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The last I court ne Princeton before a National
now exists, but also to bring up, consider, For the World Court
than we have now. The importance of and act upon the report of the National
the recent debate on the World
the Senate's action consists in its relaCoal Commission of 1923.
tion to the good faith of the Nation and Congress certainly knew that such a reWorld Court Conference Senator Len
to the standing of the Senate in the estiport existed, for it appropriated several root defended the Court as being some
mate of the American people. hundred thousand dollars for its cost, but
thing it isn't, and Clarence Darrow it neither considered it nor even provided criticised it because it isn't something it
Toward the Abyss for printing it until the last minute. doesn't pretend to be.
HAT is the reason for the perilous Much less did it act upon it. Under Senator Lenroot thought the United
condition of France? Is it that present pressure, the new Congress will
States should adhere to the World Court the French people have not learned the probably do something or other in the
because we believe in world peace; Mr. lesson taught by the experience of the course of time, but there are no signs of
Darrow ridiculed the World Court be- Germans next door to them? Or is it hurry yet evident.
cause it would be “the death of freedom” that the French politicians are taking a
and because “it is not to act unless some- leaf out of the book of the politicians of Take the Blinders Off body tells it to."
Germany? HE recent meeting of the Executive Of course the World Court is not a All signs in France point to the deCommittee of the Federal Council League of Nations nor a peace confer
struction of the French currency and of Churches in Detroit gave the enemies ence nor an arbitration commission. Its French Government securities. The of that body's prohibition report an op- powers are judicial; it sits as a perma
franc has been dropping rapidly. It is portunity once again to denounce it. nent court; it decides juridically cases now worth less than it has ever been
Bishop Thomas Nicholson, of the brought before it by nations for its judg- worth before. The people in France are Methodist Episcopal Church, stated that ment. It does not make treaties nor doing just what the people in Germany the report put back the fight for prohi- does it issue peace propaganda; it does did; they are trying to get rid of their bition almost to where it started from not arbitrate disputes on a basis of com- paper money and substitute for it things and wiped out many of its gains. But promise; but it interprets and applies to of permanent value, like real estate, or certainly the prohibition cause will gain each case international law.
goods, or even diamonds. And as people more in the long run by basing its prog- The Outlook heartily supports the
offer the franc for sale and find few ress upon facts. If the blinders are re
proposal for the entrance of the United takers, the franc sinks in value. Experimoved from our eyes and we clearly see States into the World Court agreement. ence in other countries shows that when existing conditions, surely we can better The Court is not a branch of the League this begins to happen the descent gathers accomplish our purpose. Bishop Joseph of Nations, although its inception was momentum. Cannon, of the Southern Methodist through the League. It is a perfectly
French holders of Government securiChurch, however, disagrees. He said at independent judicial body, and as such ties have naturally wanted their high the Detroit meeting, “I have protested is of undoubted value. It is not an at- rates of interest. Proposals to cut down against the issuance of this report be- tempt to abolish war, but one to decide the interest have met such opposition cause it admitted that there had been a justiciable disputes.
that they have been abandoned. Now it breakdown in social conditions caused by For many years the United States has begins to look as if these holders of prohibition and its methods of enforce- been committed to the policy of the es- Government securities were to lose the ment.” Evidently the strongest charge tablishment of a world court of justice. whole value of their holdings. Perhaps that can be made against the report is Whoever wishes to learn in detail the the politicians have come to the concluthat it "admitted" facts.
history of the idea of a world court, and sion that the best way to pay an internal Statements of this kind from church
particularly the support which American debt is to render the evidence of it leaders caused Dr. Nolan R. Best, public sentiment and American official worthless. That is the way that the secretary of the Baltimore Council of representatives have given to it, can German Government got rid of its debt, Churches, to rise in the same meeting probably do no better than to obtain and and came near getting rid of its middle and say, "I thank God for that report," read the volume entitled “The World class as well. and Dr. William Adams Brown, of Union Court,” by Antonio S. de Bustamante, Seminary, to spring to its defense, say- who is a judge of the Permanent Court Untangling Tacna a
HILE lic confidence in the honesty of the
Chile, seem to have been doing their churches." may understand, the constitution and
utmost to make the good will of the The address of Dr. Charles Stelzle, character of the present Court and the United States ineffective. In the conveteran temperance worker and religious sort of cases that it has dealt with.) troversy to determine the sovereignty of leader, reflected his usual good sense and No business of the Senate during the the provinces of Tacna and Arica the wisdom. "Prohibition is not a failure,” present session will surpass in importance contesting parties have both put serious he said, “because it never has been fully its action on the World Court. This is obstacles in the way of the arbiter, the tried. What is mainly needed at this not because of any practical effect that President of the United States. Our time is a campaign of education-first, joining the World Court would have Government is likely to hesitate a long to inform people of the actual facts, and, upon this country. We now have the time before permitting its Chief Execusecondly, to win their support to a policy same access to the Court that we will tive to become involved in another such which will remedy the evils now existing have after joining it. We shall have no bitter international conflict. the prohibition field.”
more obligations to use it after joining it The dispute has been lately over the
terms of the proposed plebiscite. Chile that the United States should make room country has any really troublesome surhas taken Peru's place as the critic of for some of the millions of persons super- plus of them. the United States for its course in a task fluous to the needs and detrimental to
Can We Eliminate that was not self-imposed. General the comfort of Europe. "Make room,"
Radio « Distortion”? Pershing, president of the Plebiscitary is an old argument, old as Ariovistus; Commission, has been severely arraigned it has retained much of its ancient force. The comparative elimination of unby former President Alessandri, of Chile, Let us see how far it applies at the pres- natural vocal reproduction, known and by Agustin Edwards, Chile's repre- ent moment.
among radio engineers as "distortion," sentative on the Commission, and also In the fiscal year ended with last June has been largely accomplished, it is by the Chilean Foreign Office in a com- the immigrant quotas from five of the six claimed, by the well-known inventor, Dr. munication addressed to the Chilean chief sources remained unfilled. Al- Lee De Forest, of New York. By disembassies and legations abroad.
though the law of 1924 had greatly cut carding the familiar circular diaphragm Chile accuses General Pershing of de- the totals that might be admitted to the of the telephone receiver and radio loudlay in fixing a date for the plebiscite. United States from each nation, Ger- speaker and by substituting for it a new Peru believes that a fair plebiscite cannot many, Italy, Great Britain, Ireland, and principle in which a large curved membe arranged before April 15; and Gen- Sweden all sent fewer immigrants than brane of tough paper is actuated from its eral Pershing on this point agrees with the law would permit. Some countries, edge, instead of its center, he has proPeru. Whatever delay there has been is, unlike the United States, want immi- duced purer and more natural sound in the judgment of the American repre- grants, and are trying hard to draw waves. sentative, due to obstructions Chile has them. Even those countries have lately Dr. Lee De Forest calls his new inplaced in the path of a fair and free had a hard time obtaining anywhere vention the audalion, and he believes election. If the whole arrangement is not near as many as they wished. In the it is likely to find its widest application to go to smash, another appeal to the recent Canadian election the Canadian as a substitute for the present radio United States is apparently going to be Government was accused of having failed loudspeaker, and for the purpose of furnecessary.
in the endeavor to fetch in more immi- nishing the incidental music and diaIt would appear as if the arbiter must grants.
logue for his "phonofilm,” or talking support, as far as possible, the position In Australia so much is the immi- moving pictures. of General Pershing, who has studied for grant wanted and so little forthcoming If one were to take a sheet of selected months the situation on the grounds mi- that the Government has this year tough parchment, curve or bend it so nutely. Failure in the arbitration would undertaken to spend $170,000,000 to that its opposite edges almost touched be a severe blow to the prestige of the assist those who will come and settle. one another, thus almost forming a cylUnited States in Latin America. On the All-British Australia has even swallowed inder, slide it loosely into a retaining other hand, success will bring ill feeling its nationalism to the extent of making framework and attach to one of its edges against the United States on the part of an arrangement with Italy for the admis- a short steel lever which was actuated by the loser. It is doubtful if any other sion of Italians on special terms. Eu- an electromagnetic device not unlike problem so full of dynamite and rancor rope, if overpopulated, knows of vacant those at present employed for actuating is to be found in the international affairs places at the moment for many thou- the sound-producing diaphragms of loudof any of the American republics in sands of those who actually prefer to speakers, one would have provided the which this Government or the President stay at home.
essential elements of Dr. De Forest's of the United States may be called on to Australia and Canada, it is true, seek new invention. use good offices as arbiter.
colonists rather than laborers. They en-
How the Modern Inventor
will take land, and send down into it the Approaches His Problem WE E are underpopulated, says Baron
, Adelsward, President of the In- prise. Europe is probably not overpopu- conception; indeed, it is what terparliamentary Union, who intimates lated with persons of that character. No might be called a wholly illogical one.
for the protection of their posterity. This statement is prompted by the selec
tion of the site in the city of Washington Dr. Lee De Forest's audalion is a new
for the magnificent memorial which has typeof''loudspeak.
been designed by John Russell Pope. er" in which elec- If the Roosevelt memorial is placed by tricimpulses are con
the Congress of the United States on the verted into atmos
site which has been chosen in Washingpheric pulsations or sound-waves by a
ton, it will stand for all time as a symbol new principle. It of one of the three great periods in the can be applied to early life of our Republic. The Ameristrong radio sets of
can Nation, born of Washington's courathe
geous dream, born again of the spirit of types, and it will faithfully reproduce
Abraham Lincoln rising mountain high the sound qualities
above the tumult and shouting of civil delivered to it by war, will then have voiced, by the selecthe radio set, thus tion of this location for a memorial to giving head-set qual
Roosevelt, its faith in a new renaissance ity of loudspeaking
of its spiritual integrity.
In the lofty jetting fountain, symboliz
ing the abundant life of Theodore RooseSuch a method would not have seemed
velt, this Nation will have created a at least on a priori grounds—even workable.
of the world that the heart and mind of It is likely that radio engineers ON of the East and South, foster
this man shall stand through the ages as have stuck to the orthodox form of cir- child of the West, Theodore Roose
a well-spring of its National life. Is cular diaphragm simply because this velt expressed in his single person
America ready for the question? method of turning electrical energy into ality the multiple virtues and achievesound is altogether the most "obvious" ments of our American democracy. A Nation's, Not a Sec. method.
Washington stands for the birth of the Yet when facts confront theories, Republic, Lincoln for the permanency of
tion's, Problem facts win. For example, aeronautical its political union, Roosevelt for those
E do not agree with Mr. engineers retarded the progress of avia- social ideals that permeate all groups
Lilienthal when he says, in tion for a long time because they in- and conditions of Americans.
his article in this issue, that sisted that the wing or “aerofoil” be thin. Because The Outlook is so certain of in their problem of living together the It was obvious that the thinner the wing, the future of Roosevelt's fame it does two races have made "a sorry, disorthe less head resistance it would offer. not at this time insist on the need of a derly, and often bloody mess of it.” On Finally, however, some reckless inventor memorial to express the influence of the whole, the whites and the blacks deliberately tried the illogical. He thick- Theodore Roosevelt upon the American
in the South live together amicably. ened the aerofoil. Its lifting power was Nation. If the country is fully ready for Lynchings, real oppression, and the sort instantly multiplied. Nowadays in- that memorial, let us erect it now. If of intimidation that causes "race fear" ventors and scientists are not confining there is dissension and disagreement, let are the exception. If they were not the their experiments to the obvious; one us wait for the time when the thunders exception, they would not be news. highly successful inventor consistently that broke about his head have become What we in America must understand is flies in the face of logic, and these ex- but dimly remembered echoes.
that our problem is to deal with a situaperimental discursions have proved im- Memorials, after all, add little to the tion that causes exceptions. That probmensely profitable to him and to indus- fame of any man. They are monuments, lem is as old as the Nation—and older.
not to the men nations delight to honor, It was a problem in Virginia at the time In a similar manner Dr. De Forest has but to the nations who find delight in of Jefferson. It was not solved then by ignored the drum beating type of sound
Unless the heart and mind the best minds of the South in attempts reproducing device. Instead, he shakes of the Nation keep march with the spirit at gradual emancipation; it was not the edge of a sheet of paper tangen- and courage of Theodore Roosevelt, , solved at the time of the Civil War; but tially, like a man-or a woman-shaking massive colonnades of marble will be but it has been all these years in the process a rug, though faster and with less ampli- empty shells, meaningless physical adorn- of solution. We have been making progtude; and in order to send the sound ments as void of life as any tomb.
ress. waves out in more than one direction The question of a memorial to Roose- Mr. Lilienthal is too despondent in his he rolls this paper into a horseshoe velt resolves itself into something more account of interracial commissions. It curve.
than the attainment of an ultimate esti- is true that the interracial commission in One foresees many more applications mate of his achievements. It implies a Chicago did not bring a millennium; but of this basic sound-reproducing principle choice by the American people of the it marked a gain. More particularly, the than for the radio.
banner under which they choose to fight interracial commissions in Southern com
munities have contributed greatly toward an advance to the goal.
Nowhere else in the world is this interracial problem presented more clearly and definitely than it is in the United States. In America both races are learning in the school of experience. We do not yet know for what we are preparing. All we know is that the present task is to provide means by which the two races can live together and yet remain separate.
There can be no manner of doubt that both races are better off than they were during the era of slavery-better off than they were twenty or twenty-five years ago. The North is beginning now to understand better the problem that the South has faced for generations. The people of the North must not let the novelty of their experience make them feel that the problem has become more complicated. The whole Nation is learning some of the lessons that the South used to study alone.
To the Editor of The Outlook:
This is from one who spent the first thirty years of his life in your big city and the past ten in Seattle. There are tens of thousands more like me who would consider it exile to have to go back.
We laughed with Mr. Marvin, my family and I, at his stories about Seattle, though it didn't seem particularly inspired. His analyses of cities can hardly all be inspired when he visits each for a few days and must get the "soul" in that short time. But, at any rate, there was nothing to get mad about.
We have three newspapers-a fool paper, a Hearst paper, and a Scripps paper--not to mention the only big Union daily, with which I'm not familiar (perhaps that's
Theological education will not save the ministry or the churches. The reason should be evident. The object and the equipment of the minister are radically different from both the object and the equipment of either the lawyer or the physician.
Modern medicine, for example, is a science. The object of the medical student is to acquire such knowledge of that science as to be able to apply it in combating disease. His success as physician will be in proportion to his knowledge and his skill. Ignorance in a physician is fatal.
It is not so with the ministry. Advance in scientific knowledge has brought no new capacity for religious leadership. Moses and Isaiah, Paul and John, will remain, as they always have been, in the highest rank in the ministry of religion, and in our own day there has been no greater minister of religion than the unordained Dwight L. Moody, though he was without scientific or scholastic training.
Should Ministers Be
Educated ? ANY signs point to a loss in the prestige and influence of the
Church. Not the least of these is the decline in the number and quality of students for the ministry.
In his annual report Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University, declared:
Unhappily, that "illiterate ministry" which it was the purpose of the pious founders of Harvard College to forfend is now, after three hundred years, in ample evidence on every side. . . If the full truth were said, it would probably be that the greatest obstacle to religious faith, religious conviction, and religious worship is the attitude and influence of a very large proportion of the poorly endowed and poorly educated Protestant clergy.
It so happened that the "fool" paper got mad over little or nothing, editorialized and made us ridiculous. They could be counted on to do that.
If you ever hear of a man, a good man, who is looking for a city that is hungering for a real newspaper, for God's sake, send him to us. That is the only thing in your whole big city I'd give a plugged nickel for. Yours truly,
H. M, M.
ELIGION is a form of power. It is
not knowledge; it is not theory; it is not belief. Millions of ignorant people have been profoundly religious. Millions who have been puzzled by contradictory theories about religion have nevertheless been religious. Millions who have not known really what to believe, from long before the days of Thomas to the present, have at the same time been deeply and strongly religious. These millions have somewhere found a source of power which they have utilized in their lives, and that power has been their religion. Whether it has always been a good power or an evil power, a good religion or an evil one, is not to the point. It has not been knowledge that has given them this power, for they have been ignorant; or theological theories, for they have not understood them; nor even belief, for they have retained that power though they have doubted.
Those churches that have not been able to impart this power to men have never grown in influence or in numbers; while those that have been able to impart such power have grown and flourished.
In the New Testament the symbols of religion are the symbols of the source of energy-bread, light, fire, water. And throughout the New Testament, and especially in the words of Christ, the test
If the medical profession were languish
ing and proving unequal to its task, the remedy would inevitably be sought in better medical schools. If lawyers were becoming more and more incompetent, the remedy would be sought in the improvement of our law schools. Is, therefore, the greatest need of the churches better theological schools? But our theological seminaries have been improving, while the ministry as a profession has continued to decline.
Just ship us the mountains and trout streams and clean sea waters of the Northwest, and we will send you our whole metropolitan press by return mail. What could be fairer than that? —THE EDITORS.
1 With Tacoma's consent.
of religion is not the test of scientific and the plain. But even the ignorant cause to maintain. And if he can do knowledge, or of theology, but of power. and even the scholastic can serve if they this, and do this only, what other trainIt is not what a man thinks about rehave the power.
ing does he need than that of an eduligion that is the test, but what his re
cated man who can understand the ligion does with his life.
ERTAINLY if a man is to teach the points of view of those with whom he
history or psychology of religion, or has to deal and can speak to them in W
HAT the Church needs in its min- study religion as a biologist would study their language?
istry is men who can seize and an animal or a botanist would study a translate this power. If they are learned, they may serve as But if he is to be a minister, he should
est obstacle to religious faith? Paul served. If they are unlearned, they be able to show men and women how to What, in your opinion, is the greatest may serve as Peter served.
get the power that will sustain them need of the ministry? How best can the If they are grossly ignorant, they will when discouraged, make them masters of Church secure men who can seize and find that ignorance is a bar to the access their own spirits, keep them calm in the translate the power of religion? It will of the minds of the educated. If they midst of the tempest, and give them help
midst of the tempest, and give them help if our readers attempt to answer are scholastic, they will find their scho
ourage, fidelity, energy, and reasonable- these far-reaching questions. lasticism a bar to the minds of the simple ness when they have a work to do or a
ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT.
be trained in theology: WHAT do you believe is the great,
The Counter-Revolution at the Capital
Staff Correspondence from Washington
By DIXON MERRITT
\HE paramount issue in the poli- Do not get the impression that this their time to discussing the menace of
tics of the past few years- revolution started in Congress. Revolu- centralization. Senator Wadsworth, of
probably the paramount plank tions never do start there. That august New York, and Merle Thorpe, of the in the platforms of both political parties body is too cautious to be revolutionary. United States Chamber of Commerce, in 1928—will be anti-bureaucracy, anti- The perfervid orator with too great a addressed them, both proclaiming against paternalism, anti-Government-in-busi- wealth of metaphor who referred to a the evil of Government-in-business. Mr. ness, or whatever name may be given Congressman as “sitting a-straddle of the Thorpe, in a statistical mood, told them to centralization of control.
fence with his ear to the ground” was that "the White House calendar to-day That sentence, which has the allitera- not, after all, very far from the fact. is ninety per cent Government-in-busitive sound of the Prudent Patricians of That is about what the average Con- ness." Pompeii, is prophecy of the raw, rank, gressman habitually does. Congress is More recently representatives of three and unripe kind, which is another way not going to do anything to bureaucracy hundred organizations of as many differof saying that it is simply a personal or Government-in-business—not now. It ent lines of industry, ranging all the way opinion. Therefore do not accept it. simply has its eye on the revolution. from ship-builders to envelope makers, Look a little and then form your own Some Federal officials have come to met together in Washington and defiopinion.
the conclusion that the Government has nitely launched a campaign to do someThere is a revolution on against bu- its finger in too many pies. Secretary of thing about it, whatever it is. They reaucracy, and it already has up a lot of Commerce Hoover has had a good deal denounced bureaucracy, centralization, steam despite the fact that it slipped up to say about it, first and last. Secretary paternalism, Government-in-business. on the blind side of Washington. No- of Agriculture Jardine has mentioned it Nearly every trade and industrial orbody, probably, knows where it started. several times, by way of warning agri- ganization that has held a meeting reThere are indications that it started culture that it ought to try to keep out cently has had something of the same everywhere at the same time, that there of the situation in which other industries kind to say. was a general and simultaneous awaken- find themselves. But the revolution did ing to the danger—if it is a danger-of not start with Federal officials. It must paternalism.
have started back at the crossroads and the revolution is definitely on the However that may be, Senators and in the corner stores of the towns and way to the overthrow of something. Not Representatives in Congress returned cities or, as was intimated a while ago, all of the revolutionists have the same from their vacation with a new attitude. everywhere at the same time.
conception of what bureaucracy is. Not Those, with a few exceptions, who for
all of them draw the line clearly between
necessary regulation and governmental world were saying less about it than of
interference. If they could all have exold. Those who formerly did not care Grocery Specialty Association? I do not actly what they want, as much harm as much about it one way or the other were know. I cannot think of any business in good might be done possibly more. beginning to think that things had gone which the Government is engaged that But they are all agreed that something far enough. And those who always comes in competition with these knick- has grown up in Washington which, if it wanted to have the Government mind knack makers. I cannot think of any continues to grow, will be disastrous to what they regarded as its own business Government regulations that bear more the country. were thinking that some things already bindingly on them than on other people. Now this revolution is, after all, a done ought to be undone.
Yet they assembled in Washington the counter-revolution. The real revolution Caution-Curve Ahead!
other day and devoted a large part of began twenty years or more ago. Its
I appears to me perfectly clear that
merly wanted the Government to run the How, would you think, does Federal