important events "Artillery Observation" in the daily news. must be true—to a yard! RAND MCNALLY maps Only maps-accurate to a are adapted for every puryard—make such exacti

pose.

There are auto road tude possible.

maps, mileage maps, radio This accuracy is in every maps, indexed pocket RAND MCNALLY map, maps, commercial maps, globe, atlas! When they language maps, school show you that here there maps. You can always buy is oil—that an automobile RAND MCNALLY maps at road turns to the left half all high-class stationers. a mile further on—that Ask for them particularly the wave length of a radio by name.

RAND MONALLY & COMPANY

Map Headquarters

536 S. Clark Street, Chicago Branches: Washington

Dept. Y-166

270 Madison Avenue, New York San Francisco

Los Angeles

in writing to the above advertiser, please mention The Outlook

Looking Into Your

Financial Future Y

7%

together in a National association. They were twelve sizes of quart bottles, thirNO LOSS TO ANY INVESTOR IN 52 YEARS

went down to Washington to meet with teen sizes of pint bottles, fourteen sizes this division of simplified practice of the of half-pint bottles, and ten sizes of Department of Commerce. Mr. Hoover quarter-pint bottles. Likewise there addressed them, expounded his theory of were ten sizes of pasteboard bottle caps. the duty of the Government to furnish a The manufacturers of bottles and the center point of communication and dis

users, represented by the milk users' cussion, of its duty also to exercise no associations, held a conference. They authority, no compulsion.

decided that it would be better for all These manufacturers talked about the concerned if there were but three types of

66 sizes of paving brick they were mak- quart bottles, three types of pints, three Into Your ing. There was a chat around the table types of half-pints, and no quarter-pints

in the morning, and another in the after- at all. These should be so made that noon. As a result of these, by the time the same caps would fit into all of them. evening came on the 66 sizes had been The ten types of caps formerly made reduced to 6. In the future they would would be reduced to one. The whole

make but 6 sizes. An industry had thus problem of bottles and caps for milk do not need the

easily made itself over, simplified its would become about one-fifth as comprophecy to look into your financial future. In these days, product, much to its profit. The public plicated as it used to be.

stood to benefit because paving brick These are but examples of the sort of when sound investments are with

would be cheaper, and most paving brick thing that is being done and can be done. in the reach of every one, success is paid for out of the tax money of the The customary method is for the associais but a question of your own people.

tion representing the industry to make capacity to save and your money's Another group which appeared repre

the study and report on unnecessary capacity to earn.

sented the manufacturers of bedsteads, varieties. The manufacturers have the Our booklet, "How to Build an Independ

springs, and mattresses. (Did you ever facts. Then the associations representent Income,” enables

try to change the springs from one bed ing the distributers and the consumers you to look into the future five, NOW

are called in. So are all the interested to another?) They were flanked by the ten, fifteen years or more,

PAYING Wholesale Furniture Association and the parties brought together. The division and see just what you can

Retail Furniture Association, the Bed- of simplified practice is the co-ordinating accomplish by investing

ding Manufacturers' Association, and the agency, lends the weight of the Governyour savings in Smith

National Council of Furniture Associa- ment to this thing which is in the interBonds-now. paying 7% tions.

est of all parties concerned. Agreements This booklet shows the results attainable

All these people knew that a bedstead are reached which are mutually benefiunder our Investment Savings Plan. It also

of nominal four-feet-and-a-half width cial to all. tells how you may use our plan to buy a

was almost never exactly that wide. In this way the bankers are reducing single $100, $500 or $1,000 Smith Bond,

They knew that there was no standard the number of sizes of checks, the buildpaying 7%, by payments extended over ten months. Every payment earns 7%.

length, but fluctuations between 72 and ers the sizes of doors, the railways the

76 inches. The inconvenience to manu- types of engines, the makers the types of First Mortgage Security

facturers, wholesalers, and retailers in tacks, traveling bags, dinner plates, mow

juggling all these sizes, keeping them in ing machines, candy boxes, the diame7% Smith Bonds are First Mortgage stock, finally getting them fitted together ters of macaroni, the dimensions of union Bonds, strongly secured by improved, in- with mattresses and bedding to fit, was

suits. come-producing city property, and proinfinite. It was expensive. It was un

Every venture leads toward the retected by safeguards that have resulted

necessary. It resulted in the rendering a moval of complications from a none too in our record of no loss to any investor in

worse, and not a better, service to the simple twentieth-century existence. It is 52 years. consumer,

a stupendous task, however, to bring Send your name and

So they talked the situation over at about changes in the established order, address today, on the

the National capital and reached a con- to secure the introduction of changes in form below, for our “Independent Income”

so involved a thing as the modern comclusion. They would eliminate all odd booklet. We also will types of bedsteads, springs, and mat- mercial structure. Results do not come

send you our booklet, tresses and manufacture just four widths, fast. In this campaign, however, there “Fifty-two Years of Proven Safety” which all of which should be exactly the same is one fundamental advantage. Simplifiexplains the time-tested safety features length. And he who cares to spread out cation saves money all along the linethat have made Smith Bonds the choice of

the map of a nation and surmise on the to the maker, the distributer, the coninvestors in 48 States and 30 foreign lands. detail that this one 'cut will eliminate be- sumer.

It touches the pocket nerve. tween Maine and Catalina in the next That fact exerts unrelenting pressure.

Individual American industry, says his imagination.

Mr. Hoover, is remarkably efficient, but Founded 1873

There is the matter of bottles of milk collective American industry is very conNew York Smith Bldg., Washington, D.C. Pittsburgh Philadelphia

Minneapolis

left sitting on the doorsteps of the Na- siderably inefficient. Industry is, in fact, tion along about daylight every morning. a Topsy. It has grown up of itself. It These bottles look pretty much alike requires a survey, particularly from the wherever you see them. When the in- collective standpoint. It should survey

dustry made a survey of itself, under the itself. This campaign for simplicity is Address...

inspiration of the division of simplified little more than the presentation to it of (Please print name and address plainly)

practice, it found, however, that there an opportunity to do so. In writing to the above advertiser, please mention The Outlook

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THE F. H. SMITH Co. fifty years may find ample exercise for

NO LOSS TO ANY INVESTOR IN 52 YEARS

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