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Far North has been able to consult with Island and the little-known parts of far more importance in Arctic exploraheadquarters many hundreds of miles Greenland and Labrador and their an- tion than to verify Peary's decimals in away.
cient traces of colonies. Next year, in calculation of that particular ice-floe The cause of the partial restriction of all probability, the attempt to scan the where latitude is ninety and longitude nil. plans has been unprecedentedly persis- unknown seas (and perhaps land) will tent fogs, clouds, and snow. Flights and be resumed. The plan in itself was the When Shall We Enslave landings have been prevented or short- most far-reaching and hopeful ever made the Tides ? ened, and success in making intermediate for exhaustive polar observation. That
ISIONARY schemes by the score have bases was delayed so that posts finally it is not as well understood as it should
been proposed in the past to harestablished, as described last week, were be is shown by the fact that one great ness the tides for vast power. Practically not ready for action until the summer New York newspaper headed its edi
every single one of these schemes has had almost passed. torial, “Calling Off the Pole Flight.” It
failed before the start, either because it The expedition has not been aban- never was the intention to “make a try” involved the use of impracticable madoned, as some news headlines declare. for the Pole. The good old North Pole chinery, too-expensive equipment, or beIt will carry out that part of the plan is still there or thereabouts where Peary
cause it ignored the fact that the tides which included exploration on Baffin found it, and there are now objects of
are intermittent, while, to be of much use, power must be produced uniformly.
A scheme has now been proposed by
Mr. Dexter P. Cooper for generating New Brunswick, Canada
some 700,000 horse-power from the tides by taking advantage of the peculiar contours of the shore-lines of Maine and New Brunswick. Contiguous to each other are, in Maine, Cobscook Bay, and, in New Brunswick, Passamaquoddy Bay. Here the tides of the adjacent parts of the Bay of Fundy rise twenty-odd feet and fall as much.
Now the simplest way to utilize the tides which flow through the small mouths of these bays would be to dam the openings and install turbines. When the tide rose, the turbines would work; when it ebbed, they would work; but in
the intervals they would not work. Such UPPER POOL
intermittent energy is of little use to man.
The New Project
R. COOPER's plan is to convert the
intermittent flow into a perfectly uniform flow, in this wise: Dam up both bays; put a third wall between them. In the first dam put a gate, like a flap which will open in but not out. The tide rises, raising the level of the bay; it falls, and the flap closes—the water is imprisoned. Now the other bay has its flap gate, too, but this one acts oppositely—it will let no water in; only out. As the tide rises outside, this bay will stay at low level.
On the partition wall between these bays install a large group of water turbines, through which the water stored in bay number one at high tide may steadily run during the tideless intervals into bay number two, which partly emptied itself at the last ebb tide. Thus the first bay would fill every twelve hours, but drain into the second continuously; and in the second the received water would pass on to the sea at each low tide. Thus
The proposed power development in Passsamaquoddy Bay. The arrows show how the currents if controlled by dams would flow. The high tides would fill the upper
pool and the ebb tides would drain the lower
the intermittent flow would be translated into uniform flow through the turbines during the entire twenty-four hours.
The plan is intrinsically sound and simple; and it is assumed that an engineer of Mr. Cooper's recognized high standing has not committed himself to the actual local engineering problem without reconnaissance of the rock, depths, volume of masonry, and such every-day engineering considerations.
Before this plan, which would provide power for all New England and possibly more, can be put into effect the people of Maine must agree to it by referendum; for they have a law that prohibits the export of water power based at least by intention on the stream water power of the State and, unless the power could be exported, the scheme would not pay returns on the estimated investment of $75,000,000. Washington and Ottawa, too, must sanction it, for one of the two large bays involved is in Canada. But the scheme is not visionary, and it would provide twice as much power as Muscle
Roy Chapman Andrews examining specimens from a former expedition Shoals.
What these Cultures Signify culture, is more recent-only eight or ten 'He fact that the series of prehistoric
thousand years, if it corresponds in age Ancient Culture Finds in Asia
with the Azilian of western Europe. AR out in the great waste of western FAR
Even in the latter place we have no acout in Europe is due largely to the fact Mongolia an expedition of scientists that Europe is close at hand. Unfortu
tual fossils of Azilian man; only flint from the American Museum of Natural nately, this has tended to convey the im- implements and - peculiar red paintings History, in New York, has been working pression that the several cultures—the
left on pebbles found in caves. Many al! summer long in an effort to discover crude 500,000-year-old Foxhallian of
believe, however, that this culture was some evidence concerning the evolution East Anglia made known by J. Reid
the first wave of the present “dark
white" or Mediterranean stock of southnot only of man but of the other mam- Moir's researches and the earliest evimals and the reptiles. This important dence we have of man; the less crude
ern Europe; and, since this stock is beexpedition practically disappeared from Chellean and Acheulian cultures; the lieved tentatively to have reached Europe view last spring when its caravan of mo- Mousterian culture, consisting of chipped
from northern Africa, it would be a great tor cars, loaded with geologists, paleon- artifacts left by the Neanderthal man,
surprise to find that the Azilians of Montologists, and zoologists, left China. The who was a distinct (and later an extinct)
golia were of the same racial stock. Culother day a cablegram came from its species of humanity; the Cro-Magnon
tures spread from race to race, however, leader, Roy Chapman Andrews, who had
and so in the absence of actual fossils we race, which entered Europe and extermirun on ahead of the slowly returning nated Neanderthal man 30,000 years
must fall back on conjecture and future party to investigate conditions in China. ago; and the Azilian culture, transitional hope. The expedition had been successful between the old and new stone ages
Reports that the Museum expedition beyond hope. Invaluable fossils had these cultures, which we knew compara
had been expelled from Mongolia were been found, among the more spectacular tively well in Europe, now slowly begin
received with strong doubt; its leader is of which were forty more of the dino- to take form over much of the Eastern
an experienced and diplomatic man and saur eggs which created so much interest hemisphere.
would be unlikely to rub the Soviet fur
the on the return of the previous expedition: The mere finding of corresponding
wrong way while on a scientific expetwo years ago. There were also finds of flint implements does not necessarily
dition. A cable despatch from Mr. Anextensive late old stone age human cul- prove corresponding race or even species, drews received later denies that the extures, corresponding to the Azilian, one but in the one case, the Mousterian, it pedition has been expelled or has violated
its agreements. of those culture types which have been is quite likely that Neanderthal man left made so well known by years of excava- behind the artifacts just found in Montion in the caves of western Europe; and golia, especially since other Neanderthal
Lawson of the “ News" there were also a few artifacts of the
finds have been made within a short time In the death, on August 19, of Victor much earlier Mousterian age, that of in Siberia, Palestine, and southwestern F. Lawson, publisher and editor of Neanderthal man, 30,000 to 100,000 China. Doubtless, therefore, Neander- the Chicago “Daily News,” America years ago. These finds are highly impor- thal man ranged far and wide.
loses one of its greatest newspaper pubtant.
The other find, the Azilian type of lishers of the old school of individual, as opposed to corporate, control. Mr. Lawson was the sole owner of the “Daily News," and the paper was a reflection of his own genius and personality. It represented his courage, independence, and public spirit.
Mr. Lawson was a man of deep religious instincts, being a member of the New England Congregational Church and a regular attendant at its services. His wealth he looked upon as a trust. He contributed liberally, not only to the support of religious activities, but also to movements in the public interest, especially those designed to promote the civic and political progress of his city. Among his notable charities is the Fresh Air Sanitarium, in which sick babies and their mothers are cared for free of charge.
Even more important than his money gifts was the support given by his paper to movements in the public interest. Mr. Lawson was
born in Chicago seventy-five years ago. The city then had a population of less than 30,000— now grown to over 3,000,000. He was the son of a Norwegian immigrant, who
(C) International accumulated a fortune in Chicago, and
Miss Helen Wills (left) and Miss Mary K. Browne (extreme right) won the doubles lost most of it in the great fire of 1871.
against Mrs. May Sutton Bundy and Miss Elizabeth Ryan (left and right center) In 1876, at the age of twenty-five, Mr. Lawson purchased for a small price the
ment of Mr. Lawson was much more can champion, assuming that the point "Daily News,” established a short time
than a successful business undertaking. was her opponent's, started to resume before by Melville E. Stone and others.
It was also an agency for public service. serving; but Miss McKane came forward Mr. Stone was retained as editor. The
with her hand outstretched in congratuMiss Wills' Will Wins
lation. The ball struck barely an inch paper grew with the growth of Chicago. In later years Mr. Lawson developed for ith one set scored against her beyond the line, and Miss McKane anthe “Daily News” a remarkably efficient on Monday afternoon last week, ticipated the verdict of the linesman. foreign news service, extensively syndi- Miss Helen Wills summoned up her
In contrast to the women's internacated, in which he took great pride. determination and, using her varied
tional matches, this tournament at Forest
Hills was well managed. While, rightly, Victor Lawson held that technique, tied the match with a love set, a daily paper must put news first, he did and then, outguessing and outplaying her not neglect the literary side of journalism, British opponent at the critical points,
Britain's Plight and was proud of the fact that Eugene won the third set, and retained the
R. P. W. WILSON'S picture of Field was what we call to-day a column- Women's National Championship.
England, which appears in this ist in the “Daily News,” and gained his Miss Kathleen McKane, who was the
issue of The Outlook, is not reputation there.
runner-up in this tournament, did not such as to excite America's envy. A The pen with which the Postal Sav- win the championship; but she won country that has distributed for relief ings Bank Act was signed by President something quite as valuable—public amounts exceeding its entire national Taft was sent to Mr. Lawson in recog- recognition of her skill and sportsman- budget before the war, and grants relief nition of his services in behalf of the ship. The end of the match was dra- from the state at the rate of six or seven measure.
matic. One point only stood between million cases a week among eight million From the beginning the “Daily News" Miss Wills and victory. Miss Wills was homes, is in a condition which in a douhas been an independent newspaper, al- serving. This time Miss McKane re- ble sense may be called doleful. This ways putting the public welfare before turned her service and there followed a attempt of the state to distribute money party. It is uncommon now for a large furious rally. At last Miss Wills made a from the treasury to great masses of the daily newspaper to be a party organ, but return that seemed beyond Miss Mc- people who are capable of earning their Mr. Lawson set the example of indepen- Kane's reach, but, undaunted, the Brit- own living is truly an experiment in Sodence when adherence to partisanship ish player won her race with the ball and cialism. It is clearly not devised merely to was the prevailing policy of newspapers. sent back a back-hand drive which Miss meet an emergency, but to form a settled The “Daily News” under the manage- Wills was unable to touch. The Ameri- policy. As Mr. Wilson frankly states it,
"the community as a community has ac- ing men for not working, America has Can a Highbrow Be cepted wholly unprecedented responsi- been raising wages and has found that
Patriotic ? bilities for the maintenance of the indi- the wage-earners have put their savings vidual home.”
into investments which have brought new T Williamstown, Massachusetts, Nothing could be more directly con- capital into industry, and, therefore, have
the seat of Williams College, and trary to the philosophy of American provided new sources of wealth for the
under the Chairmanship of Willdemocracy than this English system of whole people. Socialism is a palliative iams's President, there have been held doles. It is repugnant to the American for hardship. Industrial democracy, on this summer, as for several summers, the sense of independence and self-respect, the other hand, as it is finding itself in sessions of what is known as the Institute the American scorn for the habitual de- America, is a means for avoiding hard- of Politics. Men of considerable distincpendent, and the American belief in the ship and for a better distribution of tion both here and abroad have given efficacy of self-help and persistent effort. wealth and a more general control of lectures and conducted “round-table” From an American point of view, production.
discussions. To those who are interested therefore, there is no "splendor of ideal- The difference between England and in various aspects of international poliism” in this English dole system. On America in this respect is not altogether tics, there has been significance in much the contrary, there is something rather the difference that Mr. Wilson points that has been said there. sordid and mean about it, as there is out. It is not that the United States To most Americans, however, it is saie something sordid and mean about mu- has much more land in proportion to the to say that such discussions are not nicipal tenements as a substitute for in- population. The prime difference is in much more interesting than a discussion dividually owned homes.
the attitude on the part of the people of engineering problems by engineers or Perhaps England has not been able to themselves toward the problem of self- a discussion of medical problems by phyhelp herself. In view of the facts which support. The difference is between a sicians. Only when some subject has Mr. Wilson gives as to the prevalence of country where traditions of feudalism
been put in sensational or striking form, poverty in England, this dole system is still survive and a country where there or has, perhaps, assumed the aspect of a not a sign of any special progressiveness survive the traditions of the pioneer. controversy between two or more indion the part of England, but rather of her One misapprehension is to be dispelled viduals with a capacity for pungent misfortune.
by the reading of Mr. Wilson's article. speech, has the Institute of Politics come Not long ago J. H. Thomas, who was It has often been said and commonly within the range of most people's Minister for the Colonies in the Labor believed that England's unemployed was thoughts. In general it has been a meetGovernment, made a statement which her "devastated region.” As Mr. Wilson ing-place of the “highbrows” somewhat testified to the plight in which the Eng. makes clear, unemployment in England aloof mentally as well as geographically lish find themselves. “I do not want to is not a product of the war. It is a from the work-a-day world. appear too pessimistic," said Mr. product of England's economic system. For that very reason, perhaps, it has Thomas, "but I frankly confess that It should ņot be considered in relation to enjoyed a form of freedom which would when I survey conditions in all parts of reparations, except as it is bound to in- not be possible to it if it were beat upon this country--above all, when I see the crease as Germany is relieved from her by the waves of current popular sentidemoralizing effect that continuous un- just obligations and is therefore permit- ment. The academic atmosphere is tolemployment is having on our young men ted to compete with England on unfair erant of differences of opinion. It is and women-I am convinced that unless terms.
well that there should be a place where some definite steps are taken, and taken With Mr. Wilson's opinion that it people who have strong views about such soon, disaster is inevitable.” Mr. Thomas makes little or no difference in prin- subjects as international relations can meant what he said. He is not a scare- ciple whether the state does or does not expose their minds to the corrective inmonger.
bear the entire cost of insurance against fluence of other minds without too much At the root of this whole English situa- unemployment, old age, and the like, interference. tion is the extreme poverty of masses of many will disagree. Insurance in the There are, however, two dangers in the English people. This fact Mr. Wil- cost of which the insured participates, such an institute against which its manson emphasizes. And of course such even though his participation may be agers should be on guard. poverty will continue as long as it re- almost automatic, is an act of self-respect In the first place, they should be on mains the practice of the great mass of and independence and has a very differ
and independence and has a very differ- guard against acting on the assumption British employers to keep wages down to ent effect upon the mind of the insured that this is a scientific body. Internaa minimum. Naturally, such a Socialis- from that of a dole or pension. And tional politics has not yet reached the tic experiment will be tried in a country there is likewise a difference between a status of a science. People with considwhere no other relief for the worker is pension system administered by a gov- erable experience in international politics provided.
ernment for a passive mass of subjects or with knowledge about certain phases Socialism is not an expression of and a pension system which is merely an of international relations may be well democracy. It is an alternative to a acceptance by an industry of the risks of worth listening to, but they cannot claim democracy, a substitute for democracy. that industry.
the authority of the scientist. Too often And, if we may judge from the results in We are glad that America has not even the opinions of men who have earned England, it is a poor alternative, a experimented with the dole system and considerable reputation through their wretched substitute. While England has has not subjected to its insidious effect study of foreign affairs are treated as if been keeping wages down and then pay- the rising generations of Americans. they were facts or established conclusions