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become the cross-streets of Minneapolis, ture. Very little of the wheat made into come to live or found industries in Donand vice versa. St. Paul was founded on flour in the prodigious mills of the Twin nybrook Fair neighborhoods, no matter the fur trade more than seventy-five Cities is grown in the State. Dairying how good-natured the nagging may be. years ago at the natural head of naviga- has become the leading agricultural occu- And the Twins do everlastingly nag each tion on the Mississippi. Minneapolis, pation of Minnesota, which is now the other. One looks askance upon you if built on the Falls of St. Anthony, which first butter State in the Union. Min- you consort with the other, and the local effectually blocked navigation farther neapolis lost out on the Ford plant, but folk-lore is charged with good stories north on the river, locks an occasional it evened up by bagging the Minnesota manufactured by one burg at the expense tow through the Government dam in Co-operative Creameries distributing of the other. order to call itself the head of navigation plant,

plant, representing 475 constituent In the flour city, for example, they will -“Me-too.” Using the very same dam, creameries and nearly 80,000 dairy farm- tell you of how, in a former movement with its potential water power, as a de- ers. And so it goes; competition rather towards the merging of the two commucoy, both cities enticed Henry Ford to than jealousy; mutual apprehension nities, when the question of a name for build his plant in their locality, but St. rather than prejudice or dislike. the new and greater municipality came Paul won out in the site competition. sibly it is a good thing; healthy, vigor- up for discussion, it was proposed that Ford has built the largest motor-car ous, conducive to alert citizenship on "Minnehaha" might be appropriate, after assembling plant in the United States, both sides of a boundary that you more the name of the falls and the glen near with a possible pay-roll for 14,000 work- sense than see. So think all the office- Fort Snelling, given international curers, on the East River Road, where it holders and most of the journalistic per- rency by Longfellow; "Minne" for Minabruptly terminates one of the finest sons, who naturally thrive on separation neapolis and "Haha” for St. Paul. And residential developments in the Missis- and rivalry. But undeniably the Twins the Paulist Fathers, grimly listening, will sippi Valley. Minneapolis, figuratively as one united city, nearly as large as recall the story of the little girl, whose growing vineyards of sour grapes along Boston in combined population, would family had been dispossessed, making her the corresponding parkways of its un- gain more than they would lose by one valedictory prayer: commercialized West River Road, is identity. What is true geographically is "Good-by, God. To-morrow we're working hard to throw another bridge becoming more and more true socially movin' to Minneapolis!” across the river, so that a fair share of the and commercially. The big men of busi- . Nevertheless, there are real differences Ford fourteen thousand may spend some ness and the big men of affairs know this between St. Paul and Minneapolis, differof the money they earn in St. Paul on and some of them admit it. They appre ences that can better be experienced than their own side of the river. Minnesota ciate the fact that even a nominal quar. told. The impressions are strangely conhas followed the older farming commu- relsomeness at such close quarters keeps tradictory. St. Paul, considerably older nities of the United States out of the away desirable citizens and desired in- in years, is unmistakably younger in grain-growing belt to diversified agricul- vestments. As a rule, folks don't want to mood. It is franker, more ingenuous, less standardized. Like San Francisco, Boston, Charleston, New Orleans, or Portland, Oregon, something prevails impalpably over it that, for want of a better name, may be called atmosphere; there remains a sense of lives greatly lived, of old adventures, of bygone times. The early settlements along the riverbank grew into the later districts on the bluffs without rhyme or reason. In rectangular Minneapolis you can't get lost even without the occasional haphazard designations of streets. But the thorough marking of all street intersections in St. Paul does you no good at all. You are apt to run into "Exchange Street" wandering around in half a dozen localities and without any definite object in view. Within a stone's throw of your destination you can get lost in a variety of purlieus or quartiers, some of them with a flavor almost London-like. Every now and then some radical reformer proposes to unscramble the streets and rebuild according to a city plan; but this will never happen. St. Paul, with the possible exception of Summit Avenue, is less orderly, less composed, than Minneapolis. Neither city is, as a whole,


The head of navigation on the Mississippi River, just below the Government dam and the new Ford plant at St. Paul


1917 beautiful, as Washington or Edinburgh or Rio is beautiful; but St. Paul is far more picturesque than its neighbor. It clusters around on its seven hills in a An example of St. Paul's sublime conception : The Union Station, built at a cost of Roman sort of way, the dome of an am

seven and a half million dollars, and used by nine railroads entering the city at the bitious St. Paul's standing for St. Peter's,

level of the Mississippi. A ball attended by three thousand couples was held here and Cass Gilbert's State Capitol dignify

without in any way disturbing the traffic. Bus lines have subtracted more than a

hundred local trains from the vicinity of the Twin Cities ing its surroundings. Surveyed from Cherokee Heights on one side of the river, secutive term in office. The city collects bus was beginning to express itself in the or the Indian Mounds on the other, the conventions even more adroitly than joint umbrage of the railroads and the municipal fabric appears patched with Minneapolis harvests tourists, and as de- small towns; the railroads losing local neglected open spaces apparently forgot- liberately. Just now, as between the traffic to an alarming degree-as graphiten or ignored in the casual growth of the two, it is rather Minneapolis that more cally illustrated by the Sahara bleakness city about them.

deliberately grows while the supposedly of the Union Station—and the small In name and by tradition St. Paul is conservative Twin, altogether against the town retailers losing their local patronage the conservative, Minneapolis the liberal, grain, you would think, boosts itself far by busfuls of marketers bound for the community. Something approaching the ahead of immediate specifications. neighboring big cities. reverse is in reality the case. In the life The boosting finds expression in what Another evidence of St. Paul's sublime of the older city the pioneers have either appear to an outsider splendid unrelated conception is the belt-line sewer running died off or have passed out of the fore- evidences of sublime faith. For years St. like a young Panama Canal through ground. Most of the second generation Paul talked about a Union Station almost uninhabited environs of the city, have followed them, and now it is the wherein to combine the terminal facili- where the constructive programme is grandsons who are steering municipal ties of the nine railroads entering the making ready for future populations with affairs and determining the character of city, then suddenly sank seven million a confidence that touches the heart. The the community. In the much younger dollars in a magnificent structure far be- Cathedral of St. Paul's corresponds to town of Minneapolis the pioneers are still yond the city's requirements. So vast St. John the Divine, on Morningside actively on deck. Thirty-five or sorty of are its empty spaces that a big ball was Heights, in New York City, in that both them define Minneapolis even now, and given one night in the concourse, where ecclesiastical structures have apparently their sons are stepping along in the three thousand couples danced undis- exceeded the religious demand and the tempo of the still vigorous older group turbed by the normal traffic. More than willingness to carry out the undertaking who, in the last city election, quietly and a hundred local trains have been recently to completion. The exterior of St. Paul's, firmly unseated a radical city government laid off of schedules in and out of the finished ten years ago, is one of the most and put in office a solid conservative, if Twin Cities on account of the ever- imposing church edifices in the West, but not reactionary, administration. St. increasingly convenient bus service over the interior remains, not unpleasantly, an Paul, by contrast, seems ultra-progress- smooth highways of the State and expanse of whitewashed brick and stone. ive. “Art” Nelson, the boy Mayor, county. In the Minneapolis and the St. Still another evidence of the big idea elected on a radical constructive plat- Paul daily press of the late summer a is the St. Paul conception of what conform, is at thirty serving his second con- strong opposition to the epoch-making stitutes an athletic club. Its twelvestory building, attractive within and gether for good causes, and this faculty

gether for good causes, and this faculty ing one of the seven hills at the beginwithout, stands up with the Capitol, the it has demonstrated many times in re- ning of Summit Avenue, is advertised for Cathedral, the Auditorium, the Great cent years. Potentially, it has the fac- sale as this article is being written. In Northern office building, and the St. Paul ulty of getting together with its neighbor- the same paper printing the advertiseHotel, as one of the most conspicuous ing municipality in the joint endeavors ment appears the picture of J. J. Hill's structures in the city. It is also one of which would make of both a greater unit grandson, just elected at twenty-three a the most significant. It is more of a civic of influence in American life. Honest director of one of the city's largest banks. center than an athletic club, patronized rivalry is better than any sham union, "The old order changeth, giving place to almost as much by women as by men, and these Twins have been scrapping for new.” Perhaps no greater things may be and containing the offices of the St. Paul more than fifty years. But the honesty looked for from the new generation than Association, one of the most broad-gauge of that rivalry does not suffer when the were accomplished by their fathers and and sensible commercial organizations of two arrondissements actually do get to- grandfathers in St. Paul. But different its kind. Here visiting delegations or gether for their semi-annual “Twin City things may be looked for, different atti-solitary strangers are entertained, and Market Week," and a better rapproche- tudes, broader visions. At all events, the here “Art” Nelson assembles the heaviest ment may be foreseen in the movements city could have no more timely and needtaxpayers and the thirty-eight organiza- toward intercity police and transporta- ful slogan for the character of its future tions constituting the advisory body of tion regulations.

growth than that chosen by the civic his fellow-citizens to lay before them at They used to call St. Paul“Hilltown,” association, which expressly looks beyond well-served dinners the constructive rea- with a double reference to its terrain and conventions and tourists and industrial sons for his bond issues.

the leonine railroad builder of the North- boosting, to larger living—“St. Paul St. Paul has the faculty of getting to- west, whose great stone mansion, crown- Serves."

The Balance-Sheet of Prohibition


Executive Secretary of the Department of Research and Education

of the Federal Council of Churches


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THE situation with reference to meantime, an Administrative policy took enforcement was dominated by partisan National prohibition has appar- shape at Washington which was fairly

shape at Washington which was fairly influences, and the more definitely it beently reached a "show-down." independent of any other policy of the came identified with such influences the For one reason or another, the Federal Administration.

easier it was for Government officials to Government has decided upon a new pol

"let George do it.” Attempts to intericy of enforcement. That policy, in the

A Weak Enforcement Policy

fere from above were resented by the opinion of the present writer, is sincerely The situation up to the present year

friends of the Prohibition Unit, and not undertaken and wisely framed. Its im

had two main features. One was unnaturally so, because of the apparent plications are farther reaching, however, the passive-one might almost say irre- lack of sympathy on the part of higher than is generally realized.

sponsible--attitude of higher officials in Treasury officials with the law itself. Until a few months ago the enforce- the Government with reference to en- The word went around that prohibition Pient of prohibition was not a matter of forcement of prohibition. This attitude must be kept in the hands of its friends. 757 interest at Washington. The was due apparently to a lack of sym- So matters drifted on. More and more

Act was passed during the Ad- pathy, a feeble concern, and a weak con- the campaign methods and psychology of ind

on of President Wilson, who viction as to the enforceability of the law. the prohibition movement came to be

and whose States'-rights heart The other main feature of the situation characteristic of the Government's enWas ini in it. The Government policy was the aggressive development of a pro- forcement policy and programme. The on this question crystallized under Presi- gramme by the Prohibition Unit that publicity service of the Prohibition Unit dent Harding, whose whole outlook and reflected chiefly a reform psychology. It has carried many of the loose, ill-considmanner of life made him uncomprehend became common knowledge that the Unit

became common knowledge that the Unit ered, fragmentary, inconclusive, and ing toward so strong a reform policy as was under the virtual control of the Anti- often misleading statements that have the prohibition crusade had brought Saloon League. This is not said in criti- been an unfortunate element in the whole upon the country. It is to be said, how- cism of the League. In the absence of a effort to win favor for the prohibition ever, that Mr. Harding reached the point strong policy on the part of responsible régime. Too much attention has been before his death where the whole ques- Government heads, the leaders of the given to petty cases, which occupy space tion of prohibition enforcement acquired “Dry" forces stepped in to give the Gov- in the newspapers, but are of little sig

ernment the benefit of their experience in nificance or value. Prohibition agents a new importance in his thinking, although he did not live to carry out any building up the machinery of enforce- are poorly paid, and many of them have newly formed purpose. President Cool- ment. It was a natural thing to do, and suffered moral collapse under unpreceidge's modest policy of laissez-faire” in considering the circumstances, the con- dented temptation. Government matters during the period stituency of the League would probably All of this is said by way of interprewhen he was President only by an acci- have held it accountable for a failure to ting the present situation in the Governdent of history led him doubtless to with- take aggressive action.

ment. It is not a complete appraisal of hold interference in the difficult matter But the results were not wholesome. the Prohibition Unit. The group of enforcing the prohibition law. In the The impression went out that prohibition of people at Washington,


outside the Government, who have been

Fallacy of Majority Rule

flagrantly violated as is the Prohibition determined to retrieve the fortunes of a

Law comes to be regarded as a dead course that was losing popularity, have IT is a serious misapprehension on the letter. much to their credit in sincerity, integ- part of prohibitionists, however, to attribute entirely to faulty and inefficient

Limits of Federal Power rity, and downright heroism. From the headquarters enforcement organization enforcement the reverses that have been IF

f the Federal Government can stop down to the agents in the field, not all encountered in making prohibition effec- smuggling, illegal diversion of alcoof whom have been corrupt by any

tive and realizing from it the anticipated hol, and other large-scale violations of means, most commendable service has and predicted benefits. One might as

the law—which is all the responsibility been rendered under staggering difficul

well attribute the failure of the Fifteenth it may properly be charged with then ties.

Amendment to the Constitution to non- it will remain to be seen how persistent But it was a losing fight, because the enforcement of it by the Federal Govern- is the demand for liquor on the part of policy that had been slowly developed ment. When the people, or any very

the irreconcilables among our citizens. lacked efficiency and strength of leader- considerable portion of them, turn

If it continues on the present scale, ship in the Government to repel the against a law, there is no longer any bringing into existence thousands of ravages of politics, and lacked also a question of enforcement--what has hap

small-scale illicit operations, the standing broad-gauge philosophy of social prog- pened, then, is nullification. “Majority Army would hardly be sufficient to en

force the law. Neither the Federal courts ress that might have won the support of government,” literally construed, is just the country. The public has gained the a political dogma that has no counterpart

nor Federal Administrative machinery impression of an unwillingness on the in reality. A bare majority is quite im- were designed to cope with such a situapart of the Prohibition Unit to face facts potent to govern, and in a matter that is tion, and the issue rests finally with the and to recognize limitations and failures, highly controversial and in which large States and municipalities. a preoccupation with unimportant cases

economic interests are at stake only the However ably he has grasped the adand its failure to clinch the big ones, and combined support of an overwhelming ministrative problems of government in an over-fondness for optimistic advertis- majority can bring recalcitrants into line. the State of New York, Governor Smith ing. Where this is lacking, a statute ceases to

is on the wrong side of the facts with be a law.

reference to the co-operation of State and The New Line-Up

That is what has virtually happened Federal officials in enforcing prohibition. THE 'HE result is that in the new set-up to prohibition in certain sections—New Theoretically, the duty of a State officer

for prohibition enforcement the in- York City, for example. With fifteen is to uphold the Eighteenth Amendment, fluences represented in the prohibition thousand complaints concerning Volstead and the Volstead Act may be involved in lobby at Washington are conspicuously Act violations coming before the United his oath of allegiance to the Constitulacking in prominence. The law is no States Commissioner each month, the re- tion. But from the practical adminislonger in the "hands of its friends," if bycently appointed Federal District Attor- trative point of view co-operation is posthat formula the prohibition leaders at ney found it necessary to sweep his office sible only in a meager way unless prohiWashington mean persons committed on clean of all these petty violations and bition cases can be brought into State principle to the purposes of the Volstead confine his attention to important cases. courts--and that requires a State enAct. The theory that is to prevail from Thus, for minor violations of the prohi- forcement law. now on is that the law is to be enforced bition law in New York City there is now Moreover, there is a limit to what any with a maximum of efficiency and a mini- virtual immunity.

kind of governmental force can do. If mum of publicity and without accepting It would of course be misleading to people will not accept a law, it is ignored any particular responsibility for modify- focus attention upon New York or Mas- and forgotten. The Anti-Saloon League ing the attitude of the public toward pro- sachusetts or Maryland and not to re- of Iowa has pointed out the impending hibition as a public policy. It has be- lieve the picture by less unlovely exhibits. danger in a recent exposure of conditions come necessary in the opinion of Admin- The Atlantic seaboard is looked upon as in that State, where, the League declares, istration leaders to divorce enforcement foreign territory by prohibitionists in the a swarm of illicit stills has appeared and from advocacy. This should never have Middle West. Indiana, for example, to

lawlessness has been "increasing by leaps been necessary, but perhaps the well- take one of the best, presents a very

and bounds." known irreconcilability between the different picture, and one is not sur

A Bad Stage-Setting views of prohibitionists and those of the prised, after a brief inspection of condiSecretary of the Treasury made it in

tions there, to hear it said confidently I should not be necessary to say that evitable. If the psychology of the prohibition lobby has been unfortunate, the State. In fact, there is little doubt that prohibition takes all too little account of failure of the Treasury Department to nearly all the States would to-day sup- the conditions under which it was develop leadership in the vital matter of port the Volstead Act on a referendum adopted. Many of the disquieting symplaw enforcement, comparable to that vote. But nullification in even a small toms of a falling moral tone among which it has volunteered in National area is like a cancerous infection. The young people, for example, undoubtedly finance, is without excuse. But however Volstead Act has given ample proof that reflect influences that have long been one apportions responsibility for the im- no State liveth unto itself. A fact of operative and are wholly independent of passe that has developed within the prime importance for the friends of pro- any attempt to regulate the liquor traffic. Treasury Department on the prohibition hibition to remember is that a continu- Young people are out to get a new issue, the fact is that we are offered now ously divided Nation on this issue means "kick” out of life. If the hip flask serves an entirely new deal. The responsible defeat, both material and moral. The their purpose, it is probably more or less heads of the Government propose to find whole Nation must ultimately bear re- incidental. Certainly the joy-riding auout whether or not prohibition can be sponsibility for the well-being of every tomobile is not a product of the Volstead enforced. If it can, they propose to do part of it. It is all very well to say that Act! it by militant means, if necessary. If no law is fully enforced. The uncom

On the whole, the stage was set badly not, there are to be no alibis.

fortable fact is that any law that is as for the coming of prohibition. How

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much of this was due to the War and how tablished during the War would not have ernment that remains "dry” in policy, much to the imponderable Zeitgeist, who advanced us nearly to the present point but has so long neglected the task of shall say?

without so precipitate an outlawing of enforcement, and the conversion of

the liquor traffic. No one would be jus- drinking into a great illicit National Some Evident Gains

tified in putting this forward as a con- joke-whether all these and related deUT, ineffective as it has been, prohi

clusion; one can only say that statisti- plorable consequences are not too great a bition has accomplished significant cally we are not far enough from the price to pay for such prohibition as we

have had. But there is no reason why results. The abolition of the saloon is general “trend line” of the last dozen an almost universally admitted social

years or so to establish a distinct and the future may not efface this pathetic gain. One of the most impressive results permanent achievement.

record if citizens who want prohibition of the recent survey made by the Federal

One fact that even a casual examina- to succeed will translate their faith into Council of Churches was the negligible

tion of statistics makes clear is that works.

crime records which are commonly apcharacter of pro-saloon sentiment. The

The churches have been sadly delinmost immediate beneficiaries have been pealed to as a proof of the benefits of

pealed to as a proof of the benefits of quent. They have committed prohibiworkingmen and their families. Prob

Prob- prohibition support no such conclusions. tion to the care of a political organizaably no anti-prohibition sentiment is

It is, to be sure, highly questionable tion which they created for the purpose stronger than that of labor, but with the

whether there is anything approximating and have neglected what is, first and last, exception of the anthracite coal fields,

a “crime wave” in the country. Felonies the greatest task of all-education in where beer is regarded as a "specific" for

do not appear to be increasing rapidly. temperate living and in the responsibilicoal dust in the respiratory tubes, and

The increases in offenses fall mainly in ties of citizenship. If it was the duty of where the saloon was perhaps at its best

the misdemeanor class. But the total the churches to aid in an indispensable as a medium of social intercourse, we

collective movement to rid the Nation of number of offenses has been growing with found practically no friends of the sa

disquieting rapidity. Even the popula- a social evil, it is much more their duty loon.

tion of State prisons, on the basis of the to further those processes of regeneration

most reliable data at hand, we found to The tremendous curtailment of liquor

and moral rehabilitation for which legis

lation is a poor substitute. General Anconsumption has made for improved have reached in 1923 almost as high a economic status, though to what extent,

level in proportion to total population as drews disapproved the allocation of of course, nobody knows. To claim, as

in 1917, in spite of the drop between $50,000 of the Prohibition Unit's funds is often done, that the increase in bank

those years. Municipal police records for a poster campaign, and in this wri

show the total number of arrests to be deposits during the last few years is

ter's judgment very properly so. It is mainly due to prohibition is absurd; yet

far in excess of the number recorded in the Government's business to enforce the one cannot fail to be impressed by the

1917. Whatever these facts may mean, law, not to persuade the people to accept continued growth of savings accounts

crime statistics are frail reeds to lean the law. during the depression period of 1920-21.

upon for the support of prohibition. And the people are not induced to acSocial workers give impressive testimony

The most hopeful element in the situa- cept a law by being threatened or com

manded. that living conditions among the clients tion is the evidence, which is by no

Government by epithet and of social agencies are better than before

means slight, that we have already oratory is a weak expedient. Neither 1920. The same is true of many other

reached the peak of the reaction and that will it do to insist that all law and order evidences of social well-being.

we may even now be again on the way stand or fall with the Volstead Act. The

to overcoming the unfavorable trend that people know better. They must be won The Reverse Trend has prevailed since 1920.

to prohibition on its merits as a social

policy, or not at all. Reasoned observthe other hand, as every statisti

The Moral Hazard

ance is worth more than compulsion, and

cian, knows, the significant thing in But the seriousness of the problem its results last longer.

. 4

which prohibition presents arises And the outstanding fact pre- chiefly out of its effect on the public con

Give the Law a Chance op. social statistics with reference science. It is a question how long, even N ATIONAL prohibition is, by all apto prohibition is the reversal of the trend with admitted material and social gains, pearances, about to undergo its of improvement that prevailed from we could withstand the demoralizing in- supreme test. The occasion calls for a 1917-20. Whether one examines the fluence of an illicit liquor traffic. Alcohol new measure of frankness, of honesty, of record of deaths from alcoholic diseases, has too long been the "legal tender” of tolerance, and of co-operative citizenship. the incidence of alcoholic psychosis, the politics, as a high Government official Why should not those who have misgivprevalence of intemperance as a factor in recently put it, to admit of Governmental ings about it on grounds of public policy dependency, the number of arrests for integrity so long as it retains a privileged or political theory recognize, neverthecriminal offenses in general, or specifi- illicit position. The present struggle of less, that a huge and important social cally for drunkenness and disorderly con- General Andrews to free his hands of experiment is under way, one that deduct, the result is the same. In 1920, political interference is disquieting evi- serves a chance to succeed? due presumably to the fact that the great dence of the influence of the liquor Many persons will find the opinions psychological reaction to prohibition had traffic. What a commentary upon the here expressed quite unacceptable. It is not set in and the bootleg industry was corroding influence of politics that it was difficult to write frankly on this theme in its infancy, there was an impressive deemed necessary, in order to get the without inviting criticism from friends falling off in all the familiar effects of the Volstead Act through Congress, to ex- and colleagues as well as from opponents. liquor traffic. But from that point, or empt prohibition agents from the Civil On one point, however, the writer hopes approximately so, in the curve, a counter- Service and turn them over to political to avoid misapprehension. He is defitendency appears, and while for the most patronage! Many sincere friends of pro- nitely against any “liberalizing” of the part conditions are better than before hibition have been led to question National Prohibition Act until it has had 1920, it is seriously questionable whether whether the demoralization of Federal a fair trial. Such a fial it has not yet the favorable trend which had been es- courts, the growing contempt for a Gov- been given.

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